Public Communication Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok for
Public Communication Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok for UHS 2052 students at UTM, Skudai, Malaysia. [email protected] Public speaking Public speaking is the presentation of a speech, usually prepared in advance. Public speaking and listening are two significant forms of communication. In public speaking, the speaker is the central
focus of an audiences attention. Speech Preparation: overview 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Selecting a speech topic
Determining the General Purpose, Specific Purpose and Thesis of a Speech Audience Analysis Gathering and using information Organizing and outlining Delivering the speech Do start early Selecting a Speech Topic Choose a topic
Meaningful to you Important to your audience Familiar and interesting to you Think like a listener
Techniques for finding a Topic Among the techniques are: Self-inventory Brainstorming Reviewing the current media Surfing the web Some guides for evaluating a Website as a source of information Among the questions to ask: Who is the author or producer?
What are the authors credentials? How reliable is the source? What is the authority or expertise of the author? Is the author bias? How complete and accurate is the information? For whom is the information intended ? Is the web page up-to-date? Some guides for evaluating a Website as a source of information Is the information written in a good manner, using the basic rules of grammar, spelling and usage?
Is the language appropriate? Is the webmaster contact information provided? Speech Topic How do you assess the appropriateness of a topic? How do you narrow the topic? 9 Assessing the appropriateness of a Topic
One a possible topic has been identified, the next step is to determine whether the topic is appropriate for you, your assignment and your audience. Assessing the appropriateness of a Topic You can ask these questions to help you decide:
1. Does the topic merit the audiences attention? 2. Will the audience see the connection between you and the topic, and between the topic and themselves? 3. Will the topic meet the objectives of the assignment? 4. Does the audience have sufficient knowledge and background to understand the topic? Purpose of the Speech General purpose Specific purpose?
Thesis? Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 12 Determining the General Purpose Overall purpose of speech is to: Inform - Convey knowledge Persuade - Change listeners attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviours. Entertain - Provide enjoyment and
amusement The Specific Purpose of a Speech The specific purpose of a speech is a single phrase that: Defines precisely what you intend to accomplish in the speech Identifies general purpose, audience, and exact topic. The Specific Purpose of a Speech: Examples
To inform the audience of three effects of video games on children. To inform the audience about the three most dangerous effects of drugs on teens. To persuade the audience that capital punishment does not deter crime. The Thesis of a Speech A sentence that states specifically what is going to be discussed in a speech
A concise statement of the content including the main ideas. Example (1) Topic: Inexpensive, renewable energy General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about wind as an energy source Thesis: Wind is an inexpensive, easily
accessible, renewable energy source Example (2) Topic: Stem cell research General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the development and implications of stem cells as a way to cure serious disease Thesis: I will examine promising medical advances by looking at the history of stem cell research and the potential benefits of stem cells on serious diseases.
Audience Analysis Audience analysis is the collection and interpretation of data about characteristics, attitudes, values, and beliefs of an audience. So that the you can: Know your audience. Adapt your speech to your audience
Audience Analysis The more the speakers know about the audience, the better they can adapt their speeches to them. Able to understand audiences point of view The reason why the audience decided to come to hear the speakers. Are they voluntary participants or captive participants? Audience analyses
1. Demographic analysis 2. Psychological analysis 3. Size of Audience 4. Physical Setting 5. Knowledge Level 6. Relationship to Speaker 7. Attitudes/Values Related to Topic 8. Attitudes Related to the Situation Audience Analysis: Demographic Analysis Age
Occupation Gender Religion Cultural and Ethnic Geographic Origins Background
Education Group Membership Other Factors Audience Analysis : Psychological Analysis It is the collection and interpretation of data about audience members values, attitudes and beliefs. Psychological analysis helps to determine how the audience will react to the speaker, the topic and the surrounding s in which the speech is presented.
Psychological analysis helps the speaker to be aware of what motivates the audience to listen. Ways to Learn about the Audience Observation Survey Interviews Questionnaires Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 24
Gathering & Using Information Every 10 minutes of speaking time requires 10 hours of research and preparation time. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 26 Some sources of information
31 Surfing the Web How do you evaluate a Web source?* 1. 2. 3. 4. Author Publishing body
Currency Purpose *Elizabeth Kirks guide for evaluating Web sources Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 32 Surfing the Web How do you evaluate a Web source?* 1.
