Understanding and Promoting Interaction in the Classroom UNIVERSITY

Understanding and Promoting Interaction in the Classroom UNIVERSITY

Understanding and Promoting Interaction in the Classroom UNIVERSITY LEVEL Ph.D. Defense Steven A. Wolfman Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington The Blackboard t in the winter of 1813 & '14 I attended a mathematical school kept in BostonOn entering [the] room, we were struck at the appearance of an ample Black Board suspended on the wall I had never heard of such a thing before. ed tech

BENEFITS: successful [Samuel J. May, 1855] CHALLENGES: few such successes LEVERAGE PNT: public mediating artifact Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction BIG EXCEPTION: PowerPoint 2 Mediating Artifact [Vygotsky] t An external object or structure that participates in cognition by supporting or

shaping thought. Vygotsky: thought is social DISTRIBUTED COGNITION Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 3 Slides as Mediating Artifact In the classroom: Persistent context for communication! t facilitate communication structure discussion

Outside the classroom: used as memory aid used as study guide Across terms: reify course knowledge Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 4 Thesis Question t How can computer technology exploit the mediating nature of

presentation slides to support and shape interactive learning and teaching? UNIVERSITY LEVEL Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 5 Research History Classroom Presenter Gestural Model of Ink Structured Interaction

Presentation system Steve Wolfman Distance & Large Class Studies t Classroom Feedback System Feedback Patterns Understanding and Promoting Interaction 6

Design Experiment Methodology [Brown] t Theoretical framework Class studies Evaluation & user-centered design Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction System design 7 Outline

t Introduction Classroom Presenter Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP) Conclusions Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 8 Classroom Presenter Goals t

PETTT studies suggest like: organization / preparation Maintain strengths of slideware (organization, preparation, sharing, execution) Mitigate weaknesses of slideware studies indicate need: (inflexibility, immobility, passivity)Prelim flexibility/contextual writing Secure classroom adoption Prepare for more ambitious systems Explore slides as mediating artifact Response to dist stud: INK in CONTEXT Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

TRANS: benefit from separating views (fract med art) 9 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction benefit from separating views (fract med art) 10 Instructor view with notes

Displayed view without notes COMPARE WRITTEN NOTES WITH INK! Innovations from User-Centered Design Instructor notes Filmstrip and slide previews Whiteout

TV Talk Show Tablet Collective brainstorming t Flexibility/interaction enabled by exploiting: SEPARATION OF VIEWS, INK IN CONTEXT, SLIDES AS MED ART Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 12 Classroom Deployments Surveyed since Spring 02: t

37 courses 21 instructors 2,000+ students CSE courses: introductory to Masters level UW, U. of Virginia, & U. of San Diego Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 13 Survey Results t Positive comments and repeat use by instructors Instructor survey: N = 9 Omits all project participants.

Students engaged in lecture Use in future 0% less 44% no change 56% more 0% no 33% maybe 67% yes Student surveys: N = 479 Attention to lecture

10% less 35% no change 55% more Encourage future use 8% disc. 22% neutral 69% enc. Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

14 Contributions (Presenter) t Combined strengths of slides w/increased flexibility, mobility, potential for interaction Developed features that exploit slides as mediating artifact: Ink in context Separation of views Secured broad adoption Established basis for student extensions Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

15 Outline t Introduction Classroom Presenter Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP) Conclusions Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 16

CFS Goals t Understand challenges to interaction Develop system exploiting slides as mediating artifact to respond to challenges Evaluate impact of feedback NOT system FOCUS today. Understand how feedback system changes interaction Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 17

Challenge to Interaction: Feedback Lag t A student hesitates to pose a question until the instructor finishes a point. When the instructor moves on, the question seems out of place and is left unasked. EVIDENCE: Survey/focus group responses (3/12 in pilot; 5/11 in final) Lagged questions in video archives; Personal experience Steve Wolfman TRANS: built CFS in response to challenges WE Understanding and this Promoting 18

identified like oneInteraction Leaving Feedback on Current Slide t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 19 Leaving Feedback on Last Slide t Steve Wolfman

Understanding and Promoting Interaction 20 Instructor View t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 21 So, did it work? Retrospective Feedback t

Students response (n=12; 7 sessions; 150 students total): Imagine n=150! 29 episodes of retrospective feedback CFS helped all who reported feedback lag Instructors response: Adoption lessons for classroom tech. Not enough retrospect Retro. feedback is important; often responded Retro. feedback upset pacing Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

