Embedding Formative Assessment : Five Key Strategies and
Embedding Formative Assessment : Five Key Strategies and One Big Idea February 10, 2012 Facilitator: DonnaIrene McKinley Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance PaTTANs Mission The mission of the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN) is to support the efforts and initiatives of the Bureau
of Special Education, and to build the capacity of local educational agencies to serve students who receive special education services. PDEs Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Our goal for each child is to ensure Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams begin with the general education setting with the use of Supplementary Aids and Services before considering a
more restrictive environment. Anticipation Guide Handout Find your Anticipation Guide in your Supportive Handouts Complete on your own. After reading each classroom scenario place a plus (+) next to a scenario that demonstrates formative assessment instructional practices or a minus (-) next to a scenario that
does not. PAs Standards Aligned System Standards Safe and Supportive Schools Assessments Student Achievement Materials & Resources
Curriculum Framework Instruction 8 Standards Aligned System (SAS) Assessments (http://www.pdesas.org/) Standards Safe and Supportive Schools
1. Stay on topic. 2. Use information that is accurate and appropriate to the topic. 3. Think deeply about what the partner has to say. (Fisher & Frey, p. 23. 2007). Foundational Concepts Indicators of Accountable Talk 1. Clarification The most Could you describe what that means? salient information for Where did you find that information?
me so far in this 3.Challenge misconceptionstraining is I dont agree because because.. 2. Justification 4. Demand evidence Can you give me an example? 5. Interpret and use each others statements David suggested. (Fisher & Frey, p. 23, 2007) Wheres the
solution? Foundational Concepts 17 Foundational Concepts Its the Classroom Variability at the classroom level is up to 4 times greater than at school level Personal Reflection: What distinguishes the most effective
from the least effective classrooms? What differences would you see if you were in a classroom that took 6 months to learn versus a year? 18 What do we mean by Assessment for learning? Foundational Concepts Handout What Do We Mean by
Assessment for Learning (AfL)? Refer to your Video-Note Taking Guide for a Prompt 20 Assessment for Learning Assessment becomes formative when the evidence is actually USED to ADAPT the teaching in order to meet student learning needs.
Foundational Concepts Effect Size The mean effect sizes for most of the studies were between .40 and .70; such effect sizes are among the largest ever reported for sustained educational interventions. Assessment for Learning, 2003 Foundational Concepts The Good News
An effect size of 0.40 would mean that the average pupil involved in an innovation would record the same achievement as a pupil in the top 35% of those not involved. An effect size of 0.70 in the recent international comparative studies in mathematics would have raised the score of a nation in the middle of the pack of 41 countries to one of the tope five. Inside the Black Box, 1998 Foundational Concepts Black and Wiliam MetaAnalysis
Over 160 research journals and books Yielded about 681 articles or chapters Research review based on 250 of these sources There is a body of firm evidence that formative assessment is an essential component of classroom work and that its development an raise standards of achievement. We know of no other way of raising standards for which such a strong prima facie case can be made. (Inside the Black Box, 1998). Foundational Concepts EFFECTS of Formative Assessment
25 Foundational Concepts Aspects of Formative Assessment Where the learner is going Teach er Peer
Where the learner is How to get there Engineering effective Clarify and share discussions, tasks learning intentions and activities that elicit evidence of learning Providing feedback that
moves learners forward Understand and share learning intentions Learne Understand r learning intentions Activating students as learning resources for one another Activating students as owners
of their own learning Foundational Concepts Evidence/rationale for investment in formative assessments It is impossible to disentangle the impact of formative assessment from the instruction that follows it. When improved student outcomes are used as the criterion for effective practices, evaluations of classroom-based formative assessment are as much an evaluation of
the instructional adjustments resulting from the assessments as they are of the assessments themselves. Foundational Concepts Quick Write Take Ten Steps PairDiscuss: Quick Write: The difference between assessment of learning and assessment for learning. Then take your summary and walk ten steps to someone you do not know and discuss your summaries.
