Energy How much energy do we use? Why does it matter? What can we do about it? -1- U.S. Share of World, 2005 -2- Energy Use People in the US use, on average, six times the energy consumed by the
average of all other people in the world. -3- Why does it matter? -4- Energy Use In the U.S. energy accounts for 80% of GHG emissions in the U.S. http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/US-GHG-Inventory-2010-Chapter-Trends.pdf -5- All Figures IPCC 2013
Our future climate Figure SPM.10 Temperature increase and cumulative carbon emissions -6- Our current path Our future climate Figure SPM.8a,b All Figures IPCC 2013
Our current path Maps of CMIP5 multi-model mean results -7- Projected Changes in Sea Level Without adaptation, a (sea-level) rise by 0.5 m would displace 3.8 million people in the most fertile part of the Nile River Delta. A rise by 2 m could displace 187 million people globally. 2 m rise in NYC by 2100? Willis and Church (Science, 2012)
-8- -9- - 10 - David Klein, 2015 What must we do? 1. AB32: California to reduce its GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. 2. CA: Executive order to establish a California greenhouse gas reduction target of 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. 3. Ultimate goal of
reducing emissions 80 percent under 1990 levels by 2050. (Required to limit temperature increase to 2 degrees C.) - 11 - Reduce our energy use Electricity use: Residential electricity use averages 32 kWh/day per household or 964
kWh/month. In California it is 562 kWh/month. In Los Angeles it is about 480 kWh/month. Two-thirds from fossil fuels. Less than 12% from renewables - 12 - Californias Electricity Current California law requires that 33% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020.
In October 2015, Governor Brown signed SB 350, which now sets a goal of 50% of CA utilities power coming from renewable energy by 2030. - 13 - Your electricity use Southern California Edison has installed smart (digital) meters for their customers. Customers can see hourly, daily and monthly consumption online. www.sce.com - 14 -
Your electricity use - 15 - Your electricity use - 16 - Your electricity use - 17 - Your Electricity Use LADWP is in the process of installing smart meters. Only a few households have them. A consumption chart is available with the LADWP bill:
Multiply Average daily kWh (Prev Yr) by 30.4: 21 x 30.4 = 638 kWh/mth - 18 - Units Energy use: kWh shower (hot water) = 4 kWh gallon gasoline = 33.7 kWh to make an aluminum can = 0.6 kWh
Energy = Power x Time kWh = kW x hours Wh = W x hours 1 kWh = 1000 Wh Power: W (Rate at which energy is generated or consumed) 1000 W (microwave) for one hour = 1 kWh of energy 3000 W (oven) for 20 mins = 1 kWh of energy 100 W (lightbulb) for 10 hours = 1 kWh of energy 1 Btu = 2.93E-04 kWh (or 3413 kWh = 1 Btu) 1 therm = 29.3 kWh - 19 - My/Your Energy Consumption: Direct Emissions
Driving: 33.7 kWh/gallon gasoline Electric car: 0.34 kWh/mile (Nissan Leaf), 0.36 kWh/mile (Volt) Bus: ~ 0.5 kWh/mile per passenger Flying: ~ 1 kWh/mile per passenger Electricity: $1/day supplies 8 kWh/day Gas: $1/day supplies 30 kWh/day - 20 - Your Energy Consumption Driving: Flying: Electricity: Gas:
Total: Note 1 kWh/day of energy use is the same as running one 40W light bulb continuously. - 21 - My Energy Consumption Driving: 37 kWh/day for 50 miles/day (45 mpg car) Flying: 27 kWh/day for 10,000 miles/year Electricity: 8 kWh/day 2 Gas: 30 kWh/day 2 Total: 83 kWh/day Indirect emissions are likely to be 1 3 x direct emissions. (Water delivery and treatment, food, manufacture of
house, vehicle + services) - 22 - Residential Energy Consumption (avg. US) Driving: 43.9 kWh/day per person Bus: 0.4 kWh/day/person Train: 0.02 kWh/day/person Flying: 5.5 kWh/day per person Gas: 0.44 therms/day (or 12.9 kWh/day per person) Other heating: 3.2 kWh/day per person Total: 66 kWh/day per person of direct fuel use Electricity: 12.4 kWh/day per person Total: 78.5 kWh/day per person
- 23 - Use Kill-a-watt meter to measure power demand of various devices in your home. Home energy use - 24 - Electricity Cost The price of electricity varies by roughly a factor or two across the contiguous United States, but averages around 12/kWh. - 26 -
Where Does Your Energy Go? - 28 - Where Does Your Energy Go? www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/reports/2009/state_briefs/pdf/ca.pd f - 29 - Top 10 Energy Using Appliances In Your Home Item Central Air Conditioner
Room Air Conditioner Pool Pumps Clothes Washer & Dryer Refrigerator Usage 4 hours/day
$25.10 $16.46 Ways to Reduce Your Cost Set thermostat at 78 in summer and 68 in winter, turn off when not at home Clean or replace filters and clean condensing coils frequently Use a whole house fan to ventilate trapped heat Avoid using heat-producing appliances (i.e. range,
dishwasher, oven) during the warmest times of the day Close draperies and window shades to block heat Open windows and doors at night to ventilate heat Clean coils regularly, especially during the summer Maintain airtight door seals
If you have an older model, consider recycling it and purchasing a new Energy Star model Use a timer to run pump no more than 4 to 5 hours per day during summer and 2 to 3 hours per day during winter Use during off-peak
hours Use a variable speed pool pump Wash full loads only Consider replacing an old model washer with a new energyand-water-saving
unit Dry full loads and do not over dry Clean lint filter before each load Line dry when possible Item Portable Heater Plasma TV Freezer
18 hours/month Cost/Month $14.40 $9.60 $6.75 $5.74 $5.40 Ways to
Reduce Your Cost Turn off when you leave the room Unplug when not in use, and at bedtime Wash only full loads Air dry dishes
when possible Use an Energy Star rated model Use as alternative to oven or range Choose an Energy Star rated LCD TV they use less energy than plasma TVs Turn off when you leave the room
- 30 - Defrost manual freezer regularly Home Energy Saver Online Tool Computerized Energy Audit A powerful tool http://homeenergysaver.lbl.gov/consumer/ - 31 - Air Conditioning Air conditioner equipment power in the U.S. is described in terms of "tons of refrigeration".
