Energy Future @ Carleton By Richard Strong, Director
Energy Future @ Carleton By Richard Strong, Director of Facilities Minnesota Fuel Mix for Electricity Carleton Energy Use 1987-2003 250000 200000 150000 Total MMBTU Fuel MMBTU Electrical MMBTU BTU per SQFT 100000 50000 0
Five yearAverage Carleton Energy Use 1987-2003 BTU Per Square Foot since 1987 120,000 100,000 BTUs 80,000 Five Year Average BTU 60,000 BTUs per SQFT 40,000 20,000
0 Year Carleton Energy Use 1987-2003 Kilowatt-Hours/SQFT 12 10 Kilowatt-hours 8 6 4 2 0 KWHs per SQFT
Five yearAverage Cost for Energy 1900-2002 Ulilities Cost for 1995-2002 $1,600,000.00 $1,400,000.00 $1,200,000.00 Dollars $1,000,000.00 Electricity Steam $800,000.00 Chiller Water and Sewer Energy Management $600,000.00 $400,000.00
$200,000.00 $0.00 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 Year 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 Cost per CCF of Natural Gas Yearly Average Cost of of Natural Gas ($ per CCF) $8.00 $ per CCF $6.99
Price in US $ of year purchased $7.00 $6.20 $6.00 $5.82 $5.63 $5.00 $4.55 $4.00 $4.07 $3.00 $2.00 $2.47 $2.80
$2.69 $2.84 $1.00 $0.00 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 $ per CCF $2.47 $2.80 $2.69 $2.84 $4.07 $5.63 $4.55 $5.82 $6.20 $6.99 Year Total Annual Cost of Natural Gas Yearly Total Cost of of Natural Gas ($ per MCF) $1,200,000 $1,029,763 Price in US $ of year purchased $1,000,000 $815,793
Carleton Emissions Survey Total GHG emissions have increased by nearly 40% since 1990. Emissions per student, increased from around 8 metric tons/student to almost 12. Electricity emissions increased even when additional building area was accounted for. 0 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 Total Emissions per Student (Metric Tonnes eCO2 / Student FTE)
1990 Total Emissions per square foot (Metric Tonnes eCO2 / ft2 ) Emissions per Building Area Metric Tonnes eCO2 / Square Foot Building Space 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002
Heating and Electrical Emissions per Building Area Heating and Electrical GHG Emissions per 1000sqft (in metric tons of eCO2) 9.00 8.00 7.00 Heating GHG emissions per 1000sqft 6.00 Electricity GHG emissions per 1000sqft 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00
Carletons Emissions Sources Transport Total 9% Stationary Sources 36% Refrigeration 0% Agriculture Total 0% Solid Waste 0% Purchased Electricity 55%
65 mt 3% Faculty & Staff Commuting 1018 mt 45% If We Believe This 2006 Or If We Believe This And If This Happens World Population Growth, 17502150 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision; and estimates by the Population Reference Bureau. And This Happens at the Same Time And This
Should the U.S. Fear Rise of China, India? AMERICANS are having another Sputnik moment: One of those periodic alarms about some foreign technological and economic menace. It was the Soviets in the 1950s and early 1960s, the Germans and the Japanese in the 1970s and 1980s, and now it's the Chinese and the Indians. -Robert Samuelson, The Business Times, 26 May 2005 And If Economics Works in This Case 17 Years 2006 2023 Energy Transition Plan We need a transition plan for 1-15 year time period, 2006-2020 Phase One Conservation/Reduction
Phase Two Efficiency/Conversion Phase Three Transition Phase 1: 2006-09 Conservation Lower temperature in the winter (680F)/higher in the summer (780F) Manage plug load Good management practices Calibration of system Building new buildings at 40,000 BTU/Sqft rather than the 98,000 BTU/Sqft average Change lighting sources (same light for less energy) CFL/Super 8s Phase 2: 2010-13 Efficiencies/Conversion Hedging on energy markets
Interruptible electric energy sources Additional Building Insulation Metering and Building controls Double/Triple pain windows Co-Generation (on campus, within the community) Additional wind turbines interconnect to the campus Commissioning of systems Phase 3: 2014-2020 Year Transition Rebuilding building systems Self generation of energy Alternate fuels Hydrogen Bio-Mass Ethanol Solar Wind Bio-Diesel Common Energy Conservation
Energy Paybacks 1-2 Years Seal Air Leaks (Looking at this) Seal Ducts (Looking at this) Programmable Thermostat (Building Automation System) Insulated Water Heaters (We dont have Water Heaters) Heating Tune up (Commissioning of Science Buildings) Efficient Shower Heads (Start Program) 2-5 Years Flooring Insulation (Not Possible)
3-7 Years Ceiling Insulation (Change with re-roofing) 4-10 Years Storm Windows (Have completed) 5-20 Years Furnace Replacement (When they reach their life cycle) 6-12 Years Wall Insulation (Difficult) 15-20 Years Window Replacement Energy Proposals CO2 Detectors plus Drives at: Recreation Center, West Gym, Cowling Gym, Hullings and Library Commissioning Studies at: Hullings, Mudd, Olin, Library, and Leighton Pools Covers at: Cowling and West Gym Metering of all Buildings Lighting Retofits at: Steam Trap Replacement Recreation Center, West and
Cowling Gym Three Challenges for the Next 15 Years Where to prioritize our efforts in short run When to invest in newer technologies Opportunity to save against future price increases vs. ongoing cost reductions and improved efficiencies as technologies mature Building Collaborations that benefit Carleton and expand our market and economic base eg. Other colleges or organizations in Northfield or beyond.
gettering. capability. Low atomic number . Absence of chemical sputtering. High thermal . conductivity. Current design: - Thickness of tiles 8-10 mm, Various tile sizes (e.g. 12x12 mm, 25x25mm, 50x50mm) Total amount of beryllium: Net weight ~12 tons. Beryllium ....
Population-level accessibility. 91% of children < age 2 had at least one well child visit in 2011. Early and frequent contact: Begins at infancy with preventive care based (immunization and screening) schedules for 13 to 15+ contacts through age 5
OSAP is an integrated program funded by both the federal and provincial government - ONE payment; ONE repayment. OSAP provides needs-based assistance through loans and grants to help qualified students and families with the cost of postsecondary studies.
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Threats to Conclusion Validity Author: William Trochim Keywords: conclusion validity threats Description: Reviews the threats to conclusion validity. Last modified by: Lesley Adams Created Date: 2/11/1995 1:31:40 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles
Preporučuje se međuredni razmak od 50 cm, mada se soja može sejati i na 70 cm međuredno, ali tada treba sejati gušće u redu da bi se ostvarili gore navedeni sklopovi. Dubina setve je 4-5 cm, zavisno od osobina zemljišta....
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