10 Stock Offerings and Investor Monitoring Chapter Objectives

10 Stock Offerings and Investor Monitoring Chapter Objectives

10 Stock Offerings and Investor Monitoring Chapter Objectives describe the private equity market describe investor participation in the stock markets describe the process of initial public offerings describe the process of secondary offerings describe the investment in foreign stock markets

2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1 Private Equity Private equity (private firm) is a business that is privately held and the equity is not traded in public stock exchange. Some business owners hope to go public so that: They can obtain financing to support the firms growth They can cash out by selling their original equity investment to others. A public offering is feasible if: The owners want to sell at least $50 million in stock. The shareholder base will be large enough to support an active secondary market. 2

2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Private Equity Financing by Venture Capital Funds Venture capital funds (VC funds) receive money from wealthy investors and from pension funds that are willing to maintain the investment for a long-term period, such as 5 or 10 years. Investors are not allowed to withdraw their money before a specified deadline. 3 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Private Equity Financing by Venture Capital Funds (cont.) Venture Capital Market Terms of a Venture Capital Deal 4 Brings together the private businesses that need equity funding and the VC funds that can provide funding.

A VC fund will negotiate the terms of the deal when it decides to invest in a business. The VC fund will set out requirements for the business and VC fund managers may serve as advisers to the business. 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Private Equity Financing by Venture Capital Funds (cont.) Exit Strategy of VC Funds VC funds typically plan to exit in 4 to 7 years by selling the equity stake to the public.

Performance of VC Funds 5 Tends to vary over time 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Private Equity Financing by Private Equity Funds 6

Private equity funds pool money provided by institutional investors (such as pension funds and insurance companies) and invest in businesses. They also rely heavily on debt to finance their investments. Unlike VC, private equity funds take over businesses and mange them. Their target are overvalued and mismanaged. They sell their stake in the business after several years. 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Public Equity When a firm goes public, it issues stock in the primary market in exchange for cash. Going public has two effects on the firm. It changes the firms ownership structure by increasing the number of owners.

It changes the firms capital structure by increasing the equity investment in the firm. The secondary market allows investors to sell the stock they previously purchased to other investors. 7 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Public Equity Ownership and Voting Rights In publicly traded firms, most shareholders are not the managers. Ownership of common stock entitles shareholders to a number of rights. Normally, only the owners of common stock are

permitted to vote on certain key matters concerning the firm. Many investors assign their vote to management through the use of a proxy. 8 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Public Equity Preferred stock - represents an equity interest in a firm that usually does not allow for significant voting rights. Preferred shareholders share the ownership of the firm with common shareholders and are therefore compensated only when earnings have been generated. A cumulative provision on most preferred stock prevents

dividends from being paid on common stock until all preferred stock dividends have been paid. Because the dividends on preferred stock can be omitted, a firm assumes less risk when issuing it than when issuing bonds. Dividends are not tax-deductible for the firm, making preferred stock less desirable than bonds. 9 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Public Equity Participation in Stock Markets Investors can be classified as individual or institutional Individual investments commonly exceeds 50% of the total equity. Because of the size of investment, institutional investors can

significantly affect stock market prices. 10 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 10.2 Institutional Use of Stock Markets 11 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Public Equity How Investor Decisions Affect Stock Prices When there is a shift in the demand for shares or the supply of shares for sale, the equilibrium price changes.

Overall, the prevailing market price is determined by the participation of investors in aggregate. Investor Reliance on Information In general, favorable news about a firms performance will make investors believe that the firms stock is undervalued at its prevailing price. Information is incorporated into stock prices through its impact on investors demand for shares and the supply of shares for sale by investors. 12 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings A first-time offering of shares by a specific firm to the public.

Process of Going Public 13 Developing a Prospectus - The issuer must develop a prospectus containing detailed information about the firm, including financial statements and a discussion of risks. The prospectus is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Road show Pricing - the offer price at which the shares will be offered at the time of the IPO. Allocation of IPO Shares: Most of shares are sold to institutional investors. Costs of IPO - Usually 10% of the funds raised.

