Vitamins Definition: noncaloric, organic nutrients needed in small
Vitamins Definition: noncaloric, organic nutrients needed in small amounts to maintain proper health and functioning of the body. 13 total. Named in the order discovered Vit A
B complex group (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate) Vit C Vit D Vit E Vit K Vitamins Lipid Soluble A, D, E, K Obtained from fats and oils in foods, mostly plant sources Stored in liver and body fat until needed
Pro: can go for weeks without deficiency Con: excesses may accumulate toxicity usually only with supplements Water soluble B complex group, C Obtained from plant and animal sources (mostly B complex) Not stored in significant amounts Easily lost in cooking water and damaged by heat of cooking Easily lost in urine Toxicities not possible from food sources only with supplements Do vitamins cure illnesses?
The only illness cured by a vitamin is the illness caused by a deficiency of that vitamin. Can illnesses be prevented by vitamins? If obtained from vitamin rich foods Yes, especially cancers If obtained by vitamin supplements No, maybe D3 [Tufts University (?), analyzed last 50 years of studies] Is athletic performance improved by vitamin supplements? If eating a variety of vitamin rich foods No If vegetarian, a possible benefit from B complex supplement Water Adequate water reduces your chances of:
Fatigue UTIs Migraine Headaches
Gallstones Kidney stones Constipation Heat Exhaustion/Stroke Low BP Dental disease Heart attack Stroke Glaucoma Etc. etc. Progressive Effects of Water Loss:
1% loss = thirst 5% loss = strength and endurance declines 10% loss = blurred vision and mental confusion (LOC) 20% loss = death So how much is enough? Simple question No simple answer. Amount you need affected by: Environment Physical activity Food choices
Good Rule of thumb: A full glass w each meal A full glass bt meals Urine clear / pale yellow Drink b4 you get thirsty intake w physical activity Can U drink too much water? Yes but is rare.
Common in endurance sports Hyponatremia Common in CHF patients Pitting edema Pulmonary edema Dont like to drink water? 60-90% is common
Minerals Definition: noncaloric, inorganic nutrients needed in small amounts to maintain proper health and functioning of the body. Major Minerals (a.k.a. Macrominerals) those needed in larger amounts Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur. Trace minerals those needed in minute quantities Iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. Calcium and ??? Osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
Common sites of fractures due to osteoporosis Common sites of osteoporotic fractures Osteoporosis Prevention: Be physically active as long as you can Dont smoke Eat calcium rich foods Dairy, Sardines, Dark leafy greens (like spinach, kale, turnips, and
collard greens); Fortified cereals (such as Total, Raisin Bran, Corn Flakes); Fortified OJ, soybeans, Enriched breads, grains, and waffles Eat vitamin D rich foods Fish, sea foods, fortified milk and cereals Get sunshine for Vit. D 15 min/day
Avoid carbonated beverages (they leach minerals from bones) Goal: Build up a reserve of bone matrix now! in
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