Japanese Oak Wilt Raffaelea quercivora Japanese Oak Wilt

Japanese Oak Wilt Raffaelea quercivora Japanese Oak Wilt

Japanese Oak Wilt Raffaelea quercivora Japanese Oak Wilt (JOW) Symbiotic ambrosia fungus (Ophiostomataceae) Vector: Oak Ambrosia Beetle (OAB), Platypus quecivorus 2002: Beetle-vector complex discovered Image credits: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/nprg-r_quercivora.pdf

Distribution of JOW Vector-limited distribution Occurs in temperate to broadleaf mixed forests Currently isolated to Japan Image credits: Tokyoship - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15683093 Reported Host Range of JOW Successfully re-isolated from inoculated and symptomatic or dead seedlings of:

Konara Oak, Quercus serrata Mongolian Oak, Q. mongolica Northern Red Oak, Q. rubra Pin Oak, Q. palustris Scarlet Oak, Q. coccinea Potentially susceptible hosts include: Japanese Chinquapin, Castanopsis sieboldii Ring-Cup Oak, Q. glauca Potential Distribution of JOW

Image credits: Soil climate map, USDA-NRCS, Soil Science Division, World Soil Resources, Washington D.C., http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/use/?cid=nrcs142p2_054002 Damage Image credits: Photos by Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Bugwood.org IDs-5518023 & 5518022 Signs & Symptoms of JOW Typical wilt symptoms are visible 2-3 months post infection and tree death occurs within 1st season or next spring Image credits: Wilted leaves by Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Bugwood.org ID-5518022; Fungus-stained crosssection example of Laurel Wilt by Albert (Bud) Mayfield, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org ID-UGA5005056

Fungal Morphology Colonies: pale/brown olive, < 80mm diameter Hyphae: hyaline, septate, smooth, branched Conidiophores produced in sporodochia or separately Conidia: short, slimy, clubshaped Genus Raffaelea lacks a known sexual stage Image credits: Conidia and conidiophores on PDA by Kubono and Ito 2002 Disease Cycle Image credits: Adult Oak Ambrosia Beetle by Joseph Benzel, Screening Aids, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org ID-5541203; Bore holes

and wilted leaves by Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Bugwood.org IDs-5518018 & 5518022; Platypus spp. galleries by William Fountain, University of Kentucky, Bugwood.org ID-5388182 Monitoring Scout for signs of OAB Take note of any level of infestation, i.e. frass and boring holes Detection, Delimiting, and Monitoring Surveys conducted as needed by plant regulatory officials

Above: Whitish frass on leaves next to an OAB-infested tree Below: Entrance hole of OAB Image credits: Frass and entrance hole by Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Bugwood.org IDs-5518015 & 5518016 Chemical Control No known treatment exists Inject preventative fungicide into healthy trees Benomyl (cancelled by EPA) and triforine Potential use of metam-ammonium injections to reduce mortality

Insecticidal control of OAB Trunk sprays, adhesives, and plastic wraps If formulation not labeled for necessary use, Emergency Exemption under FIFRA Section 18 Cultural Control & Sanitation Maintain healthy oaks to deter beetle attacks* Fumigate infected material with N-methyl-N(m-tolyl)dithiocarbamic acid sodium salt during fall and winter Remains to be chipped and burned Clear cutting as a preventative *OAB still attacks healthy trees, but stressed trees may be more susceptible.*

Lookalikes Bacterial Leaf Scorch Xylella fastidiosa Oak Anthracnose Oak Wilt Ceratocystis fagacearum Image credits: Oak Wilt by Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org ID-5506095; Oak Anthracnose by Joseph OBrien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org ID-UGA5030057; Bacterial Leaf Scorch by Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware, Bugwood.org ID-5427648 Apiognomonia

errabunda Suspect Sample Submissions Contact your State Department of Agriculture or University Cooperative Extension laboratory http://www.npdn.org/home PPQ form 391, Specimens for Determination https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/form s/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf

An example of a PPQ form for sample submissions Image credits: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/forms/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf Communications Contact your State Plant Health Director https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ ourfocus/planthealth/ppq-program -overview/ct_sphd Contact your State Plant Regulatory Official

http://nationalplantboard.org/me mbership / Image credits: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome; http://nationalplantboard.org/ Author and Publication Dates Nicole Casuso Graduate Assistant, DPM Student, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville Eric LeVeen, DPM State Survey Coordinator, FDACS-DPI CAPS, Gainesville

Amanda Hodges, Ph.D. Associate Extension Scientist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville Publication date: October 2016 Reviewers Catherine A. Marzolf Assistant State Plant Health Director, USDA APHIS PPQ Educational Disclaimer and Citation This presentation can be used for educational purposes for NON-PROFIT workshops, trainings, etc.

Citation: Casuso, Nicole; Eric LeVeen, Amanda Hodges. 2016. Japanese oak wilt Raffaelea quercivora. Accessed (add a date) www.protectingusnow.org Our Partners United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA) United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA APHIS PPQ) Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey (CAPS) Program National Plant Board (NPB)

States Department of Agriculture Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (Bugwood) National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) U.S. Forest Service (USFS) References 1. Batra, L. R. 1967. Ambrosia fungi: a taxonomic revision, and nutritional studies of some species. Mycologia 59(6):976-1017. Accessed 6/15/16 http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3757271.pdf?_=1466533422819

2. Davis. E., S. French, and R. C. Venette. 2005. Mini Risk Assessment: Ambrosia beetle: Platypus quercivorus Murayama [Coleoptera: Platypodidae]. University of Minnesota and USDA Forest Service. Accessed 6/15/16. https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/CAPS/pdf/datasheets/OakAmbrosiaBeetle.pdf 3. Davis, E. E., R. C. Venette, and E. M. Albrecht. 2010h. Oak commodity based survey. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST-CAPS. 1-298 pp. Accessed 6/15/16. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/604 4.

