Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will
Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones
Thecodontosaurus Thecodontosaurus Iguanodon
Ingenia Incisivosaurus Archeopteryx 150 mya
Archaeopteryx Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya) Reptilian char Large skull, reptile like teeth
Bones solid Claws on forelimbs
Long tail Bird Char. Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding
Feathers Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone
Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya Large, flightless bird Had teeth like reptiles
Ichthyornis Smaller, tern like bird Lived 65-80 mya Had large flight wings
Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits: Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart
endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles General Bird Anatomy
SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa. Birds Have the Highest Metabolism Metabolic Adaptations Birds have high metabolism
Endothermic, 4 chambered heart Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss Counter-current circulation
Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally Fused furculum (wishbone) keeled sternum Types of Feathers
Keeled Furculum and Sternum Wings Flight Forces
Avian Reproduction Amniotic egg Internal fertilization Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body Both parents care for eggs
Precocial young- active at hatching Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching migration Egg Shapes
Starling Nests Weaver Bird Nest Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird
eggs? Males are More Colorful Migration Pop Quiz
1. List three adaptations that allow birds to have a high metabolism. 2. List three adaptations that allow birds to fly. 3. What type of egg does a bird have? 4. What is the name of the class the bird belongs to?
Avian Classification 28 orders 9600 species SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and
function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa. 41 Super Orders of Birds Superorder Archaeornithes- ancient birds, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx
Superorder Neornithes- new birdsmodern Paleognathae- old jaw Neognathae- new jaw Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes
Large flightless bird Two toes Old jaw Ex. ostriches
43 Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes Pelicans, cormorants, boobies
44 Neo- Order Ciconiiformes Long legs for wading Long necks Pink or orange because of carotenoids in algae and
brine shrimp that eat algae Liver enzymes break down the carotenoids into pink and orange pigments that are deposited into feathers, bill, and legs 45
Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet Swans, geese, ducks 46
Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon
47 Order Passeriformes
Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird Thrushes Swallows
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