2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings Underwriter Efforts to Ensure Price Stability Underwriters may attempt to stabilize the stocks price by purchasing shares that are for sale in the secondary market shortly after the IPO. Lockup Prevents the original owners of the firm and the VC firms from selling their shares for a specified period (usually 6 months from the date of IPO). Timing of IPOs Initial public offerings tend to occur more frequently during bullish stock markets. 14

2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings Initial Returns of IPOs The initial (first-day) return of IPOs in the United States has averaged about 20 percent over the last 30 years. 15 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings Facebooks IPO On May 18, 2012, Facebook engaged in an IPO that generated $16 billion. Facebooks opening price was $38/share. The price fluctuated

through the day with a high of about $43 and ended at $38.23. Three months after the opening, the price fell to $20/share. On Feb 20, 2015, $79.89. 16 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings Abuses in the IPO Market Distorted Financial Statements - Even though financial statements to summarize revenue, expenses, and financial condition, accountants still have much flexibility in their reporting process, and therefore still can exaggerate earnings. 17

2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Initial Public Offerings Long-Term Performance Following IPOs There is strong evidence that, on average, IPOs of firms perform poorly over a period of a year or longer. From a long-term perspective, many IPOs are overpriced at the time of the issue. This weak performance may be partially attributed to irrational valuations at the time of the IPO, which are corrected over time. 18 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stock Offerings and Repurchases

Secondary Stock Offerings A secondary stock offering is a new stock offering by a specific firm whose stock is already publicly traded. Corporations sometimes direct their sales of stock toward their existing shareholders by giving them preemptive rights. Stock Repurchases Firms tend to repurchase some of their shares when share prices are at very low levels. Many stock repurchase plans are viewed as a favorable signal. 19 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stock Exchanges Organized Exchanges

Each organized exchange has a trading floor where floor traders execute transactions in the secondary market for their clients. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Listing Requirements - minimum number of shares outstanding and a minimum level of earnings, cash flow, and revenue over a recent period. 20 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stock Exchanges Over-the-Counter Market Stocks not listed on the organized exchanges are traded in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. Nasdaq - National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic

Quotations (Nasdaq), which is an electronic quotation system that provides immediate price quotations. OTC Bulletin Board - lists stocks that have a price below $1 per share, which are sometimes referred to as penny stocks. Pink Sheets - The OTC market has where even smaller stocks are traded. Some of the stocks have very little trading volume and may not be traded at all for several weeks. 21 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stock Exchanges Extended Trading Sessions The NYSE and Nasdaq market offer extended trading sessions beyond normal trading hours.

Market liquidity during the extended trading sessions is limited. 22 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stock Exchanges Stock Quotations Provided by Exchanges 52-Week Price Range - The stocks highest price and lowest price over the previous 52 weeks Symbol - Each stock has a specific symbol that is used to identify the firm. Dividend - The annual dividend. Dividend Yield - Annual dividend per share as a percentage of the stocks prevailing price.

23 Price-Earnings Ratio - stock price per share divided by the firms earnings per share generated over the last year. Volume - the volume of shares traded on the previous day. The volume is normally quoted in hundreds of shares. Closing Price. 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Stock Exchanges Stock Index Quotations Dow Jones Industrial Average - value-weighted average of stock prices of 30 large U.S. firms in NYSE. Standard & Poors 500 - a value-weighted index of stock prices of 500 largest U.S. firms. Wilshire 5000 Total Market Index - contains more than 5,000 stocks; is the broadest index of the U.S. stock market. New York Stock Exchange Indexes - The Composite Index is the average of all stocks traded on the NYSE. Nasdaq Stock Indexes - indexes of stocks traded on the Nasdaq. Finance.yahoo.com 24 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Stock Exchanges Private Stock Exchanges Prior to an IPO, some private firms list their private shares on a private stock exchange. Advantages Allows owners to obtain cash Purchasers may be able to pay a lower price than when a firm goes with IPO. Disadvantages Investors need to register with the private exchange and prove that they have sufficient income Limited information available to investor Trading volume is limited 25 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Globalization of Stock Markets Methods Used to Invest in Foreign Stocks. Direct Purchases - Investors can easily invest in stocks of foreign companies that are listed on the local stock exchanges. American Depository Receipts - certificates representing shares of non-U.S. stock. Many non-U.S. companies establish ADRs in order to develop name recognition in the United States. International Mutual Funds - portfolios of international stocks created and managed by various financial institutions. International Exchange-Traded Funds - Passive funds that track a specific index. International ETFs represent international stock indexes, and they have become popular in the last few years. 26 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Homework Assignment 9 Chapter 10 Questions and applications: 1, 3, 4, 7,10, 11, 12 Problem: Dividend Yield 27 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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