Assessing and Addressing Risks from Potentially-Polluting Shipwrecks: Key

Assessing and Addressing Risks from Potentially-Polluting Shipwrecks: Key

Assessing and Addressing Risks from Potentially-Polluting Shipwrecks: Key Developments since WOW I Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, PhD Environmental Research Consulting Wrecks of the World (WOW) II: Evaluating and Addressing Potential Underwater Threats Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS) Linthicum, Maryland 6 7 June 2011 Potentially Polluting Wrecks = International Issue World of Wrecks - Hidden Risks of the Deep Monde des paves - risques cachs du profound Welt der Wracke - versteckte Risiken vom Tiefen - - Wereld van Wrakken - Verborgen Risico's van Diep

Mondo dei naufragi - rischi nascosti del profondo - - Mundo das destruies - riscos escondidos do profundo - Mundo de las ruinas - riesgos ocultados del profundo - - Th gii ca Wrecks - Ri ro trong cc su Wraki - Ukryte Zagroenia z - Mundo ng - Nakatagong panganib ng Romuajoneuvoista - Piilotettu riskej - Vrlden av vrak - Dolda Risk Dnya virane - ve Gizli Riskler Worldwide, over 8,500 wrecks of large vessels* containing total of 1.5 to 15 million tonnes of oil and hazardous materials (2005 IOSC Study) ERC Wreck Databases

*tank vessels or other ships of least 400 GRT Geographic Distribution of Wrecks Region Number of Vessels Minimum Oil Content Non-Tank Tanker Tonnes 347 401 112,800 32,848,000

North Atlantic Ocean 1,506 673 951,000 280,000,000 South Atlantic Ocean 190 45 165,000 49,100,000 Indian Ocean

211 86 165,800 48,700,000 Middle Eastern Gulfs 82 111 193,000 57,000,000 Mediterranean Sea 262

99 132,000 39,000,000 North Pacific Ocean 1,347 134 221,000 65,000,000 South Pacific Ocean 2,412 337

521,000 153,000,000 Arctic Ocean About 1,360 in US Waters Gallons Note: Exxon Valdez = 37,400 tonnes ERC Wreck Databases Types of Vessels by Age Age Class Non-Tank Vessels Tank Vessels

All Vessels <10 years 83 18 101 10+ years 268 73 341 20+ years 210

128 338 30+ years 224 84 308 40+ years 325 31 356 50+ years

320 41 361 WWII-era 5,303 1,065 6,338 70+ years 63 54 117

80+ years 53 8 61 90+ years 72 67 139 TOTAL 6,921 1,569

8,490 ERC Wreck Databases Types of Vessels by Age Age Class Non-Tank Vessels Tank Vessels All Vessels <10 years 83 18 101

10+ years 268 73 341 20+ years 210 128 338 30+ years 224 84

308 40+ years 325 31 356 50+ years 320 41 361 WWII-era 5,303

1,065 6,338 70+ years 63 54 117 80+ years 53 8 61 90+ years

72 67 139 TOTAL 6,921 1,569 8,490 75% of the wrecks are World War II era warships or sunk by warships

ERC Wreck Databases Varying Conditions of Wrecks Leaking chronically (e.g., USS Arizona 2 gallons per day) Leaking episodically (e.g., SS Jacob Luckenbach mystery spills) Potential to release oil in larger amounts after disturbance Reported relatively intact Condition unknown USS Mississinewa Environmental and Socioeconomic Resources at Risk 2005 International Oil Spill Conference Too many wrecks = too overwhelming Too many legal issues

Too many financial issues No guidance on how to deal with wrecks No systematic approach to assessment Wrecks of the World Conference September 2009 Discussions of pro-active strategies Introductions of risk assessment strategies Growing Acceptance for Pro-Active Strategy Towards Shipwrecks Reactive Strategy - Deal with continuous leaking or sudden release oiling events and damages as they occur greater costs for spill response and damages, risk remains OR Pro-active Strategy - Take proactive approach to remove oil from wrecks with greatest risk highest potential for leakage or spillage and highest damages lower costs, risk removed Proactive removal of oil and hazardous

materials from risky wrecks will: Avert significant damages to natural and socioeconomic resources Reduce costs for response and monitoring of spills and leakage Challenges with Pro-Active Strategy Large number of wrecks Considerable expense for remediation Limited funding available for remediation Financial/legal responsibility often at issue Risk to personnel in removal operations Potential for leakage during removal operations

Unnecessary for many wrecks (unlikely to leak or little oil left on board) Risk Assessment Approach Assess shipwrecks with regard to risk Risk = Probability x Consequences Risk = Probability x Consequences High leakage probability Medium leakage probability Low leakage probability Risk = Probability x Consequences Low leakage impact

Medium leakage impact High leakage impact Consequences (Impact from Leakage) Risk = Probability x Consequences High leakage probability Low leakage impact High leakage probability Medium leakage impact High leakage probability High leakage impact

Medium leakage probability Low leakage impact Medium leakage probability Medium leakage impact Medium leakage probability High leakage impact Low leakage probability Low leakage impact Low leakage probability Medium leakage impact

Low leakage probability High leakage impact Consequences (Impacts from Leakage) Risk Assessment Projects Scandinavian (Swedish Maritime Administration et al.) France and Italy DEEPP project (CEDRE) Canada (Transport Canada) South Pacific (UNEP PREP et al.) UK (Maritime and Coastguard Agency) Norway (Kystverket) US Wreck Oil Removal Project (NOAA/USCG)

Scandinavian Risk Assessment Beginning development of database of wrecks Analysis of legal situation of wrecks Case study: SS Skytteren (sank 1942) DEEP Project (France & Italy) Unique international cooperation Process: Library research Sea bottom exploration ROV investigation Wreck identification (to Database) Risk Analysis Decision Transport Canada 1,000s of wrecks charted on Canada east coast Aerial surveillance (mystery spills) Work with CCG, industry, provinces, fishing community to establish contingency plans

Case Study: Dredge Shovelmaster decision to leave in place, monitor South Pacific Extensive mapping and identification of wrecks (particularly WWII-related) Development of comprehensive database UK Potentially Polluting Wreck Risk Assessment Pollution risk (oil, chemical) Safety risk (unexploded ordnance) US Wreck Oil Removal Project Other Developments Technological developments and breakthroughs Field experience with removal projects Legal developments Financial considerations

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