22 Prospective Feedback t What if a student leaves feedback ahead of the discussion? if Im smooth enough the class will just think Oh, hes going to talk about [that] now. [To them,] heres something that for some reason I Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction decided to talk about towards the

end of the slide.23 Prospective Feedback Episode t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 24 Contributions (CFS) t

Identified interaction challenges Proposed slide context as interaction medium Developed contextual feedback system Established potential for student feedback Discovered novel interaction patterns retrospective feedback: addressing feedback lag prospective feedback: enabled by computer-mediated communication Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 25 Outline t

Introduction Classroom Presenter Classroom Feedback System (CFS) and feedback patterns Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP) Conclusions Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 26 Conductor-of-Performances Model t Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) has been a move from sage-onthe-stage to guide-by-the-side. New CSCL systems will be much more like

the conductor-of-performances for an orchestra: students [will contribute] to an overall performance. Leader-of-theater? [Roschelle & Pea] Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 27 Goals of Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP) t Support the design, use, sharing, and reflection on the orchestras score. interactive exercises +

rich student data Mitigate slides passivity, oversimplification w/PPT-style design Maintain intuitive, flexible design + widgets Explore enabled interactions Understand how integrated exercises affect the classroom Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 28

EXPLAINING SIP by example Experimental class on Risk Assessment 24 students 50 minutes 6 SIP exercises Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc. Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction t 29 SIP Architecture Presenter + SIP exercises

Presentation design environment SQL back-end for reliability/archival reuse. t Instructor view Presentation/ Widget database Interactive widget design environment Pluggable widgets.

Support interactive version of PPT Understanding vision. Steve Wolfman and Promoting Interaction Viewer Viewer scrnsht Viewer scrnsht scrnshtviews Student 30 REMIND: exercises from experimentalt

class; REAL DATA Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 31 REMIND: exercises from experimentalt class; REAL DATA Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 32

t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 33 Distributed Human Computation (DHC) t Of those who died from What are the death rates receiving the vaccine, what for specific groups who percentage had comproreceived this vaccine? mised immune systems? Are these on the same or distinct topics? Which would you rather discuss?

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 34 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 35 DHC Results: Instructors View t Group winners

Group members Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 36 Experimental Class Results Interaction analysis (video/audio/logs): substantial engagement by students Student survey results t Factors supporting interaction: highlights particular strengths of integration

Factors hindering interaction: highlights important design lessons Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 37 98% participation in SIP exercises 4-7 interactions reported/student (median) 3 recorded voicings/student (72 total) Interaction Analysis 68% K-12 norm t

teacher talk (62%) student talk (15%) student discussion (13%) student thinking (5%)

other (5%) 0:00:00 Steve Wolfman 0:10:00 0:20:00 0:30:00 0:40:00 Understanding and Promoting Interaction 0:50:00 1:00:00 38

78% cited supporting factors EXCLUDING NOVELTY Factors Supporting Interaction (n=18) t % students Category Sharing responses w/ whole class 39 Participatory feel 33 Novelty 22 Anonymity 17 Forced to participate 17

Helps follow instructor 11 Neighbor discussion 6 None 6 anonymity encouraged honest participation Wolfman Interaction 39 I felt asSteve though I didnt have Understanding much choiceand butPromoting to participate I think this is a good thing. Did not respond

6 50% cited aspect hindering interaction Factors Hindering Interaction (n=18) Category None Distracting applications Distracted looking at my slides Did not respond Reduced coverage Lack of student control Pace too fast Pair discussions Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction Anti-climactic exercise

t % students 56 22 17 11 11 11 6 6 6 40 Contributions (SIP) t

Proposed score as role of slides as mediating artifact in orchestra CSCL model Developed prototype SIP system Designed novel interactive exercises (e.g., DHC, sampled quiz) Identified advantages and pitfalls of integrated interactivity Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 41 Conclusions Developed and evaluated widely-adopted Classroom Presenter system Developed and evaluated Classroom Feedback

System Developed and evaluated Structured Interaction Presentation System t Demonstrated how to exploit slides as mediating artifact across all three systems (e.g., separated views, contextual feedback, forced participation) Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 42 Systems FIT IN DISCUSSRelated HOW CP/CFS/SIP

Ubiquitous Computing: t eClass/Classroom 2000 [Abowd & Brotherton] ActiveClass [Griswold, Ratto, Truong, et al.] Cell-phone feedback [Brittain] Education/Educational Technology: ClassTalk [Dufresne] Debbie/DyKnow [Berque] WILD [Roschelle & Pea] HCI: Pebbles [Myers] Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

