Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will

Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will

Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones

Thecodontosaurus Thecodontosaurus Iguanodon

Ingenia Incisivosaurus Archeopteryx 150 mya

Archaeopteryx Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya) Reptilian char Large skull, reptile like teeth

Bones solid Claws on forelimbs

Long tail Bird Char. Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding

Feathers Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone

Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya Large, flightless bird Had teeth like reptiles

Ichthyornis Smaller, tern like bird Lived 65-80 mya Had large flight wings

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits: Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart

endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles General Bird Anatomy

SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa. Birds Have the Highest Metabolism Metabolic Adaptations Birds have high metabolism

Endothermic, 4 chambered heart Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss Counter-current circulation

Respiration Counter-Current Circulation Excretion Uric Acid Uric acid

metabolic excretion (Saves water) Adaptations for Flight Feathers- modified scales Pectoral appendages = wings

Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally Fused furculum (wishbone) keeled sternum Types of Feathers

Keeled Furculum and Sternum Wings Flight Forces

Avian Reproduction Amniotic egg Internal fertilization Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body Both parents care for eggs

Precocial young- active at hatching Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching migration Egg Shapes

Starling Nests Weaver Bird Nest Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird

eggs? Males are More Colorful Migration Pop Quiz

1. List three adaptations that allow birds to have a high metabolism. 2. List three adaptations that allow birds to fly. 3. What type of egg does a bird have? 4. What is the name of the class the bird belongs to?

Avian Classification 28 orders 9600 species SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and

function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa. 41 Super Orders of Birds Superorder Archaeornithes- ancient birds, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx

Superorder Neornithes- new birdsmodern Paleognathae- old jaw Neognathae- new jaw Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes

Large flightless bird Two toes Old jaw Ex. ostriches

43 Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes Pelicans, cormorants, boobies

44 Neo- Order Ciconiiformes Long legs for wading Long necks Pink or orange because of carotenoids in algae and

brine shrimp that eat algae Liver enzymes break down the carotenoids into pink and orange pigments that are deposited into feathers, bill, and legs 45

Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet Swans, geese, ducks 46

Order Falconiformes

Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

47 Order Passeriformes

Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird Thrushes Swallows

Magpie Crow Starling Jays Lyres- http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=sA wiFMKPHmY

48 Order Columbiformes

Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves 49

Order Strigiformes

Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls http://www.owlpages.c om/sounds/Strix-varia-3

.mp3 50 Order Apodiformes Small bird Rapid wingbeat

Hummingbirds 51 Order Galliformes

Chicken like

Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey Pheasants Quail

52 Order Charadriiformes

Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls 53

Order Psittaciformes Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak Bright colors Parrots

Parakeets 54 Order Piciformes Two toes forward and two toes backward

woodpeckers 55 Order Sphenisciformes Webbed feet Wings as used for

swimming penquins 56 The End

57

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