Counterinsurgency and the Education of the GEOINT Professional

Counterinsurgency and the Education of the GEOINT Professional

Counterinsurgency and the Education of the GEOINT Professional Todd S. Bacastow Professor of Practice for Geospatial Intelligence John A. Dutton e-Education Institute The Pennsylvania State University August 5, 2008 Counterinsurgency is military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. Joint Pub 1-02/ FM 3-24 /MCWP 3-33.5, p. 1-1 U.S. Army Spc. Roger Rich visits with an Iraqi child during a stop in a village near the city of Musayyib, Iraq, while on a civil affairs mission, June 12, 2005. Rich is assigned to Scout Platoon, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, part of the 155th Brigade Combat Team. U.S. Navy photo by Chief Petty Officer Edward G. Martens. Irregular Warfare (IR), Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW), Limited Wars, or whatever other moniker the army has put on counterinsurgency (COIN), peacekeeping, peaceenforcement, etc., have traditionally received short shrift from the military education system.

COIN 101 - Principles Its about Firepower is not the answer The goal is to provide a secure Cut the insurgent off from support of the people I Iraq, Jan. 30, 2005: An Iraqi man shows off his ink-stained finger after casting his ballot at a polling station in Jisr Diala on the southern outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq. (AP Wide World Photo/John Moore). COIN 101 - Phases Source: RAND, 2008 COIN 101 Intelligence

Conventional conflict COIN Source: RAND, 2008 Whats education? Education is concerned with the development of the intellect Training deals with learning specific skills Education is a personal activity Training is developing skills for others sis of imag ery and geos patial infor matio n to descr ibe,

asse ss, and visua lly depic t physi cal featu res and geog raphi cally refer ence d activi ties on the Earth a mean s of

Title 10 U.S. Code 467 Brigadier Nick Rigby former Director of Intelligence for the UK Ministry of Defense Geospatial Intelligence GEOINT Whats geospatial intelligence? Geospatial intelligence Cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854 Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), a legendary figure in Geospatial intelligence professional No adequate definition since the field is too new Broad competency areas

Technical Situational Analytical Personal After: Building the Geospatial Workforce Cyndi H. Gaudet, Heather M. Annulis, and Jon C. Carr URISA Journal Vol. 15, No. 1 2003 PSU Geospatial Intelligence Program GEOG 882 GEOG 883 GEOG 884 IST 885 GEOG 889 PSU vs ABCA Report

Many of Penn States educational objectives miss the needs of geospatial intelligence professional the COIN domain. # 10 - Legal Awa ren ess C ur re nt al iss ues ass oci ate d wit h dat

a coll ecti on and hu ma n righ ts N ee de d # 9 - Geospatial Curr ent Coll ect data for man ipul atio n

ols to Forensics coll ect, pro ces s, saf egu ard, and eval uat e spa tial dat a as evi den ce #8- ona

ng l/ the Language/Communications inte prof rnat essi ion ona al l for cart effe ogr ctiv aph e ic cro sta ss nda cult rds ural /

C N ee de d ur re nt Soviet era map symbols #7 Und erst Organizational andi ng the US intell igen ce com

mun ity Cu rre nt glob al NG Os, and forei gn age ncie s Cust ome r relat ions hip man age men t

Ne ed ed map of NATO PRTs in Afghanistan, valid as at 20 April 2007. [23] A full-size version of this map is available at: # 6 App Working with roac hed in an ad hoc man ner C ur re nt truc openture source

d text , har d and soft cop y ma ps, atla ses, gaz ette ers, hu ma n terr ain dat a (cul tura #5

ting for mat Working s Dat a abo ut the ope nphy sica l envi ron men t C ur re nt App lyin

g ron men with data t Cre atin g SDI -like data org aniz atio ns Cre atin g data stru ctur es Ana lyzi ng data Iraqi survey data collectors speak with a qual

village elder during the course of the first phase of the Landmine Impact Survey. http: ity N #4 tain men Add t Ima ge proc essi ng Buff erin g Ove rlay C ur re

nt to anal ysis the toolset Tre nd anal ysis Net wor k anal ysis Diff usio n mod elin g Pre dicti ve mod elin g/ga

min g A Social Network Analysis of the Iranian Government, [November, 2001] # 3 Ethics education Awa ren ess C ur re nt iss ues wit h res pec t to dat a coll ecti on

and ana lyti cal pra ctic e N ee de d ed # 2 Culture Curr ent Awa ren ess Eva luat ing the imp

act of cult ure on dat a coll ecti on and ana lyti c res ults Fairfax County Police, #1 d Geospatial analyticmet thinking hod Wor

s to kflo hel ws p ove C rco ur me hu re ma nt n We recommend the following GIS workflow: cog niti 1. Define the problem or scenario. 2. Identify the deliverables (mostly maps)ve needed to support the decision. 3. Identify, collect, organize, and examinelimi the data needed to address the problem. tati 4. Document your work:

ons a. Create a process summary. or b. Document your map. c. Set the environments. pitf 5. Prepare your data. alls 6. Create a basemap. 7. Perform your analysis. 8. Produce the deliverables, draw conclusions, and present your results. Our World GIS Education Level 4: Making Spatial Decisions, ESRI Geospatial analytic thinking The geospatial professional should: Understand the cognitive biases and fallacies Apply appropriate geospatial techniques for creating and testing hypothesis rational choice theory utility theory game theory, etc. Evaluate temporal-spatial trend analysis and spatial correlation Apply forecasting methods in the geospatial

domain decision tree analysis analytic hierarchy process alternative scenarios/futures Delphi technique Lockwood Analytical Method for Prediction (LAMP) Summary Physical Human Open terrain Closed terrain Data Evidence Top down Bottom up Individual Team Descriptive Predictive Workflows Analytic process We must cease confusing mastery of software commands with attaining a grasp of critical intellectual concepts.

U.S. Army Maj. Robert Holbert takes notes as he talks and drinks tea with local school and Andar Special Needs School administrators during a cordon and search of Nani, Afghanistan, on June 2, 2007. Holbert is attached to the Human Terrain Team, 4th Brigade Combat Team. DoD photo by Staff Sgt. Michael L. Casteel, U.S. Army. (Released) Key References Counterinsurgency Warfare, Galula, 1964 The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation, Lind, 1989 Field Manual 100-7, Decisive Force: The Army In Theater Operations, 1995 Military Operations Other Than War Briefing Slides and Script, J7, undated The Information Edge: Imagery Intelligence and geospatial Information in an Evolving National Security Environment, NIMA, 2000

Developing the Geospatial Workforce, Gaudet, 2001 GIS & T Body of Knowledge, DiBiase, 2003 Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, Nagl, 2005 Army-Marine Corps Counter Insurgency Field Manual, January 2007 ABBA Report, 2007 USGIF Accreditation Standards, 2007

A Conceptual Framework for Facilitating Geospatial Thinking, Golledge, 2008 Analytic Support to Intelligence in Counterinsurgency, RAND, 2008 International Association for Intelligence Education Conference, June 2008 The Future of Intelligence Co-operation between Military Forces and Private Security Companies based on Lessons Learned in Iraq" Strachan-Morris, Mar 2008 Taxonomy of Structured Analytic Techniques, Presentation, IAFIE Conference, June 2008 Insurgency/Counter-Insurgency: Does the U.S. Army "Get It," Reynolds, June 2008

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