CHEMISTRY Its all about building blocks and how they bond together. Building blocks that are based on magnets. These allow more flexible angles than Legos or Tinkertoys. Bolts and nuts are connectors that require finding the matching size and thread. Electrons as connectors dont
have the restriction. PVC pipe connectors also require choosing a certain size, plus the choices of angles are very limited. Electrons are much more flexible. 1. Electric charge is of two types: Positive and negative 2. Unlike charges attract and like charges repel. +
_ + + Proton Neutron Electron
Electron: Both wave and particle Electrons sometimes behave like waves. Electrons bend and have interference like waves do. Electron: Both wave and particle Electrons as particles that orbit the nucleus.
Electrons as waves that oscillate around the nucleus Various wave patterns that an electron can have. Gilbert Lewis invents a chemistry learning technique for keeping track of the outer electrons.
Lewis Dot Structure Costello Hole-Punch Structure 5 ways of showing a carbon atom C Why atoms bond Why atoms bond H
2 Atoms who bond by sharing have an electron to share and a vacancy to accept an electron. COVALENT BONDING Why atoms dont bond Helium
Hydrogen If an atom has no vacancies (holes), then it wont accept any more electrons nor will it given any away. Lewis used dots to indicate the number of outer (valence) electrons around the atom of that element. He knew these dots would help students figure out how elements would combine. H
Li Mg S Al N C Ne Cl
O F Valence Electrons These outer electrons are called valence electrons. (valens is Latin meaning to be strong. The word valiant also comes from valens). Valence electrons give the elements the strength to react with other elements. Valence electrons
are given away, taken, or shared. This results in two elements combining (bonding) with each other. O Most GENEROUS" NON-METALS METALS
Most GREED _ HI HI Li Mg
Cl Mg Cl HI S _ + H Li
_ 2+ Cl Al N C
Ne Cl O F A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal. The metal becomes positive and the non-metal becomes negative. They now attract each other. +1 1 +2 H 2 Li
Be Na Mg K +3 -4 -3 -2 -1 13 14 15 16 17 He Ca Rb
3 7 9 C N O
F Ne 10 11 12 Al Si P S
4 5 6 Cl Ar Ti
V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Zr 8 B
Ag Cs Ba W Pt Au Hg Fr U
Pu I Pb Xe Rn Ne F
F O O O S Why eight?
Methane building blocks H H H C H C H H
H C H H 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz
Promotey sp3 sp3 sp3 sp3 Hybridize sp 3 x H
H C H H z Methane: Carbon H H C H H Dont worry about the details of this electron behavior, just appreciate the amazing ability that electrons have
in adjusting their angles and shapes to accommodate bonding to one or many atoms. Phosphorus Pentachloride PCl5 Cl P Cl Cl Cl P
Promoted sp 3d Trigonal Bipyramidal Again, dont worry about the details of this electron behavior, just appreciate the amazing ability that electrons have in adjusting their angles and shapes to accommodate bonding different kinds of atoms and different numbers of atoms. Phosphorus Pentachloride: Phosphorus
Here is another possible arrangement for phosphorus and chlorine. This time it shares just 3 of its electrons and accepts 3 electrons from the chlorine atoms. Cl PCl3 Phosphorus trichloride Hydrogen Cyanide
bond HCN C Sigma bondN bond H C Dont worry about the details of this bonding. Just
realize that simple formulas like HCN dont show the full story of how electrons pull hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen together. N sulfite SO2 turns to sulfurous acid when it contacts
water. O S -2 - O -
O (Sulfur dioxide SO2) Used as a preservative in wine for its antibacterial properties.. Sulfur dioxide may be used to fumigate fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf life, but 1 in 100 people are allergic to it. Occurs naturally in the atmosphere and as a pollutant from combustion of fuels that contain sulfur. Sulfur dioxide is one cause of acid rain. Wine & trail mix labels list SO2 as an ingredient rather than saying sulfurous acid.
