BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Response-Stimulus-Response model of learning (R-S-R)

BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Response-Stimulus-Response model of learning (R-S-R)

BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORY Response-Stimulus-Response model of learning (R-S-R) Behavior produces an environmental effect which affects the likelihood of similar behavior in the future. *Behaviors are shaped by the consequences they produce.

Positive Reinforcement When stimulus events have the effect of increasing the probability that a response will occur again. Negative Reinforcement Removing a stimulus, usually an aversive one, when this removal makes a specified response more likely to occur. Punishment Presentation of a stimulus that makes a specified response LESS likely. The bottom line is: We repeat behaviors which have, in

the past, produced reinforcement, and we shy away from behaviors which have produced punishment. Other Important Terms: Extinction A decrease in strength of a conditioned response when it is no longer reinforced. Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations to some final response. Social Learning Theory A person learns through conditioning, but also by

vicarious reinforcement (i.e., observers increase behavior for which they have seen others reinforced). The heart of this approach says that we learn through observation/imitation. This is a process of: Acquisition Retention Motor Reproduction Motivation

SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY Individuals are viewed as trying to maximize rewards and minimize costs. Outcomes = Rewards Costs (Rewards include anything positive, desirable. Costs include anything negative, undesirable.) STRUCTURAL ROLE THEORY One of the most reliable sociological findings is that peoples attitudes and behaviors vary according to the

social position they occupy in the social structure. Structural Role Theory would say that people are like actors following a script (role consensus is assumed). Consider the term, role conflict. In essence, this can occur when a person experiences two of his/her roles colliding. The Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to discount the role of the

situation in affecting a persons behavior and to over-estimate the importance of personal or dispositional factors. Why do we commit this error? A key point of Lovaglias: The situation is much more powerful than we think! How might a person use this information? Affirmations Statements about what is good and positive

for you. Techniques: making positive statements (in writing and/or verbally); visualizing Can affirmations work?? If so, why? Social Psychology tells usAffirmations are behavior; we become what we do. Self-Perception Theory Just as we observe others behavior, we also observe our own behavior. We infer how we

feel by observing our own behavior. Attitudes Consider your attitude on an important topic. List the people and experiences that have contributed to the development of this attitude. What is an attitude? A relatively enduring organization of

beliefs around an object or situation. (Each attitude is really a package of beliefs). How do we acquire attitudes? Instrumental Conditioning Modeling Direct Experience Genetic Factors Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Overturns the common sense notion that: Attitudes-------Behavior Dissonance is a state of tension produced when elements are in conflict. Think of it this way (Equilibrium Process Model): equilibrium-----------dissonance-producing situation------------------dissonance ----------attitude change---------equilibrium How can we reduce dissonance?

Selective attention Lower expectations Seek support CHANGE ATTITUDE When is dissonance likely? 1. 2.

After making a big decision. When there is inadequate external justification for behavior. (external justification is situationally-determined) e.g., Festinger & Carlsmith study, 1957) The key idea: If we cant find sufficient external justification for our behavior, then we attempt to justify internally, by changing our attitude in the direction of our behavior. APPLICATIONS? SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM

George Herbert Mead Herbert Blumer coined the term, symbolic interactionism Blumers Propositions: 1. 2. 3. Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that things have for them. These meanings arise out of social interaction.

Social action results from a fitting together of individual lines of action. Two Schools of Thought: the Chicago School and the Iowa School Symbolic Interactionism This perspective emphasizes the production of society as an ongoing process of negotiation among social actors. Assumptions:

1. Symbols transfer meaning in human interaction. 2. The individual becomes humanized (socialized) through interaction with people. 3. Reality is a process. 4. Human beings have the ability to act upon the environment. What kind of image do we get of the human actor? active, creative, shapers of our own reality, goal-seeking Symbolic Interactionism

Key Terms: Meaning Definition of the Situation Ones cognitive idea of his/her place in social time and space that constrains behavior. Taking the Role of the Other Application: Labeling Symbolic Interactionism Distinction between signs and symbols: A sign is directly connected to an object

or event and calls forth a fixed or habitual response. A symbol is something that people create and use to stand for something else. (e.g., object, gesture, word) Symbolic Communication & Language Communication requires 2 things: Speaking & Listening What do we mean when we say to our interaction partner: Are you listening to me?!

