Warm Up What are some characteristics of the North Central Plains region? What are some characteristics of the Coastal Plains region? Texas Native Americans
THE SOUTHEASTERN AND GULF COAST PEOPLES CADDO LOCATION The Caddoes were part of a larger culture known as the Mississippian or Mound Builder Culture. Caddoes first moved into the Piney
Woods during the Late Prehistoric period. East Texas Rich soil and plenty of rainfall CADDO BLUE Housing:
CADDO Caddo houses were cone shaped buildings of poles covered with cane, grass, & mud Sturdy, beehive shaped houses Small hole in the top for fires More than one family CADDO
Food Source/Daily Life: They fished and hunted deer and small animals (rabbit). Crops were more important in their diet than meat and fish. Major crops included corn, beans, squash, and sunflower seeds. Sometimes buffalo
CADDO Appearance: Caddoes made most of their clothing from deerskin, which they tanned a deep black. They wore mostly skirts and leggings Men and women tattooed streaks on their faces and plant and animal
designs on their bodies. CADDO Trading: They traded beautiful clay pottery & hunting bows, they received shells from the Gulf Coast, turquoise from the Southwest, copper from the Great Lakes region. Skilled workers used these trade
goods to make useful & decorative objects. The fact that Caddoes had such specialized craft workers shows how advanced their culture was. CADDO Unusual facts They were organized into 3 confederacies
or alliances of people or groups that unite for a common purpose. The Caddoes had the most advanced culture of all Texas Indians. Even in prehistoric times, they settled in villages, lived and farmed in small clearings in the forest. Men helped the women with crops Built mounds for burial and worship
COAHUILTECANS PINK COAHUILTECANS Location/Landforms: Southwest Plains and the Rio Grande area toward Northern Mexico. Bottom part of Texas. They lived in hundreds of independent bands.
Mesquite thickets, desert, scattered grasslands, and cactus COAHUILTECANS Housing: Coahuiltecans lived in dome-shaped huts made by cutting and bending young trees and covering them with reed mats and animal hides.
They could quickly roll up the mats and hides, place them on their backs, and move to the next camp. COAHUILTECANS Food Source: The Coahuiltecans were hunter-gatherers. They ate snakes, lizards, armadillos,
worms, snails, spiders, and insects (ants). With meat in short supply, plants formed the major part of the Coahuiltecans diet. Women and children gathered leaves, cactus tuna (nopalitos), fruits, mesquite beans (very sweet), and nuts. They also hunted deer, javalinas, and rabbit COAHUILTECANS
APPEARANCE: Yucca sandals Rabbit skin shawls Long, loin cloths COAHUILTECANS UNUSUAL FACTS: The most primitive or least advanced tribe of all the Texas tribes Nomadic
Had an ambush technique and would then run for days Would use a burning torch to attract fish (night) KARANKAWA PURPLE KARANKAWAS Location/Landforms: The Karankawa Indians lived along the
Gulf Coast Galveston Bay to Corpus Christi Marshland Goose Island Grove KARANKAWAS Housing: Karankawa houses held about eight people and were easy to move.
Small poles with mats of leaves, grass and palm leaves KARANKAWAS Food Source: They survived by fishing in coastal bays and by hunting and gathering wild plants near the coast.
Fish/shellfish Wild rice Alligator Water plants Deer, bear, and bird Sharks KARANKAWAS Appearance:
Karankawas were taller than most Texas Indians. The average man was about six feet tall. Both men and women painted their bodies with red clay or charcoal, and the men pierced their lower lips and chests with small pieces of cane. They wore very little clothing. The women wore clothes made of deer skin or Spanish moss.
KARANKAWAS UNUSUAL FACTS: Nomadic Used alligator grease for insect repellant Pottery was waterproofed with natural
asphalt Dugout canoes Special ceremony dance (mitoks) WICHITA For protection, villages joined together to create three tribes- Tawakonis, Wacos, and Wichitas.
Location: West of Caddo Housing: Clay floors, dug moats, tipis Food source: The Wichita were farmers who tended large fields of corn, pumpkins, squash, melons, beans, and groves of plum trees. ATAKAPAN Coastal Area Marshland
Housing: Atakapan houses were cone shaped building of poles covered with cane palm leaves & mud Food source: fish, sea life, deer, bear, bird, shark, alligator Nomadic Warm Up
1. 2. What is one similarity between the Karankawas and the Coahuiltecans? What is one difference between the Caddoes and the Karankawas? THE PLAINS PEOPLES
The Diet of the plains peoples Buffalo Deer Corn Beans Pumpkins Watermelon The homes of the plains peoples Tipis
APACHES JUMANO BLUE (took over the area) APACHES Locations/Landforms:
Around A.D. 1000, a Native American people moved south from the present-day Canada across the Great Plains. They posed a threat to the people who already lived on the land. In order to survive, these newcomers became fierce fighters. Apache comes from the Zuni word apachu, which means enemy. Two of the Apache tribes, the Lipans and Mescaleros, were very important to Texas history.