Classroom Assessment Foundational Concepts Defining Formative Assessment Read: Classroom Assessment: Minute by Minute, Day by Day By Siobhan Leahy, Christine Lyon, Marnie Thompson and Dylan Wiliam Educational Leadership,
November 2005, Volume 63, Number 3 Assessment to Promote Learning Pages 19-24 30 Foundational Concepts Jigsaw Directions Handout Number off at your table 1-5 Everyone reads At the beginning of the article read:
Introduction Changing Gears Our Work with Teacher At the conclusion of the article read: Using Evidence of Learning to Adapt Instruction Supporting Teacher Change 31 Jigsaw The Strategies Foundational Concepts
1s read Clarify and Share Intentions & Criteria 2s read Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions 3s read Provide Feedback that Moves Learners Forward 4s read Activate Students as Owners of their Learning 5s read Activate Students as Instructional Resources for One Another Share summary of your section and then have a table discussion of how embedding formative assessment strategies into classroom practice may impact your teaching and your students learning Foundational Concepts
Text Rendering- On The Clock What resonates with you ? One sentence One phrase One word 5 Key Learnings Going Deeper A Focus on 5 Key Learning Strategies and One Big Idea
35 5 Key Learnings One Big Idea Use evidence about learning to adapt teaching and learning to meet student needs. 1. Clarifying, Learning Intentions and
Success Criteria 5 Key Learnings Common Language Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Learning Goals Learning Intentions
5 Key Learnings Introduction: 1. Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions and Success Criteria Watch Wiliam Clip Handout Refer to your Video-Note Taking Guide for a Prompt 40 5 Key Learnings
Key Point 1. Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions and Success Criteria Not all students have the same idea as their teachers about what they are meant to be doing in the classroom. Often, what is wanted is not made clear and this puts some students at considerable advantage because they already know. (Wiliam, 2011. p. 52). 41 5 Key Learnings
Examples: 1. Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions Student-friendly language while maintaining the language of the discipline Transferability- learning intention can be used in many other situations 5 Key Learnings A Good Learning Intention A good learning intention is:
Opaque to students Do not transfer to novel situations 44 5 Key Learnings I Do We Do You Do 1. Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions Focusing on Transferability A Good Learning Intention is Clear And focuses on what students will learn
NOT DO 45 5 Key Learnings Non-Examples: Sharing Learning Intentions The Ambiguous Role of Context Confused Learning Objective To be able to write instructions on how to change a bicycle tire To be able to present
an argument for or against assisted suicide Clarified Learning Objective To be able to write clear instructions. To be able to present and argument for or against an emotionally charged proposition. Handout
Context of Learning Changing a bicycle tire. Assisted suicide. To know what the local rabbi does To produce and analyze a questionnaire about movie-going habits To design an
experiment to find out what conditions pill Random Reporter 46 (Wiliam, p. 61, 2011) Graffiti Wall & Gallery Walk 5 Key Learnings Think about a learning intention that you
teach; write it on post-it. Make it context free. Share it with someone. Place your post note on one of the 3 frames. 1.Elementary 2.Middle School 3.High School 5 Key Learnings 1. Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Success Criteria
Examples: A continuum of work samples Co-constructing with students the success criteria What it looks like in the classroom Students analyzing a continuum of work samples Co-constructing with students the success criteria (rubric, performance levels) 5 Key Learnings Time to Reflect.. In your current assignments, discuss to what
extent you are seeing visible objectives? Are they posted? Are they being taught? Are they connected to the standards Are they connected to instruction/learning? Are students able to share what they are learning and why? 5 Key Learnings Find the Fib: Pinch Card A. Learning intentions should be important, clear, and student-friendly.
B. Learning intentions are synonymous with PA anchors and standards. C. Students do better when they construct their own test questions and answers. 50 5 Key Learnings Instructional Routine Card & Action Plan Handout Review Key Strategy 1. Clarifying,
Sharing Learning Intentions and Success Criteria Instructional Routine Card Write on your Action Plan. What one strategy is worth repeating? 2. Effective Classroom Discussions, Activities & Learning Tasks 2. Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions, Activities and Learning Tasks
5 Key Learnings Watch Wiliam Clip Refer to your Video-Note Taking Guide for a Prompt 53 5 Key Learnings Review Effective Discussions 2. Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions, Activities, and Learning Tasks
54 5 Key Learnings Key Idea 2. Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions, Activities, and Learning Tasks with careful planning and the thoughtful application of [questioning] techniques, the teacher can make the classroom a much more engaging place for students and one in which the teacher is able to make rapid and
effective adjustments to meet the learning needs of all students. (Wiliam, 2011, p. 104). 5 Key Learnings 2. Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions, Activities, and Learning Tasks Only two good reasons to ask questions in class: 1.to cause thinking and 2.to provide information for the teacher about what to
do next. (Wiliam, p. 79, 2011) 56 Blooms Taxonomy of Critical Thinking New: Verbs Old: Nouns Handout 5 Key Learnings
Use questioning techniques to stimulate student thinking and provide information for the teacher about what to do next. (Wiliam, 2011). Examples Devote planning time and professional development to constructing questions that will engage and assess learning. Use questioning to help students develop their ability to use language as a tool for thinking about content, both individually and in collaboration with other students. Use open-ended questions that encourage students to discuss learning from multiple perspectives.