2. 3. 4. Author Publishing body Currency Purpose *Elizabeth Kirks guide for evaluating Web sources Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008
33 Suggestions for Doing Research State a clear purpose before you search Begin research early
Use computer searches Maintain a bibliography of sources Take notes Bottom line: Stay organized! Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 34 Clarify and Support How a speaker clarifies and supports ideas determines the quality of the speech.
There are essentially two parts to every speech: a statement and its proof. -- Aristotle Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 35 Supporting and clarifying ideas Audiences generally accept information because of the credibility of the speaker or because of the
information itself. Thus a statement by a well-known person will be more likely to be accepted by an ordinary person. However, most audiences will want to hear proofs before they accept the statements made. Ways to Support and Clarify Ideas
Testimonies are opinions or conclusions of witnesses or recognized authorities to add trustworthiness to a speech. The speakers own experience can be good testimony. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 38 Testimony
Two essential tests of testimony are: 1. 2. The person whose words are cited must be qualified by virtue of skills, training, expertise, recognition and reputation. The experts opinion is acceptable and believable to your audience.
Testimony For maximum credibility, testimony should come from objective sources. The objectivity and neutrality is especially important when the topic is controversial. Listeners tend to be suspicious of opinions from a biased or self-interested source. Examples An example is a representative incident that clarifies a point.
Types of examples: Brief examples Illustrations Analogies Restatements Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 41
Brief example A brief example is a specific instance to introduce a topic, drive home a point, or create a desired impression Illustration An illustration , or extended example is a narrative, case history or anecdote that is striking and memorable. Illustration often exemplify concepts,
conditions or circumstances or demonstrate findings. Illustration can be : Factual hypothetical Illustration Factual illustration is a report of something that exists or actually happened. Hypothetical illustration is a report of something that could happen, given a specific set of circumstances. The use of hypothetical illustration can be quite
effective because the speaker can involve the listeners by creating a vivid picture in the listeners mind. Analogies An analogy is a comparison of two things that are similar in certain essential characteristics. Analogies explain or prove the unknown by comparing it to the known. There are two kinds of analogies: 1. Figurative analogy 2. Literal analogy
Analogies Figurative analogy draws comparison of things in different categories. A literal analogy is a comparison of members of the same category. Example: two search engines ( google and goodsearch) or two genres of literature ( fiction and nonfiction) Figurative analogies make ideas vivid and clear, whereas literal analogies supply evidence to support points.
Restatements A restatement is the expression of the same idea using different words; it may be in the form of summary, synonym or rephrasing. Restatements do not provide evidence, but powerful by having a persuasive effect; add clarity, meaning and dramatic rhythm to a message. Martin Luther King Jr. is famous for his I have a Dream speech in which he used restatements. Definitions You must define all unfamiliar terms or
concepts. Types of definitions: Logical definition Operational definition Definition by example Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008
48 Definitions A logical definition usually contains two parts; a terms dictionary definition ad the characteristics that distinguish the term form other items in the same category. An operational definition explains how an object or concept works, gives the steps that make up a process, or states how conceptual terms are measured.
A definition by example clarifies a term not by describing it or gives its meaning but mentioning or showing an example of it. Statistics Statistics are numerical data that show relationships or summarize or interpret many instances. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 50 Guidelines for Statistics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sources must be reliable and neutral Explain statistics you are using Use statistics sparingly Round off large numbers when possible Use visual aids to present statistics if appropriate and possible
Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 51 Overall, a good speech is one that is well researched! Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 52 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008
53 The Big Picture: Speech Making Process
Consider the audience Choose/narrow a topic Research the topic Select support material Organize and outline body Develop an effective introduction and conclusion Rehearse and deliver your speech Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 54 How do you organize the body
of your speech? Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 55 Develop the Main Points Relate main points, specific purpose, and thesis Present the main points
Be specific Use vivid language Show relevance Create parallel structure Limit the number of main points
Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 56 Main points: Be specific The more specific the main points: the less confusion they will create, and The more meaningful they will be to the audience Each main point in a speech should also be independent of the others and simple to understand.