Housing/Food APACHES Source: The Lipans 1st appeared in the Texas Panhandle in the 1500s. They lived as independent bands. The Lipans wore clothes made of deerskin. To keep warm in the winter, they wrapped themselves in buffalo hide robes.
Buffalo hides also covered their tipis. The Lipans hunted buffalo and other animals and sometimes farmed. During spring and summer they lived in small villages where the women planted and harvested crops of corn, beans, pumpkins, and watermelons. In the fall and winter they moved about, following buffalo. The Mescaleros were among the Apache tribes that settled in New Mexico. Their lands stretched from present-day El Paso to the Pecos River. Unlike the Lipans,
the Mescaleros were a hunting and gathering people. APACHES Appearance: They decorated their bodies and made most of their clothing from buffalo hides. Women had short hair. Men allowed their hair to grow long, parting it in the middle, with braids on each
side. COMANCHES Location/Landforms: The 1st Comanches lived in the northern Rocky Mountains in what is now Wyoming. They were poor hunter gatherers and their environment offered little food. After they acquired horses from the Spanish they left the mountains to hunt buffalo. They became expert
riders. They first appeared in New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle in the early 1700s. Over time, at least 13 bands of Comanche roamed the plains. Each band had a chief with limited power. He could act only with the approval of the bands council. All adult males were members of the council. The entire council had to agree for decisions to take effect. COMANCHES
Food Source: The Comanches entire way of life depended on the buffalo. The animals provided clothing, shelter, and most of their food. The Comanches were nomads: people who wander from place to place in search of food.
COMANCHES Housing: Like other Plains Indians, the Comanches lived in tipis. KIOWAS Location/Landforms:
They came into Texas late-after 1832-and occupied only the very northern part of the Panhandle. Their main territory lay to the north of Texas. The Kiowas raided other groups in Texas for many years. The Kiowas attacks brought them in conflict with the Comanches. For about 50 years, the two peoples were bitter enemies. Around 1790 they made peace. The Kiowas and Comanches became allies, or people who help each other to benefit them both.
KIOWAS Housing, Food Source: The Kiowas culture was like that of most other Plains peoples. They were nomads and buffalo hunters who rode horses, lived in tipis, and traveled in bands. Their diet, dress,
and appearance were similar to those of the Lipans and Comanches. TONKAWAS The Tonkawa were a group of independent bands. At first they lived on the Edwards Pleateau west of presentday Austin & San Antonio. In the 1600s and 1700s, the Apaches and Comanches
moved into the Tonkawas lands. They pushed the Tonkawas away from the Edwards Plateau and onto the Balcones Escarpment. Central Texas Treeless areas Housing: Caves of limestone Tipis Food source: Buffalo, became hunters and gatherers Nomadic Women set up the camps
JUMANOS Location: Around A.D. 1200 the Jumanos established villages on the land between the Pecos River & the Rio Grande. Housing: farmed and lived in pueblos made of adobe Food source: corn, beans, squash; most
fields close to rivers and streams so had reliable source of water The Jumanos were great traders Painted their faces in horizontal lines More special information about the plains peoples The Apaches were
a warlike people and forced other tribes, like the Tonkawas, to move to other territories. The Kiowas practiced the Sun Dance, an important and elaborate religious
ceremony. THE PUEBLOAN PEOPLES The location of the Puebloan peoples West Texas Mountains and Basins region
of Texas The homes of the Puebloan Peoples Adobe pueblos Huts covered with grass or animal skins The Diet of the Puebloan
Peoples Corn Beans Squash Cactus Deer Birds Rabbits Fish
TIGUA Location: The Tiguas are the oldest group of Native Americans still living in Texas today. They settled along the Rio Grande, in a pass between two mountain ranges. There they established the town of Ysleta. It was the first permanent town in
Texas. TIGUA Food Source/ Daily Life: The Tigua way of life is similar to that of the Jumanos and Conchos. They were farmers, and most of their food came from the corn, beans, and squash they grew. Their meat
came from deer, rabbits, antelope, and other game that the men could find. Women and children gathered berries and other wild foods. The council governed the tribe and elected the chief, who served for life. The chief, was the Tiguas religious leader. JORNADA Location: Ancient peoples that lived in Southwest Texas
They lived in Hueco Tanks, near El Paso JORNADA Housing/ Food Source: Early on, the built pit houses. These were partially underground. Later on, lived in adobe homes Grew corn, beans, and squash JORNADA
Disappeared around the year 1400 Some historians believe they assimilated other Native American tribes into CONCHO Location/Landforms:
lived southeast of the Jumanos, near present day Presidio. Food source: corn, beans, and squash Women did the farm work and gathered wild plants to eat Men hunted using bows and arrows, and fished using nets Allies with the Jumanos Lived in huts that were covered with grass or animal skins
More special information about the Puebloan Peoples Kiva: large room where the tribal council met and where other community
activities occurred Cacique: Spanish word for a Tigua religious leader
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