Listening requires our responsive attention. pseudo-listening We really arent paying attention to what the other person is saying, although we act as if we are. What are some listening situations that are difficult? Symbolic Communication & Language Two types of meaning: denotative meaning The literal, explicit properties associated with a word. (The dictionary meaning)

connotative meaning Cognitive and emotional responses one has to a word. (These meanings are personal) Importance of social context Who are we with, and what is the situation? Symbolic Communication & Language Nonverbal Communication paralanguage All vocal aspects of speech other than words. body language The silent movement of

body parts. interpersonal spacing How we position ourselves at varying distances and angles from others. choice of personal effects Choices of clothing, etc. Fun with images What do you see here? Two Group Portraits

What's that in the middle? Young Woman/Old Woman Perception The perceptual process involves a sequence of external events followed by internal events. Visual agnosia is a neurological disorder characterized

by the inability to recognize familiar objects. or_01.html PERSON PERCEPTION Data-------------------------Theory physical behavior verbal behavior appearance

dispositional traits (personality characteristics) Biases: 1. Primacy Effect People rely more heavily on the first information they get on a person and tend to discount later information. 2. Implicit Personality Theory Network of assumptions people make about the relationship among traits and behaviors. 3. Stereotypes Given a group membership, we assume traits

about a person. ATTRIBUTION Attribution The process of inferring the cause of others behavior. Attribution Theory is concerned with how people assign causes to events. 2 types of explanations of behavior: dispositional & situational attributions Attribution

Biases: 1. Fundamental Attribution Error 2. Actor-Observer Differences A difference between two points of view (that of the actor and the observer). 3. Self-Serving Bias The tendency we have to attribute positive outcomes to our own dispositions and negative outcomes to situational causes. 4. Self-Defeating Bias Undesirable behavior is attributed to negative aspects of the self.

Harold Kelleys Attribution Theory We use 3 types of information in making decisions about the causation of action in a situation: 1. Distinctiveness Observe actor in similar situations. (low distinctiveness implies personal cause; high distinctiveness implies situational cause). 2. Consensus Compare actors behavior to others. (low consensus implies personal cause; high consensus implies situational cause)

3. Consistency Observe actors behavior over time. (low consistency implies situational cause; high consistency implies personal cause) Attribution Other factors that are relevant to attribution:

Do we like the person whose behavior we are observing? Is there a reward or punishment attached to the behavior? Attribution Applications of Attribution Theory: Appraisals (e.g., self/peer/subordinate)

Marketing (e.g., advertising do consumers attribute claims about a product to the companys desire to sell the product, or to actual, positive attributes of the product?) Socialization Socialization is the process by which we acquire those modes of thinking, acting, and feeling that enable us to participate in the larger human community. Agents of Socialization are persons or institutions which influence our thoughts and behaviors. Examples?

Reciprocal Socialization Recognizes that socialization is not a one-way process; e.g., kids influence adults. Examples? Socialization Developmental psychologist Kenneth Kaye frames Tools that parents/adults use to organize time and space for child. Examples: nurturant, protective, instrumental, feedback, discourse

Socialization is like an apprenticeship (i.e., it is a process; it is relational). Socialization Social Learning Theory Socialization is accomplished through two processes: 1. Direct Learning We are first socialized via our parents rewards and punishments (i.e., external reinforcement). Over time, we control our own behavior through self-reinforcement

(internalization makes this possible). 2. Observation/Modeling Socialization Piaget Cognitive Developmental Theory Socialization is a process by which the individual develops from simple to complex. 4 stages: 1. Sensorimotor object permanence, cause-effect, recognitory schemes 2. Pre-Operational knowledge of symbols

3. Concrete Operational concrete operations such as conservation and serialization 4. Formal Operational abstract thought Socialization Developmental psychologist Erik Erikson 8 Psychosocial Stages: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. Doubt

3. Initiative vs. Guilt 4. Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation 7. Generativity vs. Self-Absorption 8. Integrity vs. Despair Socialization Piagets Theory of Moral Development 1. The Pre-Moral Period 2. Heteronomous Morality Strong respect for

rules. Child is likely to judge the naughtiness of an act by its objective consequences rather than the actors intent. 3. Autonomous Morality Rules are viewed as arbitrary agreements that can be challenged. Socialization Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development 3 levels: 1. Pre-conventional Oriented to personal needs.

