THE SKELETAL/ MUSCULAR SYSTEM Maame Kwarkye Joon Bak

THE SKELETAL/ MUSCULAR SYSTEM Maame Kwarkye Joon Bak

THE SKELETAL/ MUSCULAR SYSTEM Maame Kwarkye Joon Bak Ana Recio Dalia Simmons SKELETAL and MUSCULAR SYSTEM MAIN FUNCTIONS: SUPPORT PROTECTION

STORAGE BLOOD CELL FORMATION The skeletal/muscular system is responsible for keeping organs away from damage, storing fat as well as certain minerals, and creating blood components. continued The human body has about 650 skeletal muscles

All skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton There are 206 bones total in the human body Bone structure provide a flexible and protective frame for vital organs Skeletons 1) Protection (skull, ribs cage, etc.) 2) Support 3) Movement (lever systems)

In vertebrates: 4) Responsible for blood cell production 5) Store minerals Three main types of skeletons: Hydrostatic skeletons Earthworms Exoskeletons Arthropods

Endoskeletons Vertebrates Continued Hydrostatic skeletons A skeleton made up of fluid under pressure in closed areas.

Exoskeletons hard casing on the surface of an invetebrate Endoskeletons Found only in Chordates Composed of cartilage, bone, or combination

Peristaltic locomotion in an earthworm Exoskeleton of an arthropod Major Divisions of a Human Skeleton Axial Skeleton Cranium, hyoid, vertebral column, sternum and ribs

Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle & bones of upper appendages Clavicle, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, phalanges, metacarpals, carpals Pelvic girdle & bones of lower appendages Pubis, ilium, ischium, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

The human skeleton Major Joints of Human Skeleton Ball-andsocket joint Function: Rotation Shoulder & hip joints Hinge joint Function: Restrict movement to a single plane

Knee & elbow Pivot joint Function: Rotation Ulna, radius & tibia, fibula Muscles

Moves skeletal parts by contracting Action of the muscle is always to contract. Muscles only pull. They NEVER push. Muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs each muscle work against the other Cooperation of muscles & skeletons in movement Structure & Function of Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal muscle are characterized by smaller and smaller parallel units They have bundles of long fibers running the length of the muscle Each fiber is a multinucleated single cell Each fiber is a bundle of smaller myofibrils Each myofibril is composed of two myofilaments: Actin (thin) & Myosin (thick) the functional unit of muscle contraction is a sarcomere,

The structure of a skeletal muscle Actin & Myosin Filaments ACTIN Thin filaments Composed of many globular actin molecules (beads) assembled in a long chain (necklace) Two protein chains are wound around one

another to produce a single actin filament Contain troponin & tropomyosin proteins which in the presence of Ca2+ uncover binding sites on actin MYOSIN Thick filaments Longest known protein

chain: 1,800 amino acids 200 or more parallel protein molecules with free globular heads Myosin heads: 1) binding sites for contraction and 2) contain enzymes that split ATP to power the contraction

Structure of the Sarcomere M line connection between the thick myosin filaments H zone the central zone in the relaxed sarcomere containing only myosin filaments I band zone around the Z line that contains only

actin filaments A band marks the extent of the myosin filaments in the sarcomere Z line the dark stripe in the center of the I band (bulkhead) Skeletal Muscle Other Types of Muscle:

Cardiac Muscle Found in the heart Its fiber have cross-striations and contain numerous nuclei. The cardiac muscle causes the rhythmical beating of the heart, Other Types of Muscle: Smooth Muscle Found throughout the body

It is responsible for peristalsis Non-striated because actin & myosin filaments are not regularly arranged Contracts slowly, but greater range than striated Negative Feedback Prevents Injuries Muscle spindles sense muscle length the

greater the density of spindles, the better control over the muscle If the muscle is being stretched too much, sensory nerves kick off a spinal reflex arc which causes the muscle to contract Slow stretches allow the apparatus to adapt, and do not kick off the reflex effectively SKELETAL AND

IMMUNE SYSTEMS TABOO One player will have one card, in this case a power point slide, and must help the other team members guess the word that appears at the top of the card. He/She cannot use any of the words given in the card. Each team will take turns to guess a word, and will have 2 minutes to complete the task.

Word that must be guessed by your team Words not to be used to help your team guess BONES Support Rib

Cage White Skull Word that must be guessed by your team Words not to be used to help your team guess

SPINAL COLUMN Long Back Vertebra l Backbon e Word that must be

guessed by your team Words not to be used to help your team guess BONY THORAX Chest Rib

Lungs Breastbon e Word that must be guessed by your team Words not to be used to help your team guess

ARMS Wrist Finger Elbow Forear m Word that must be guessed by your team

Words not to be used to help your team guess LEGS Runnin g Walking Support Bone

Word that must be guessed by your team Words not to be used to help your team guess BONE MARROW

Blood Red Platelet s Within For further reading http://www.ucopenaccess.org/mod/resource/v iew.php?inpopup=true&id=25021 http://hes.ucfs

http://library.thinkquest.org/2935/Natures_Be st/Nat_Best_Low_Level/Muscular_page.L.htm ld.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel01.html http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/far abee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html References Information http:// www.human-body-facts.com/muscular-system.h

tml http://www.ucopenaccess.org/mod/resource/vie w.php?inpopup=true&id=25021 http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/mam mal/muscle.htm#heart http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel01.ht ml Pictures Thats All Folks!! Hope This Web Quest

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