Listen to students responses interpretively (what you learn about students thinking by attending carefully to what they say) Focus on the quality of talk, not the quantity of talk. 58 5 Key Learnings Avoid frequent questioning techniques that are simply managerial questions or basic recall questions. (Wiliam, 2011). Non-Examples Who has finished all the questions?
How many legs does an insect have? Listening evaluatively (listening to students answers to learn only what you want them to know). 59 5 Key Learnings Practical Techniques for Questioning Causing thinking and generating data to inform teaching generating questions with colleagues
closed vs open low-order vs high-order appropriate wait-time 60 5 Key Learnings Practical Techniques for Questioning Eliminating I-R-E (initiate, respond, evaluate) and replacing with basketball rather than serial table-tennis No hands up
class polls to review current attitudes towards an issue All student response systems 61 5 Key Learnings Socratic Questioning and Dialogue Ask questions that: clarify, probe purpose, probe assumptions, probe information, reasons, evidence and causes, probe concepts, inferences and interpretations. Ask questions about: viewpoints or
perspectives, implications and consequences, questions about the question. (Foundation for Critical Thinking, www.criticalthinking.org ) 5 Key Learnings Socratic Seminar Conducting and engaging students in collaborative, intellectual dialogue facilitated with open-ended questions about a text to improve the individuals ability to explain and manipulate complex systems.
5 Key Learnings Ways to Overcome I Dont Know Who Wants to Be a Millionaire Techniques Phone a Friend Class Vote 50/50 If you did know, what would you say? If you were a mathematician (scientist/historian, etc.), what would you say? Teacher feeds an answer; student repeats.
Ways to Overcome I Dont Know 5 Key Learnings Pass Card Think about it, and Ill be back. Check in the text, and Ill be back. Check with a partner, and Ill be back. T: Im back. S: I still dont know. T: Which answer that you heard do you like best? Why? 5 Key Learnings
Socratic Seminar Read the Gettysburg Address Lincoln opens the address by saying that America Why doesconceived Lincoln say that they cannot to is a nation in liberty and dedicated dedicate, cannot equal. cannotHe
the proposition that all consecrate, men are created hallow thisdescribing ground the when follows by Civilthat Warisasprecisely testing whether anyofnation so conceived and so the
purpose the ceremony? dedicated can long endure. What does he mean? What forces would prevent a nation dedicated to equality from surviving? 5 Key Learnings Instructional Routine Card & Action Plan Handout Review Key Strategy 2. Engineering Effective Classroom Discussions,
Activities, and Learning Tasks Instructional Routine Card Write on your Action Plan. What one strategy is worth repeating? 3. Feedback that moves learning forward 5 Key Learnings 3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward
Handout Watch Wiliam Clip Refer to your Video-Note Taking Guide for a Prompt 70 5 Key Learnings Key points on Feedback 3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward
Feedback should always cause more work for the students (learners) than it does for the one who gives it Feedback should cause thinking A recipe for future action The rearview mirror versus the windshield 71 5 Key Learnings Examples
3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward 1. Feedback that is focused on the learning not the student. 2. Feedback that is clear about what the student has achieved and what still needs further work to improve. 3. Feedback that points to how. 4. Feedback should be phrased as targets. 5 Key Learnings Characteristics of Formative Feedback
3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward Feedback should provide: evidence on where they are now the desire d goal PMB 2007 some understanding
of how to close the gap If I had 5 Key Learnings known they Formative Assessment requires wanted me to use all this info., I Data on the would actual level of some measurable never have attribute
asked for it! reference level of that attribute A mechanism for comparing the two levels information can be used to alter the gap. 5 Key Learnings Non- Examples 3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward Frequent feedback is not necessarily formative Feedback that causes improvement is not necessarily formative
Assessment is formative only if the information fed back to the learner is used by the learner in making improvements To be formative, assessment must include a recipe for future action 5 Key Learnings Feedback Activity: Is it Formative? 5 Key Learnings Instructional Routine Card & Action Plan
Handout Review Key Strategy 3. Providing Feedback that Moves Learning Forward Instructional Routine Card Write on your Action Plan. What one strategy is worth repeating? 4. Self Assessment 5. Peer 5 Key Learnings
4. Self and 5. Peer Assessment Watch Wiliam Clip Refer to your Video-Note Taking Guide for a Prompt 79 Key points 4.Self and 5.Peer 5 Key Learnings Assessment Teachers can design learning
situations, but only learners create learning If students can improve how they manage learning, they become owners of their own learning Back to the concepts of engagement and contingency. 80 5 Key Learnings 4.Self and 5.Peer Assessment Proactive Metacognitive Learning Activating students as owners of
their own learning Collaborative Learning Activating students as instructional resources for one another. 5 Key Learnings 4.Self Assessment Students can achieve a learning goal only if they understand that goal and can assess what they need to do to reach it. So self-assessment is essential to learning. Working Inside the Black Box, 2004
5 Key Learnings Traffic Lights Students reflect and indicate: Red= Little understanding Yellow= Partial understanding Green = I understand Another Example: :Learning Logs 5 Key Learnings Today I learned
I was surprised by. The most useful thing I will take from this lesson is I was interested in One thing Im not sure about. The main thing I want to find out more about After this session, I feel I might have gotten more from this lesson if (Wiliam, pp. 157-158, 2011) 5 Key Learnings 5. Peer Assessment Effective cooperative learning requires the presence of two elements:
1.Group goals Working as a group, not merely in a group. 2. Individual accountability Individual accountability, so that individual students cannot be carried along by the work of others. (Wilam, p. 135, 2011) 5 Key Learnings Pre-Flight Checklists 1. How do these pre-flight checklist support interdependency?