2. Conventional Oriented to social rules. 3. Post-Conventional Oriented toward making autonomous decisions. These developmental models feature stages that are step-wise and sequential i.e., people go through the stages one after another. Butmight individuals regress in their morality? Also, might ones actual behavior fail to correspond to his/her moral judgments? GENDER ROLE

SOCIALIZATION Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory The key is the process of identification. Social Learning Theory Imitation, reinforcement. Cognitive Development Theory Gender is an organizing scheme for the developing child. Symbolic Interactionism doing gender refers to seeing gender as an activity accomplished through social interaction. Resocialization

Resocialization The process through which adults learn new values, norms, and expectations when they leave old roles and enter new ones. Total Institutions Place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life. Contact with outside world controlled; new recruits & inmates not allowed to see family, old friends, former associates. Examples: Army, prisons, mental hospitals, convents, monasteries The Stripping process

SELF Cooleys Looking-Glass Self The process through which we develop our sense of self based upon the reactions of other people to our actions. G.H. Meads Stages to Becoming a Self: 1. The Play Stage 2. The Game Stage 3. The Generalized Other Two aspects of the self: I and Me

SELF self-concept: The sum total of beliefs you have about yourself. self-esteem: The evaluative component of the self-concept. situated self: The subset of self-concepts that constitutes the self we know in a particular situation. self-monitoring: Extent to which people use information about the environment as a basis for modifying


SELF Identity Salience Our identities are organized hierarchically based on salience. Implications? 1. The higher the salience of an identity, the more often we will try to draw on that identity. 2. If a given identity is defined as highly important, we will be more inclined to develop it.

3. Highly salient identities can carry over. SELF Aaron Becks concept of personal domain Inclusive notion of what a persons self consists of; everything that you care about and that is important for you to maintain. For example: self-concept personal goals/motives moral rules/principles possessions

significant others groups that have symbolic significance Appearance and the Self Consider the tee shirt. What gets communicated via tee shirts? (e.g., think about messages of style, politics, status, interests, beliefs, etc.)

Depression Characterized by the cognitive triad (Aaron Beck, MD) 1. negative conception of self 2. negative interpretation of life experiences 3. fatalistic view of the future The depressed person engages in selective abstraction overinterpreting daily events in terms of loss. Cognitive Therapy and Depression What we consciously think is what mainly

determines how we feel. 5 tactics: 1. Learn to recognize automatic thoughts (ATs). 2. Learn to dispute the ATs by marshaling contrary evidence. 3. Learn to make different attributions (reattributions) and use them to dispute your ATs. 4. Learn how to distract yourself from depressing thoughts. 5. Learn to recognize and question assumptions that govern much of what you do.

For Discussion: WHY DOES COGNITIVE THERAPY WORK? CONSIDER THE ROLE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION. IS DEPRESSION CONTAGIOUS? Attributional style of depressed person: He/she attributes bad events to causes that are internal, stable, and global. Good results are believed to result from situational, unstable, and specific causes (e.g., luck).

Attributional style of non-depressed person: He/she takes a bright view of good events, attributing them to internal, stable, global causes, and also a bright view of bad events, attributing them to situational, unstable, specific causes. Do those who are depressed take an unrealistically dark view? OR, do the non-depressed take an unrealistically bright view? Consider the studies by Alloy and Abramson in the 1970s -- People who are not depressed distort reality, while those who are

depressed judge reality more accurately. Non-depressed subjects had an illusion of control. Applications of this knowledge Langer and Rodins study of residents in a nursing home residents who were given increased control over their lives were more active, sociable, and vigorous than those who were not given increased control. Other applications? Optimism and Illusion Martin Seligmans theory of learned helplessness

says that when people see that how they respond has no effect on a problem, they learn not to respond to problems in their lives. Seligman distinguishes between a pessimistic and an optimistic attributional style: Pessimistic: permanence, stability, self-blame (these factors lead to helplessness) 3 Crucial Dimensions to your attributional style: 1. Permanence (permanent vs. temporary) 2. Pervasiveness (universal vs. specific)

3. Personalization (internal vs. external) Good Outcome the optimist attributes this internally and stable; the pessimist attributes this externally, unstable. Bad Outcome the optimist attributes this externally, unstable; the pessimist attributes this internally, stable. Influence How can we influence others?