SULFITE sulfite -2 O O O
S S S O S O O O
O O Su Su Su S ulf lfu l
lf u f u i te rd rt rm ri o iox on xid ide
ox e ide sulfate -2 O O S O O Su
lf a te Calcium Sulfate hemi-hydrate CaSO4 H2O Calcium Sulfate dihydrate CaSO4 2H2O White Sands, NM CaSO4 2H2O
White Sands, NM CaSO4 2 H2O Desert Rose Crystal Cave in Naica, Mexico CaSO42H2O Epsom Salts [MgSO4 7H20]
H2SO4 Sulfuric acid (battery acid) 2H+ + SO4-2 Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) (contrast medium for xrays) CHLORATES chlorite
Sodium hypochlorite perchlorate chlorate O O O
Cl Cl Cl Cl O Cl O
O O Cl2 - - ClO ClO2
O Cl O O - ClO3 Chlorate & perchlorate strong oxidizers When heated, metallic chlorates & perchlorates turn into salt plus oxygen. 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2
Fireworks, explosives, O2 for rocket fuel ClO4 - These negative ions will ionic bond with any positive ion such as metal ions. Sodium hypochlorite +
Na O Cl O NaClO Sodium hypochlorite K
+ O Cl O O KClO4 Potassium perchlorate AMMONIUM AMMONIA
- N - Ammonia is created in the body from digestion of proteins and amino acids. If theres an excess of nitrogen, the body converts it to urea, which is less toxic. Urea is expelled in the urine. Some babies are born without the enzymes to convert ammonia to urea, so they develop hyperammonemia, which is fatal or will
cause brain damage. Ammonia is formed when animal waste is decomposed by bacteria. AMMONIA +PROTON = Ammonium +1 -1 - N
- - O - Ammonia added to water will form ammonium hydroxide (cleaning ammonia) Ammonium nitrate: Fertilizer, explosives Ammonium chloride: conducts electricity inside
dry-cell batteries. Also used in cough medicines to hide the taste of bitter tasting medicines. Also used as expectorant. +1 The positive ammonium ion forms an ionic bond with any negative ion. -1 -
N - Cl (NH4)2SO4 Ammonium sulfate NH4Cl Ammonium chloride 2-
+1 - N - +1 O
O S O O - N - NITRATES/NITRITES N
N Nitrite O N O NO2 - Nitrate
-1 O N O O - NO3 -1 High nitrate levels in drinking
water can harm infants. Nitrate is converted into nitrite by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs. by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs causing blue baby syndrome The nitrite in the blood converts the hemoglobin in red blood cells to methemoglobin (meta + hemoglobin) The altered hemoglobin reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, causing a condition known as methemoglobinemia, or "blue baby syndrome because the baby turns blue due to lack of oxygen.
Na + Na _ Cl +
Cl - A sodium ion (Na+) will not bond with a chlorine atom. Na+ outer orbit is full and stable. + +
Na Cl Likewise, a sodium metal atom will not bond with the chloride ion (Cl -). Na - Cl
- Na Na Cl 2 Na +
Cl _ Na + _ Cl Na + _ Cl
Cl _ Na + NaCl (Sodium chloride) H 2 O 2
H H O C F FCF F FF
F F C F F FLUORINE FF CARBON Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms. They always
have carbon and often have other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Examples: Alcohol, Sugar, Fat, Protein Diversity within Same Element Diversity within Same Element Carbon as Graphite Diversity within Same Element Amorphous Carbon.
Lampblack Used in black inks in paints, copiers, ink-jet printers. Carbon connected as spheres CARBON NANOTUBES COMPOUNDS Hydrogen Carbon
Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons (covalent bonds) or have taken or given electrons away (ionic bonds). Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen
8 (+) Oxygen 8 protons 10 (-) 10 electrons -2 Charge 8 outer electrons 3 kinds of graphic elements build a brick Brick becomes building block for a layer of bricks Layer of bricks becomes building block for wall of bricks
INORGANIC Quartz Silicon dioxide Silicon is in the same group (column) as carbon, so it also has 4 outer electrons. This allows it to connect to two oxygen atoms to form SiO2, or it can connect to 4 oxygen atoms when it is stacked with other silicon and oxygen atoms as shown. (Silver
balls are silicon). Si (Weight) Oxygen 50% & Silicon 30 Main building blocks of minerals The other common elements in order of abundance are the metals aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Minerals usually contain metal ion ionically bonded to a group of non-metals that are covalently bonded to other non-metals. Example: Emerald.
Be2Al2(SiO3)6. Be (beryllium) ions are +2 each. Al (aluminum) ions are +3 each. They have an ionic bond with six SiO3 (silicate) ions. The SiO3 ions are -2 each. Silicon and oxygen are covalently bonded.
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