Main point: example Ineffective main point: Social responsibility is a theory about the societal responsibilities of companies such as Johnson & Johnson and individuals like you and me. This example contains three ideas in one point, making it complicated. Main point: Example Effective main points: I. Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory about social responsibilities.
II. Social responsibility was demonstrated by such companies as Johnson & Johnson with the Tylenol scare in 1982. III. Social responsibility can also be an individual making a difference in the community. In this example, the three main ideas are divided into three separate points, making them easier to understand. Main points : Use vivid language The more vivid the main points, the more likely they are to create interest.
Main points should be: Thought provoking Attention-grabbing Vivid, but not overblown or exaggerated. Main points: Show relevance Main points that are relevant to the audience immediate interests encourage greater involvement and empathy. Example : Air pollution in our city has reached high levels is better than Air pollution has reached high levels
Audiences want to know how the speakers subject relates to them, and why they should listen. Main points: Create parallel structure Main points should be expressed in parallel structure, that is using similar grammatical patterns and wording as much as possible. Examples: Non Parallel Structure I. Fine arts help us use our whole brain. II. A balanced life results from participation in
the fine arts. III. Contributions to society are the result of participation in the fine arts. Examples: Parallel Structure I. The fine arts help us use all areas of our brains. II. The fine arts help us keep a balanced life. III. The fine arts help us contribute to society. Parallel structure of the main points makes material easier to develop and to remember. Audiences usually have only one opportunity to hear a speech.
Limiting the number of main points The number of main points in your speech will depend on at least three considerations: 1. The time to deliver the speech 2. The content to be covered in the speech, especially the amount and complexity of the supporting materials required for each point. 3. The amount of information the audience can reasonably comprehend and remember Order of the main points Once the main points identified, the next
action is to decide the order which to present them. Order determines the structure and strategy of your speech. The most effective order depends on the topic, purpose and audience. Order the Main Points Time-Sequence pattern Spatial pattern
Topical pattern Problem-Solution pattern Cause-Effect pattern Motivated sequence pattern How do you choose the best pattern? Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 67 Connecting the main points The thoughts in the speech has to systematically connected.
The four most common connecting devices speakers use, either singly or in combination are: Transitions Signposts Internal previews Internal summaries Connecting main points: Transitions A transition is a word or phrase used to link ideas. Examples :
Let me move on to my next point Turning now to .. Another example is.. Connecting main points: signposts Signposts are words or phrases or short statements that indicate to an audience the direction a speaker will take next. Examples : Let me first illustrate My second point is
As I look in my chart Next Finally Connecting main points: signposts Questions can also be used signposts. Examples: How powerful is language? What happens next? Such questions draw the audiences attention to the forthcoming answer.
Connecting main points: Internal previews and Internal summaries Internal previews are short statements that give in advance warning, or preview of the point (s) to be covered. Internal summaries are short review statements given at the end of a main point. How do you support the main points? Support materials must be relevant
and logically organized. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 73 Organizing the Introduction of Your Speech Organizing the Introduction of Your Speech
Experience speakers often develop the introductions after, not before, they finish the body of the speech. An introduction include opening statements that set the state and serves two important functions, namely : (1) motivating the audience to listen and, (2) orienting them to the subject. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 75 Organizing the Introduction of
Your Speech The introduction should be based on the information gathered in the audience analysis. Thus the introduction should have three goals, to: 1. Orient the audience to the topic. 2. Motivate the audience to listen. 3. Forecast the main points. Orienting Your Audience to the Topic
Refer to the subject or occasion Use personal references or narratives Ask rhetorical questions Present a startling statement Use humor Use quotations
State your specific purpose and thesis 77 Motivate the Audience to Listen Make your topic relevant Establish credibility
Credibility is a speakers believability, based on the audiences evaluation of the speakers competence, experience, character and charisma . ( Sieller and Beall, 2011, page 226 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 78 Credibility Credibility is the most valuable tool for a persuasive speaker.
