Acids, Bases and Water! Chapter 19 (mostly) Acids,
Acids, Bases and Water! Chapter 19 (mostly) Acids, Bases, & Salts Electrolytes conduct an electric current Three Theories of Acids & Bases **KNOW THESE 3** Arrhenius Theory (only in H2O) Acids: produce H+ in H2O HCl H+ + Cl (H+ actually H3O+)
Bases: produce OH in H2O NaOH Na+ + OH Brnsted-Lowry Theory Acids: substance that donates a proton Bases: substance that accepts a proton NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH (base) (acid) (H+) Lewis Theory Acids: electron pair acceptor
Bases: electron pair donor H+ + OH H2O (acid) (base) Amphoteric: a substance that can react as either an acid or a base -Water is most common Ex. HCl + H2O H3O + + Cl (base accepts H+) (base) Ex. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH (acid donates H+) (acid)
Salt a crystalline compound composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base Salts are the product of a neutralization reaction: Acid + Base Salt + Water HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOH (acid) (base) (salt) (water) What type of reaction is below?
Pick out the acid, base, and salt in the following reaction: HF + Ba(OH)2 BaF2 + H2O Strength of Acids & Bases Strong (acid or base) completely ionizes in solution Weak (acid or base) doesnt completely ionize HCl + H2O *H3O+ + Cl (completely ionized) (completely in this form) HC2H3O2 + H2O *H3O+ + C2H3O2 (not completely (some in both forms) ionized)
*This is called a hydronium ion. Its what happens when H+ ions are in water. They are basically synonymous with H+ ions. Completely ionized = strong acid Not completely
ionize = weak acid Types of Acids (Based on the Arrhenius definition) Monoprotic acid that can donate one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule (HCl) Diprotic acid that can donate two protons per molecule (H2SO4) Triprotic acid that can donate three protons per molecule (H3PO4) Polyprotic acid that can donate more than one proton What about these? H2 S HF H3PO3 HClO3
General Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste 2. Contains hydrogen 3. Change color of dyes in acid/base indicators 4. React with bases to produce salt and water 5. Are electrolytes General Properties of Bases 1. Bitter taste 2. Feels slippery to the skin 3. Usually contains OH 4. Change color of dyes in acid/base indicators 5. React with acids to produce salt and water 6. Are electrolytes
Ion-product Constant for Water The product of the concentration of the hydrogen ions and the hydroxide ions in water Kw = [H+] x [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 [H+] may change and [OH-] may change, but the product of the two will remain constant Using Ion concentration to determine acidity If [H+] > [OH-] than the
resulting solution is acidic If [H+] < [OH-] than the resulting solution is basic Coca cola has an If [H+] = 1.0 x 10-5 M, is the solution acidic, basic or neutral? What is the [OH-] of the solution? Concept of pH pH scale measures the concentration of hydronium ions (H+/H3O+) in solution HCl strong acid (strong electrolyte) Grapefruit weak acid (weak electrolyte)
NaOH strong base (strong electrolyte) Milk of Magnesia weak base (weak electrolyte) Common Acid and Base pH levels Indigestion problems? Determine the pH pH measures the concentration of hydronium ions [H+/H3O+] in solution Format: [H+] = 1.00 x 10-XM (if number in blue is 1)pH = X
The measure of the hydronium ion concentration pH = -log [H+] Find the pH 1.00 x 10-3M 3 1.00 x 10-10M 10 Acidic? Basic? Neutral? Determine the pOH pOH - measures the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution Format:
[OH-] = 1.00 x 10-XM (if number in blue is 1) pOH Find the pOH 1.00 x 10-3M 3 1.00 x 10-10M 10 =X pH and pOH From the Kw equation we can determine that:
pH + pOH = 14 If the pH of a citric acid solution is 3.7, what is the pOH? 14 3.7 = 10.3 pOH = 10.3 If the pOH of a solution is 6.8 what is the pH of that same solution? 14 - 6.8 = 7.2 pH = 7.2 Acidic? Basic? Neutral? (always in terms of pH)
Acid Nomenclature (Naming!) A. Binary Acid (2 elements) hydro____ic HBr Hydrobromic Acid HCl Hydrochloric Acid HF Hydrofluoric Acid Are these monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic acids? Acid Nomenclature (Naming!) B. Oxyacids or Ternary Acids Acid Name HClO4 perchloric acid HClO3
chloric acid HClO2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid Ion ClO4 ClO3 ClO2 ClO Name perchlorate chlorate chlorite hypochlorite
Note: ate => ic ite => ous Titration p.613 What is titration? What is the end point? What is the equivalence point? Why is the endpoint significant in terms of your procedure for a lab? Water! Water is a polar covalent
compound More Water! Water is considered to be polar. Water will be attracted to static electricity (comb and faucet) Polar vs NonPolar Polar Molecule is composed of different types of
atoms (H2O) NonPolar Molecule is composed of the same types of atoms (H2) Polar or Nonpolar? Carbon Dioxide Ethanol Nitrogen Gas
Oxygen Gas Polar or Nonpolar? CH3OH Br2 Ne NaOH K3 (PO4) Cl2 Calculating the Molarity of an Acid Neutralization Reaction (Monoprotic) Acids and bases produce salt and
water HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Same as before! M1 x V 1 = M 2 x V 2 15mL of HCl is mixed with 10mL of NaOH which has a molarity of 3.0 M and completely neutralized. What is the molarity of the acid solution? M1 x 15mL = 10mL x 3.0M M1 = 2.0M
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