= cooling power of 1 ton (2,000 pounds) of ice melting in a 24-hour period 1 ton AC = 12,000 BTU per hour, or 3517 watts Residential central air systems are usually from 1 to 5 tons (3 to 20 kW). Air conditioners should be sized properly to avoid wasting energy by cycling too often. Rule of thumb: One ton per 700-1200 sq ft of floor space (700 for home with avg. air tightness, R-values etc.) (1200 for high R-values, sun-blocking features etc.) - 32 - Air Conditioning In the US, the efficiency of air conditioners is rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER). The higher the SEER rating, the more energy efficient.
SEER rating = BTU of cooling output during normal annual usage divided by the total electric energy input in Wh during the same period. SEER = BTU/Wh = (BTU / h) W, where "W" is the average electrical power in Watts, and (BTU/h) is the rated cooling power. e.g.) A 1-ton AC unit (12000 BTU/h), with a SEER of 12, consumes 12000/12 = 1000 Watts of power on average. Assuming 1000 hours of operation during a typical cooling season (i.e., 8 hours per day for 125 days per year), the energy consumed = 1000 W 1000 h = 1,000,000 Wh = 1,000 kWh New SEER standard is 13. - 33 -
Lighting Efficiencies: Incandescent: 10% efficient (90% of energy is lost as heat) CFLs: About 75% more efficient LEDs: 85-90% more efficient Payback: CFLs: less than one year LEDs: about 3 years CFL LEDs Lifetime savings: CFLs: $45 (9 years) LEDs: $150 (25 years)
- 34 - Energy Efficient Product Rebates Eligibility Requirements Must be an LADWP residential customer with an active electric account. Qualified purchase(s) must be made between June 1, 2015 and May 31, 2016. How To Shop and Apply for a Rebate Prior to making your purchase, go to Efficient Product Marketplace ladwp.enervee.com to verify product eligibility and provide your email address Purchase eligible product(s) Submit your receipt
Receive a prepaid LADWP gift card - 35 - Home Energy Improvement Program This program is free to LADWP customers. https://www.ladwp.com/ladwp/faces/ladwp/residential/r-savemoney/r-smrebatesandprograms/r-sm-rp-homeenergyimprovementprogram An assessment of your home will be performed by trained technicians to identify the most appropriate and effective improvements. Energy improvement work is performed for free. Work is performed on a first come first served basis, and there is currently a waitlist for this program. Apply ASAP to reserve a spot in line! - 36 -
Refrigerator Exchange Program Older model refrigerators are replaced with new, energysaving, ENERGY STAR rated refrigerators, FREE of charge. To qualify, the refrigerator must be: Located in the LADWP service territory Owned by the recipient or organization At least 10 years old A minimum of 14 cubic feet (cu. ft.) In working condition Used as the primary unit not in storage (must be located in the kitchen for residential customers) Plugged into a properly grounded outlet with a 3-prong plug
- 40 - Refrigerator Exchange Program Income-Qualified Customers (Homeowner or Tenant Owns Refrigerator) Participant in the Low Income Discount Program Participant in the Lifeline Rate Program Multi-Residential or Non-Profit Customers (Property Owner or Organization owns Refrigerator)
A Multi-Residential or Mobile Home Community An Educational Institution A Civic Organization A Community Organization A Faith-Based Organization # of people in household 1-2 3 4 5 6
7 8 - 41 - Total yearly household income not more than $31,860 $40,180 $48,500 $56,820 $65,140 $73,460 $81,780
LADWP Rebates: Appliances - 42 - LADWP Rebates: Heating/Cooling - 43 - How to get FREE Trees City of Los Angeles residents can get up to 7 free shade trees delivered to their doors. Businesses can request shade trees too and may be eligible to receive even larger quantities. City Plants also holds tree giveaway events around the City where residents can learn about and pick up a free fruit or shade tree.
Additionally, if you agree to water parkway trees in front of your home or business, City Plants will do the planting work for you at no charge! Visit www.cityplants.org or call (213) 473-9950 to get FREE trees. - 44 - Thank you! Questions? Helen Cox, Director Institute for Sustainability, CSUN [email protected] www.csun.edu/sustainability - 45 -
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