D'Arcy, C. J. , D. M. Eastburn, and G. L. Schumann. 2001. Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology. The Plant Health Instructor. Accessed 6/15/16 http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/illglossary/Pages/default.aspx References 5. EPPO. 2011. Data sheets on quarantine pests: Ceratocystis fagacearum and its vectors. Accessed 6/15/16. https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/data_sheets/fungi/CERAFA_ds.pdf 6. 7.

8. ESRI. 2005. World wildlife fund terrestrial ecoregions. Published by ESRI 2005, dataset adapted by USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T-CPHST-PERAL, 2011. IUFRO. 2012. Japanese oak wilt and its control. Alien invasive species and international trade, 3rd meeting of International Union of Forest Research Organizations Working Unit (IUFRO) 7.03.12, June 10-16, 2012, Tokyo, Japan. Kamata, N., K. Esaki, K. Kato, H. Oana, Y. Igeta, and R. Komura. 2007. Japanese oak wilt as a newly emerged forest pest in Japan: Why does a symbiotic ambrosia fungus kill host trees? USDA-APHIS-PPQ. 1-3 pp. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs-p-10/gtr_nrs-p-10_001.pdf?

References 9. Kato, K., H. Oana, N. Kakiuchi, M. Mikage, N. Kamata, and K. Esaki. 2003. Induced response of oak trees to Raffaelea quercivora as a possible defense against Japanese oak wilt caused by the ambrosia fungus carried by an ambrosia beetle [Abstract]. Proccedings: IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 "Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences":137. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.uf.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~kamatan/symp/iufro2003kanazawa/ proceedings/15_1300_Kamata_ABS.pdf 10. Kinuura, H. 2002. Relative dominance of the mold fungus, Raffaelea sp., in the mycangium and proventriculus in relation to adult stages of the oak

platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Journal of Forestry Research 7(1):7-12. Accessed 6/15/16. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02762592 References 11. Kinuura, H., and M. Kobayashi. 2006. Death of Quercus crispula by inoculation with adult Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 41(1):123-128. Accessed 6/15/16. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110004656433.pdf?id=ART0007381465&type=pdf&lang=en &host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1466534450&cp= 12. Kobayashi, M., and A. Ueda. 2003. Observation of mass attack and artificial reproduction in Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology

47(2):53-60. Accessed 6/15/16. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjaez/47/2/47_2_53/_pdf 13. Kubono, T., and S.-I. Ito. 2002. Raffaelea quercivora sp. nov. associated with mass mortality of Japanese oak, and the ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus). Mycoscience 43(3):255-260. Accessed 6/15/16 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs102670200037#page-1 References 14. Kuroda, K., Y. Kanbara, T. Inoue, and A. Ogawa. 2006. Magnetic resonance micro-imaging of xylem sap distribution and necrotic lesions in tree stems. IAWA Journal 27(1):3-17. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www2.kobe-u.ac.jp/~kurodak/MRI2006.pdf

15. Kuroda K, K. Osumi, and H. Oku. 2011. Reestablishing the health of secondary forests Satoyama endangered by Japanese oak wilt: A preliminary report. JAERD. 4(9), pp 192-198. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JAERD/article-full-text-pdf/59052AE3635 16. Matsuda, Y., M. Torii, T. Yamada, and S. Ito. 2012. Lessons from fungal inoculation experiments: How oak trees wilt and die by the infection of Japanese oak wilt pathogen? International Symposium on Oak Forest Preservation, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul, Korea. pp 1-10. http://www.bio.mie-u.ac.jp/junkan/busshitsu/lab2/Abstract_matsuda0731_ final.pdf References 17. Mycobank. 2016. Accessed 6/15/16.

http://www.mycobank.org/ 18. Seo, M. Y., Y. Matsuda, C. Nakashima, and S. Ito. 2012. Taxonomic reevaluation of Raffaelea quercivora isolates collected from mass mortality of oak trees in Japan. Mycoscience 53(3):211-219. Accessed. 6/15/16 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10267-011-0154-z#page-1 19. Shiono, Y., M. Hagam, H. Koyama, T. Murayama, and T. Koseki. 2013. Antifungal activity of a polyacetylene against the fungal pathogen of Japanese oak from the liquid culture of the edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus. Zeitschrift fr Naturforschung B 68(3):293-300. Accessed 6/15/16 http://www.degruyter.com/dg/viewarticle.fullcontentlink:pdfeventlink/$002fj$002fzn b.2013.68.issue-3$002fznb.2013-2289$002fznb.2013-2289.pdf?t:ac=j $002fznb.2013.68.issue-3$002fznb.2013-2289$002fznb.2013-2289.xml

20. Smith, W. B., P. D. Miles, C. H. Perry, and S. A. Pugh. 2009. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007 (GTR-WO-78), Washington, DC. 1-336 pp. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/pubs/gtr/gtr_wo78.pdf References 21. USDA Forest Service. 2011. Oak Wilt: Red oaks die quickly; white oaks may recover. 1-3 pp. Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5347329.pdf 22. USDA-APHIS-PPQ. 2015. New Pest Response Guidelines: Raffaelea quercivora Kubono & Shin. Ito Japanese Oak Wilt. Accessed 6/15/16. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/download

s/nprg-r_quercivora.pdf 23. Yamada, T., Y. Ichihara, and K. Hori. 2003. Defense responses of oak trees against the fungus Raffaelea quercivora vectored by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus. pp. 132-135 in Proceedings: IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 "Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences". Accessed 6/15/16. http://www.uf.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~kamatan/symp/iufro2003kanazawa/ proceedings/P30_Yamada.pdf

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