2. How does having a clear learning intention and clear success criteria support peer assessment? How about feedback and questioning? 5 Key Learnings 4. Self and 5. Peer Assessment Techniques C3B4ME Peer Homework evaluation Homework Help Board Two Stars and a Wish
End of Topic Questions Error Classification End of Lesson Student Review What Did We Learn Today? Student Reporter Preflight Checklist IYouWe Checklist Reporter at Random If You Learned It, Help Someone Who
Hasnt 5 Key Learnings Practical Techniques: Conferencing and dialogue with students. Provide consistent opportunities for self-assessment. Learning Portfolios Learning Logs Traffic Lights Colored Cups 88
5 Key Learnings 4.Self and 5. Peer Assessment Tip the scales in the right direction: 1.Share learning goals. 2.Expect high expectations and help students believe they can achieve those goals. 3.Make it difficult for students to compare themselves with others. 4.Provide a recipe for future action rather than a review of past failures. 5.Use every opportunity to transfer executive control from teacher to students.
5 Key Learnings Instructional Routine Card & Action Plan Handout Review Key Strategy 4. Self and 5. Peer Assessment Instructional Routine Card Write on your Action Plan. What one strategy is worth repeating? 5 Key Learnings
91 Foundations of Professional Learning Communities Theory to Practice Teacher Learning Communities Professional Learning Communities TLCs/PLCs The whole idea of TLCs is to give you
(the teacher) a forum for getting support for putting in place your plans. Dylan Wiliam Theory to Practice Thats what TLC/PLCs are for:
Contradicting teacher isolation Re-professionalizing De-privatizing Offering a steady source of support Growing expertise Facilitating sharing Building a collective knowledge base 94 Pulling it all together Theory to Practice
Anticipation Guide Revisited Take a moment to revisit the Anticipation Guide with which we began the day. Have any of your thoughts changed? If so, turn to your partner and tell why you would change your mark for a specific statement(s). Theory to Practice Frayer GO: Summarize Today Theory to Practice
Frayer GO: Summarize Today Putting it into Practice Theory to Practice Action Plan Review your notes on your action plan. Choose
one! Formative Assessment and Engagement Strategies Used in this Training Theory to Practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Anticipation Guide Graphic Organizer Video Note Taking Guide Action Plan Fist to Five Accountable Talk Quick Writes Formative Assessment and Engagement Strategies Used in this Training Theory to Practice
8. Take Ten Steps 9. Jigsaw 10.Text Rendering 11.I Do, We Do, You Do 12.Random Reporter 13.Graffiti Wall 14.Gallery Walk Formative Assessment Strategies Used in this Training Theory to Practice 15. Reflection Time
16. Pinch Card 17. Socratic Seminar 18. Traffic Light 19. Every student response plates/page protectors 20. Frayer Graphic Thank you! In a completely rational society, the best of us would aspire to be teachers and the rest of us would have to settle for less, because passing civilization along from one generation to the next ought to be the highest honor and highest responsibility
anyone could have. Lee Iacocca Referenc es 1. Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, October, 139148. 2. Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86 9-2 3. Leahy, S. & Wiliam, D. (2009). Embedding Formative Assessment: A Professional
Development Pack for Schools. Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. 4. Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded Formative Assessment. Bloomington, IN : Solution Tree Press. Contact Information www.pattan.net DonnaIrene McKinley Educational Consultant [email protected] 412/826-6859 Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Tom Corbett, Governor Pennsylvania Department of Education Ronald J. Tomalis, Secretary Dr. Carolyn Dumaresq, Deputy Secretary Office for Elementary and Secondary Education John J. Tommasini, Director Bureau of Special Education Patricia Hozella, Assistant Director Bureau of Special Education
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