Credibility is the believability that the audience holds towards you. The audience is the judge to credibility, but there is a lot that the speaker can do to influence the audience opinion. Credibility includes competence, character and charisma. The key is to establish yourself from the very beginning of the speech as a person worth listening to. Credibility: competence Competence will be judged by the amount of knowledge, the degree of involvement and the
extent of experience. The more expertise shown in your area, the more likely the audience will accept what is being said. Ways to demonstrate expertise: Demonstrate involvement Relate experience Cite research Credibility: character Audience judge the speakers character based on their perceptions of: Trustworthiness
Trustworthiness is reliability and dependability. Past experience play a role too. Ethics. Can be achieved by citing sources and citing accurately, not distorting or alter information or facts and show respect for the audience. Credibility: ethics
Respect your audience. Some jokes but not too much. Avoid conflict with the audience. Moderate in all things Dont call names or talk bad about anybody. If sensitive issues have to be said, say them in the best manner, such as using analogy. Credibility: charisma
Charisma is the appeal that the audience perceives. Some characteristics of charismatic speakers are: genuinely interested in the audience, energetic and enthusiastic, attractive and likeable. Charismatic speakers are able to engage the audience. Forecast the Main Points Give listeners a road map for
your speech. The first 15 seconds are critical to audience involvement! Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 84 Organize the conclusion of your speech Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 85
Conclusion of Your Speech Show that you are finishing the speech Make your thesis clear
Review the main points End with a memorable thought Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 86 Conclusion of Your Speech The conclusion should focus on the specific purpose of your speech and bring the most
important points together in a condensed and uniform way. The conclusion also should relate to the introduction, helping the audience make connections between various parts and points of the message. Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 87 OUTLINE YOUR SPEECH
Outlining your speech Outlining is one of the most difficult steps in a speech preparation. Outlining involves arranging the entire contents of a speech in logical sequence and writing that sequence in a standardized form. The outline is often referred to as the blueprint or skeleton of a speech. Outlining your speech Outlining and organizing are similar terms. Both organizing and outlining involve arranging
information to form a meaningful sequence, but outlining is a more rigorous written process. Outlining is more detailed than organizing and helps : to unify and clarify thinking, makes relationships clear, Provide the proper balance and emphasis for each point as it relates to the specific purpose of a speech ( or written paper), To ensure that information is accurate and relevant. Outlining your speech In the process of outlining the speech, you will
gain an overview of your entire presentation, which help you gauge the amount of support you have for each of your main points, as well as identify any points that need further development. The process of outlining usually requires three steps. Principles in Outlining There are three principles in outlining: 1. Subordination 2. Coordination
3. Parallelism Principles in outlining : subordination Subordination identifies the hierarchy of ideas. The most important ideas are the main points and are supported by subpoints ( that is, they are subordinate to the main points) Principles in outlining :coordination Coordination suggests that ideas with the same level of importance use the same kind
of numbers ( Roman and Arabic ) and letters (capitalized and noncapitalized) to provide a visualization of relationships. Principles in outlining : parallelism Parallelism is the term for making all ideas, main points, subpoints and sub-subpoints use similar grammatical form and language patterns. The language used should also be parallel. Steps in Outlining Your Speech
Start with a preliminary outline Expand to a full-sentence outline Condense to a presentational (key-word) outline Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 96 Example of an outlining format
Using Presentational Note Cards Use only a few note cards
Number the note cards Write on only one side Use abbreviations Use an outline format Write out introduction and conclusion List only main points and subpoints Write out citations, statistics, and quotations Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2008 98 Managing Anxiety
& Delivering your Speech Speech anxiety Fear of public speaking (speech anxiety ) is common : 1. Fear of not having anything worthwhile to say 2. Fear of speaking in front of others Qualities of Effective Speakers
Ethics Knowledge Preparation Self-Confidence Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 101 Ethics: Avoiding Plagiarism
Use more than one source for speech Use a variety of sources Avoid using language identical to original author Cite sources prior to quoting a source Always identify your sources Give credit to originator of ideas Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 102
Managing Speech Anxiety What is speech anxiety? What is communication apprehension? What are the symptoms? What causes speech anxiety? How does culture affect speech anxiety? How is speech anxiety controlled? Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
103 Symptoms of Speech Anxiety Vocal changes
Fluency problems Dryness in mouth and throat Tense facial expressions Random gestures Body movements Nonvisible symptoms Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 104 What Causes Speech Anxiety?