* Smile at people * Physical Attractiveness (this is a central trait) * Apologize when you offend someone * Self-Disclosure * Impression Management Impression Management This approach comes from Erving Goffman. It is also

known as self-presentation theory or dramaturgical approach. Front Stage Where we try to manage our impressions. Back Stage - Where we plan. Use of props Just as in theater, we use objects in our environment. Impression Management Self-Presentation Strategies: * Intimidation * Supplication

* Self-Promotion * Ingratiation What happens if we fail in our presentation of self? We feel embarrassed. We help one another save face. Impression Management Another motive for impression management: self-construction (i.e., constructing a public image that is congruent with ones ideal self) In our efforts to maintain a positive image, consider the

importance of definition of the situation. We attempt to align our definitions and actions with one another. We may use techniques, such as: disclaimers and accounts What we bring to a social gathering:

Clothes Speech Body Companion How do these things affect our presentation of self? Ethnomethodology The study of the everyday, common-sense understandings that people have of the

world around them. (Harold Garfinkel) breaching experiments Disrupt normal procedures. Why do people get so upset when apparently minor conventions of talk are not followed? Why study the common place? Garfinkels etcetera principle We use certain words or phrases in interaction to gloss over possible disruptions or misunderstandings e.g., you know, and so on.

Other examples? Playing the Game Conversing with others about topics even though you do not have any expertise in the area. When can this be dangerous? What if we were to refrain from playing the game? Persuasion In what ways are people victims of persuasion every day? (i.e., what are the sources of persuasion?)

Are you and I susceptible to persuasion? the third person effect of communication When exposed to an advertisement or some other form of persuasive communication, we commonly think that it has a greater effect on others than on ourselves. Persuasion What are the factors that make a person persuasive? * Credibility * Attractiveness * Content of message

* Maintaining a positive mood * Leading questions * High status Persuasion The Persuaders (PBS Frontline Program, 2004) Consider the ubiquity of advertising people trying to figure out how to persuade us what to buy, whom to trust, what to think. What impact is this having on us? The Persuaders program explores the idea that Americans are seeking and finding a sort of identity in buying/joining a brand.

What is this about? Is advertising a business or an art form? Structural Role Theory Role is seen as the set of expectations that society places on an individual. Role consensus is assumed. How does the interactionist perspective differ? Role is seen as something that is constantly negotiated between individuals.

Secord & Backman - Negotiated Role Theory >> Roles emerge out of an interactional process. >> Rather than following rules, people are assumed to follow goals. When is role negotiation an especially important determinant of role behavior? * Limits of role are broad * Role expectations held by actors are not in agreement * Actors characteristics preclude performing role in usual way

* Situational demands interfere * Other roles intrude upon performance * Actor and role partner have relatively equal power Role-Taking An imaginative process in which we evaluate ourselves and our actions from the standpoint of others. How do we acquire role-taking abilities? 1. Social experiences 2. Conventionality of identities and performances 3. Familiarity

Role-Making Constructing a role performance that fits with the definition of the situation while also remaining attuned to personal goals and inclinations. What is required in role-making? >> self-consciousness (i.e., knowing who you are and in what situation you are operating) >> role-taking A Challenge: Role Making in Role Exits What happens when we find ourselves exiting from

certain roles? We must disengage from the expectations and self-perceptions with the role. EXAMPLES? Emotional Aspects of Interaction Arlie Hochschild feeling rules Prescriptions for how we ought to feel in given situations. emotion work Attempts to change, in degree or quality, an emotion or feeling (surface acting or

deep acting). Emotions and Role Attachments Role Embracement Identifying strongly with a role and allowing it to shape how we think, feel, act, and interact with others. Role Distance Performing role in a detached way; our sense of self is not invested in the role. Social Structure &

Personality Social Structure Consists of positions, roles, social networks. For any position we identify, there is a role and a set of social networks associated with that position. Status at work In work settings, there is a hierarchy, just as in society at large there is hierarchy, ranking, stratification.

status characteristics Distinctive parts of a persons identity; include both ascribed and achieved statuses. Our status characteristics are the basis on which others have expectations of us. Social Structure & Personality Occupational experience varies on three dimensions: 1. Closeness of supervision

2. Routinization of work 3. Substantive complexity of the work Occupational Roles and Physical Health Two key ways in which occupational roles affect physical health: 1) exposing workers to health hazards, 2) stress

Social Structure & Personality We have two kinds of energy: adaptation energy, which is capable of being replenished within a 24-hour period; energy reserves, which are your stores of energy Distinction between stress and stressor: Stress is the utilization of energy beyond that which can be replenished in a 24-hour period. Stressor is an environmental event which calls for special efforts of adaptation.