43 Related Pedagogy Active learning [Bonwell & Eison] Active learning in CS [McConnell] Classroom Assessment Techniques CATs [Angelo & Cross] CATs in CS [Schwarm & VanDeGrift] Collaborative Learning [Johnson & Johnson] Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction t 44

Acknowledgments Richard Anderson and the Committee Rachel Pottinger Education and Educational Technology Group Microsoft Research LST Group Experiment participants Faculty, staff, and students of UW CSE Intel, MERL, Microsoft, and NSF for funding Everyone

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction t 45 SPARES WARNING: overgeneralization, but borne out by research Modern Pedagogy vs. Modern Practice t active learning lecture

student-directed instructor-dominated interactive disconnected participatory passive ~80-90% lectures Thielens, 1987 Many ways to resolve tension: reduce class size, retrain instructors, etc. QUOTE RQ SLIDE Understanding and Promoting Interaction SteveON Wolfman

47 Pedagogy of Active Learning Encourage connected learning t Constructivism [Bruner] Social learning [Lave] Recapture flagging attention Attention studies [Stuart & Rutherford] Heart rate/memory [Bligh] Smiley plot Skin conductivity [Picard] Address varied learning styles Index of Learning Styles [Felder & Silverman]

Blooms taxonomy Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 48 Bruner (constr.) Lave (soc. Learning) Attention studies [Stuart & Rutherford] Heart rate/memory [Bligh] Skin conductivity [Picard] ILS [Felder & Silverman] Blooms taxonomy Large class challenges

t Maintaining attention CFS: 2.4 voicngs/class, Communication/Feedback 90-120 studs Tech problems in Spontaneous discussion distance Management of class activities Our experience & McConnell Steve Wolfman

Understanding and Promoting Interaction 49 Slides as Externalization/ Mediating Artifact Saljo: the significance of new technologies does not lie in t their enhancing learning in a linear sense the important point about new technologies is that they, if they are powerful enough, transform basic features of how people communicate knowledge and skills in society and how information is organised. In this sense, new media may imply that learning will become different. Technologies are ultimately about the regulation and improvement of human relationships Draw mental arith paper and pencil mem

Elec calculator --alg: communicates in familiar symbolic representation Steve Wolfman HK Understanding and Promoting Interaction Jade market : comm burden 50 CP

t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 51 Slideware Strengths/Weaknesses t Strengths Organization [PETTT] Preparation [PETTT]

Sharing [Bligh] Easy execution [Bligh] Preliminary studies indicated instructors needed: flexibility and contextual writing Steve Wolfman Weaknesses Passivity [PETTT] Simplified ideas [Tufte] Inflexibility [VanDeGrift] Immobility

PETTT studies suggest students like: organization Understanding and Promoting Interaction and preparation. 52 Slide previews with navigation t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 53 CFS t

Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 54 Design Experiment [Brown] t Discover what inhibits interaction Understand what makes a good design Design intervention Evaluate PIPE DREAM!

Iterative process: in particular, Ann Browns design experiment style Steve Wolfman Understanding Promoting Interaction 55 Still, will address theandsteps in this order. Feedback on Student View t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

56 Instructor View (2/3) t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 57 Instructor View (3/3) t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

58 Final evaluation iteration CFS Evaluation t Intro. programming course, summer 2002: 150 students, 12 participants w/laptops 9 week course, 3 weeks with CFS Data: observations, surveys, focus groups, interview w/instructor, logs Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 59

CFS increased interaction Voicings Voicings All inter- All but pre-CFS with CFS actions Got it # per class p-value Steve Wolfman 2.4 2.6 15.9 7.9

.91 .04* .14 Understanding and Promoting Interaction t 60 SIP t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

61 REMIND: exercises from experimentalt class; REAL DATA Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 62 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

63 t TRANS: DESIGN Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 64 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction

65 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 66 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 67

Experimental SIP Class Topic: Risk Assessment Duration: 50 minutes Students: 24, CS students, faculty, staff, each w/a Tablet PC Presentation included six SIP exercises. Steve Wolfman t Results: System successful 98% participation in SIP exercises 4-7 interactions per student (median) 62% teacher-talk

Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc. 62% T-T (compare to 68% K-12 norm) Median of 3-5 interactions through SIP Understanding and Promoting Interaction 68 Design Lessons t SIPs integrated exercises create participatory feel Students social expectations support participation SIP anonymity policies should be easy to specify and understand Student interface should present few distractions

Student interface should provide clear value (independent navigation and notetaking) Instructors must still motivate interactive pedagogy Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 69 t Steve Wolfman Understanding and Promoting Interaction 70

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