FEAR!!!! Fear of physical unattractiveness Fear of social inadequacy
Fear of criticism Fear of the unknown Fear of speech anxiety Conflicting emotions Excitement from anticipation Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 105 Treating Speech Anxiety
Select a topic you enjoy and know. Be prepared and know your audience. Be confident. Think positively. Practice, practice, practice. Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
106 Additional Tips for Controlling Speech Anxiety Talk with instructor for additional help. Dont give up! Practice relaxation techniques - systematic desensitization. Realize that everyone feels this way. Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
107 How Do You Deliver a Winning Speech? Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 108 Methods of Delivery Choose an appropriate method: Impromptu Delivery
Manuscript Delivery Memorized Delivery Extemporaneous Delivery Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 109 How do vocal and physical aspects affect delivery? Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
110 Vocal Aspects Vocal quality Intelligibility Vocal variety Rate Force Pitch Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon111
Physical Aspects Personal appearance Body movement Gestures Facial expressions Eye contact
Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 112 Some Distracting Speaker Behaviors
rapid speech monotone mumbling awkward pauses hands in pockets playing with hair looking at floor or ceiling
tense, rigid sloppy posture swaying dancing leaning on podium
weight shifts crossing legs Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 113 Presentational Aids Materials and equipment that speakers may use to enhance the speechs content as well as their delivery A picture is worth a thousand words Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
114 Why use presentational aids? Save time Gain attention and hold interest
Clarify and support main points Reinforce or emphasize main points Improve retention of information Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 115 Audience Memory and the Impact of Visual Aids Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon
116 Effective presentational aids Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 117 Presentational aids should:
Serve a need Be planned and adapted Not dominate the speaker Look professionally prepared Be practical - easy to prepare, use, and transport Be documented if they are not original Contain only one idea
Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 118 Kinds of Presentational Aids Real objects
Models Photographs and prints Drawings, sketches, and diagrams Tables and graphs Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 119 Tips when using Presentational Aids
Display visuals only while you are using them Display them long enough for everyone to absorb the information Make them neat, simple, large, bright, and readable Do not talk to your displayed objects Do not stand in front of your displayed objects Practice using your presentational aids Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 120
Methods of Presentation Posters Projected Visuals Handouts Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 121 Computer-Generated
Presentational Aids Dont overdo it! Use appropriate font size 40 point for a regular classroom. Dont put too much on a slide. Use the visual to enhance your presentation. Practice using it in the room where you will be presenting. Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 122
Thinking about PowerPoint Color Type and Size of Font Use of Graphics and Pictures Copyright 2008 by Allyn and Bacon 123 Presenting your speech
Use of appropriate language. Use appropriate intonation. Appropriate non-verbal behaviour. Manage emotion and anxiety. Observe ethics. Keep up your credibility.
Language Effective and appropriate use of language includes: Using your own style. Congruence between the language and the style used. Use active sentences. Use simple language. Q&A Questions can be asked by the audience during the
speech or after the speech. It is also possible that the speaker asks questions. S/he can answer them or let the audience answerdepends on the purpose of the question. Unless they are meant to be provocative, it is ethical to answer all questions asked by the audience. Responses to questions Questions and answer sessions can be opportunities for the speaker to reinforce important points. Answers to the questions can increase the speakers credibility, to add information or to highlight some points which have been missed during the
presentation Watch out, and be ready for killer questions. Responses to questions Let not questions control the whole presentation. Avoid irrelevant issues or issues which are too technical, which quite likely to bore the audience. Keep to your time given. Caution There are lots more. Please go on reading and learning.
Main References Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L ( 2008, 2011). Communication. Making Connections ( 7th and 8th ed). Boston: Pearson
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