Social Structure & Personality David Elkind says that a persons attitude toward stressors is extremely important in determining whether he/she will experience stress. STRESSOR -----> Interpretation----> Attitude Social Structure & Personality

Gender and Work The way we are socialized as children is reflected in our adult relationships and work experiences. For example, think about what children learn through types of play. Think, too, about types of talk (e.g., report talk vs. rapport

talk). Prejudice and Discrimination Origins of prejudice: Conflict Theory Prejudice stems from competition among social groups over valued commodities or opportunities. Social Categorization People generally divide the social world into two distinct categories: us and them. We may commit the ultimate attribution error, which is the tendency to attribute desirable behaviors by members of our in-groups to stable, internal causes, but attribute desirable behaviors by

members of out-groups to external causes. Social Learning Prejudice is learned. Stereotypes These generalizations about the typical characteristics of members of various groups exert strong effects on the way we process information. Illusion of Out-group Homogeneity This is the tendency to perceive persons belonging to groups other than our own as all alike. Prejudice and Discrimination Ways to combat prejudice and discrimination: Contact Hypothesis Increase the degree of contact between

different groups. Re-Categorization Eliminate us-them boundaries. Reduce the impact of stereotypes Group Dynamics Primary Groups Characterized by face-to-face communication, cooperation, permanence. Secondary Groups Characterized by formality, task-orientation, and being short-lived. Functions of group membership i.e., why do we join particular

groups? Help satisfy psychological and social needs. Help us achieve goals. Provide us with knowledge and information. Contributes to the establishment of a positive social identity. Group Dynamics Social Facilitation The finding that the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks and impairs performance on difficult tasks. Social Loafing A reduction in individual output.

Cohesiveness in groups Exemplified by the use of we and us instead of I and me; joking & laughter; early arrival/late departure; nonverbals. Groupthink Group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among members to seek concurrence. Group Dynamics Obedience Famous study: Stanley Milgram (1960s) At least 3 factors have been identified as affecting

the degree of obedience: 1. the authority figure 2. the proximity of the victim 3. the experimental procedure Group Dynamics Conformity The tendency to change perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms. Well-known social psychological study: Aschs experiment in 1951

Why do people conform? reference groups, informational influence, normative influence, identification, cohesiveness, social support How can we explain non-conformity? Group Dynamics Compliance Efforts to influence others through direct requests. techniques: ingratiation, foot-in-the-door, and

door-in-the face Love Love is not just a private phenomenon; it is part of our public culture. Love is a narrative. 3 components of love: intimacy, passion, commitment What is the difference

between love and infatuation? Love The Romantic-Love Ideal (5 beliefs): 1. Love at first sight. 2. One true love. 3. Love conquers all. 4. Our beloved is perfect. 5. Follow feelings.

HOW WOULD YOU CRITIQUE THIS IDEAL? ARE THESE BELIEFS WIDELY ACCEPTED AND PREVALENT IN OUR CULTURE TODAY? Love Love is powerful e.g., allows people to accomplish things; overcome great obstacles. Also, love is powerful in the sense that, for two people in a romantic relationship, love gives each power over the other. From Social Exchange Theory, consider the terms: Comparison Level (CL) The minimum level of

positive outcome one expects in a relationship. Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt) The minimum level of positive outcome one will accept in a relationship, given his/her alternatives. Deviance Sociological conception of deviance: *Deviance is much more than a personal characteristic. *Deviance can be viewed as a form of social control. *Nothing is inherently deviant. *Deviance can be understood in terms of choice,

selection, and purpose. *Diversity is often labeled deviance. Deviance stigma Any physical or social attribute or sign that devalues an actors social identity such that he/she is disqualified from full social acceptance. Goffman distinguished 4 types of stigma: abominations of the body, blemishes of character, tribal stigma, courtesy stigma

2 basic strategies that deviants use to manage stigma: 1. try to hide or change the stigmatizing condition 2. learn to live with the stigma Deviance Deviance in everyday life Everyday deviances are occasional slip-ups which temporarily mark individuals as nonconforming or awkward. In an attempt to avoid these everyday deviances, we make an effort to control:

SPACE, PROPS, and BODY. Techniques we may need to draw upon: disclaimers, accounts. Deviance Social Psychological Theories of Deviance Social Control Theory The stronger ones bond to society, the less likely is deviant behavior. When ones bond to society is weak or broken, then deviant behavior may result. Travis Hirschi identified 4 components of the social bond:

attachment, commitment, involvement, beliefs. Deviance Differential Association Theory Deviance is learned through association with others. The likelihood that a person will engage in deviant activity depends on the frequency of association with those who encourage norm violation compared with those who encourage conformity. Labeling Theory Focuses on the process by which the

social audience creates deviance and deviants by so defining the acts and actors that way. Collective Behavior Collective Behavior Relatively spontaneous activity, involving a large number of people, that doesnt conform to established norms. In situations of collective behavior, at least 4 features are possible: free play of emotions (people experience emotional contagion)

high degree of personal influence give and take of political competition emergence of transitory opinions and allegiances Collective Behavior Theories of collective behavior: Contagion Theory Crowds can exert a hypnotic influence on their members. Convergence Theory There is like-mindedness before the group comes together. Emergent Norm Theory Patterns of behavior

emerge within the crowd. Collective Behavior Examples of collective behavior: Crowds (types include casual, conventional, expressive, acting, and protest) Riots Characterized as highly emotional, involving violence and destruction, and no clear goal. Stages: precipitating event, confrontation, the carnival phase, siege Rumor Unsubstantiated information spread informally.

Fads & Fashions Social Movements A social movement refers to a collection of individuals who organize together to achieve or prevent some social or political change. There is a direct link between social movements and social change. Theories: Deprivation Theory attempting to bring about a more just state of affairs

Resource Mobilization Theory success requires money, labor, contacts with the media, etc. Social Movements What may draw people into participating in a social movement? Mass Society Theory would say that social movements attract socially isolated people. Social Networks People may get involved because of relationships they have with others who already belong to the movement.

The ideological appeal made by the movement might draw people in to the movement. Aggression Understanding Aggression Freuds Instinct Theory We have an innate urge to destroy. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis When we are frustrated, we become motivated to aggress. Arousal Transfer Model Arousal in one situation can be transferred to a second situation.

Social Learning Theory We learn to behave aggressively by imitating others. Aggression Situational Impacts on Aggression i.e., What characteristics of a situation might lead to acts of aggression? 1. Reinforcements 2. Modeling 3. Norms (e.g., retribution, revenge) 4. Stress

5. Aggressive Cues Aggression Personal Causes of Aggression: 1. Type A behavior 2. Hostile Attribution Bias The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others, even when its totally lacking. 3. Shame Aggression How can aggressive behavior be reduced?

1. Reducing Frustration 2. Punishing Aggression 3. Non-aggressive Models 4. Catharsis Plus, cultivating empathy. Empathy is the ability to appreciate the perspectives of others. feelings and Prosocial Behavior

Why people help others: 1. Sociobiological Explanation Ensure survival of your genes. 2. Social Evolution Explanation Adaptive for the survival of society. 3. Good Mood Effect The effect whereby a good mood increases helping behavior. 4. Negative State Relief Model The proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness. 5. Guilt This feeling may lead us to help others in order to feel better about ourselves. 6. Social Norms e.g., norm of reciprocity, norm of equity, norm of social responsibility

7. Personal Norms An individuals feeling of moral obligation to provide help when needed. 8. Characteristics of the person in need. Prosocial Behavior In emergency situations, people often do not become involved; why dont people help? Latane & Darley conducted research studies in the 1970s, arriving at the bystander effect, which is the effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping.

Prosocial Behavior Steps in the decision-making process involved in emergency interventions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Notice that something is happening. Interpret the event as an emergency.

Take responsibility. Decide how to help. Research Methods Basic Methods used in Social Psychology: Experiment Survey Research Participant Observation Consider strengths and weaknesses of each method.

Methods Ethics in Research Studies which generated debate (e.g., Milgrams Obedience Studies, Zimbardos Prison Study) Importance of informed consent and debriefing. informed consent Giving research participants as full a description of the procedures as possible, prior to their participation. debriefing After the procedure, giving the participants a full explanation of the study.

Review for Final Exam Sandstrom book: Chapters 6, 7, 8 Lovaglia book: Appendix Topics: Deviance Collective Behavior Social Movements Aggressive Behavior Prosocial Behavior Methods

The exam will consist of: 40 multiple choice (29 from new material, 11 from previous exams) 1 essay (Think about the books for this class. What was each attempting to do?)

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