Chapter 5 Classical Greece, 2000 B.C.300 B.C. The history and culture of classical Greece has a significant impact on the modern world. Discus thrower (about 450 B.C.), Myron. Section 1
Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Geography Shapes Greek Life Ancient Greece Was a collection of separate lands where ________________-speaking people live Includes mainland and about ___________ islands The Sea The sea shapes Greek civilization Proximity to sea and a lack of resources encourage sea ______________________________________
Geography Shapes Greek Life The Land ________________ slow travel, divide land into regions Lack of fertile land leads to _____________ populations, and a need for ___________________ The Climate Moderate climate promotes _______________________ Greek ____________, especially, spend much of their time outside
Mycenaean Civilization Develops Origins _______________________Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C. Took their name from their leading city, _________________ Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from _____________________________ Contact with Minoans After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea ____________________________________ The Trojan War
Trojan Warfought by Mycenaeans against city of _________ in 1200s B.C. Once thought to be ______________________, archaeological evidence has been found Scene of Trojan Horse entering Troy. Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Dorians Replace Mycenaeans Mycenaean civilization _____________ around 1200 B.C. Dorianspossibly relatives of ______________________
Greeksmove into Greece Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no ________________________________ Epics of Homer Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homera = _______________________________ ______________a narrative poem about heroic deeds Homers epic the Iliad, about the ___________________, shows Greek heroic ideal Depiction of funeral games in honor of Patroclus, influenced by Homer's
Iliad (book 23). Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Greeks Create Myths Greeks develop their own _____________traditional stories about gods Greeks seek to understand mysteries of _____________ through myths Greeks attribute human qualities of ______________, __________________, and ___________________ to their gods
__________________, ruler of Gods, lives on ______________________________________ with his wife, Hera Zeuss daughter ____________________ is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities Zeus, principal god in Greek mythology. Bronze statue (about 460 B.C.). Warring City-States Rule and Order in Greek City-States The City-State
By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or _______________, is the formal government A _____________ is a city and its surrounding villages; 50 to 500 square miles Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000 Citizens gather in the marketplace and ______________ a fortified hilltop Rule and Order in Greek City-States Greek Political Structures City-states have different forms of government
________________ rule by a king; ___________________ rule by nobility ___________________ rule by small group of powerful merchants and artisans Tyrants Seize Power Rulers and common people clash in many city-states _________________ nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
Building Democracy About 621 B.C., __________________ rule by the peopledevelops in Athens Nobleman, Draco, develops ____________________ based on equality of citizens Ruler Solon abolishes debt slavery; Cleisthenes has ______________ make laws Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens Athenian Education ________________ only for sons of wealthy families Girls learn from mothers and other female members
of household Sparta Builds a Military State A Unique City-State _________________, isolated from much of Greece, builds military state Sparta Dominates Messenians Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia Messenians become _______________ peasants forced to farm the land Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state
Spartas Government and Society Sparta government has ______________ branches; the _____________ elect officials Three social classes: citizens, free non-citizens, helotsslaves Sparta Builds a Military State Spartan Daily Life Spartan values: ________________, strength, individuality, _____________ over freedom
They neglected the _______________, literature and other _____________________ pursuits Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece Males move into barracks at age ____, train until _____, serve until _____ Girls receive some _______________ training; also they ran, wrestled, and played sports Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else Spartan women enjoyed much more _______________ than they would have in other Greek city-states
The Persian Wars A New Kind of Army Emerges Cheaper ________ replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes _________________feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields Battle at Marathon Persian Wars between Greece and Persian Empirebegin in Ionia on the coast of ______________________ Persians conquer area; Greeks revolt; Daruis the Great vows revenge Persian army attacks Athens, is defeated at ______________________
in 490 B.C. Pheidippides Brings News Runner ____________________ races to Athens to announce Greek victory; origin of the modern day ________________ The Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis In 480 B.C., Persians under Darius son Xerxes launch new invasion of ______________ ____________ are divided; many stay neutral or side with _____________
Greek forces hold Thermopylae for ______ days before retreating Athenians defeat Persians at _____, near island of Salamis Victories at Salamis and Plataea force Persian retreat Several city-states form _____________________ and continue to fight Persians driving them from the territories surrounding Greece The Persian Wars Consequences of the Persian Wars New _____________________ in Greece due to victory
____________ emerges as leader of Delian League _______________ controls the league by using ___________ against opponents League members essentially become ______________ of Athenian empire Stage is set for a dazzling burst of _________________ in Athens NEXT Section 3
Democracy and Greeces Golden Age Pericles Plan for Athens Pericles as Leader Skillful ________________, inspiring ______________, respected ___________________ Dominates life in Athens from _________________ B.C. Stronger Democracy Pericles hires more ______________________________; creates a ________________________________ Direct democracycitizens rule directly, not through ________________________________
Pericles (495-429 B.C.), statesman who shaped Athens as cultural center. Shown with backdrop of Acropolis, Athens. Pericles Plan for Athens Athenian Empire Athens takes over _____________________________; uses money to strengthen Athenian _______________ Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power Glorifying Athens Pericles buys _________, _________, & ___________;
hires __________________ to beautify Athens Glorious Art and Architecture Architecture and Sculpture Pericles builds the __________________________ a large temple to honor goddess Athena Within temple, sculptor Phidias crafts 30-foot statue of ___________________ Sculptors create _______________, _____________, perfectly formed figures ___________________________ values harmony,
order, balance, proportion, beauty Drama and History Tragedy and Comedy Greeks invent _______________ as an art form; includes chorus, dance, poetry Two forms of drama: tragedy and comedy ______________________ tells story of heroes downfall; themes of love, hate, war ______________________ makes fun of politics and respected people; slapstick humor
Greek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides, Aristophanes History __________________ Herodotus and Thucydides record and study past events Athenians and Spartans Go to War War Begins 431 B.C. city-states Sparta and Athens at war _______________________________________ Peloponnesian War
Sparta has better ________, Athens has better _______ ___________ strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many including _________________ Sparta and Athens sign truce in 421 B.C. Sparta Gains Victory 415 B.C. ___________ renews war and attacks Syracuse, but is defeated in 413 B.C. ___________ and allies surrender to ______________ in 404 B.C. Philosophers Search for Truth
Rise of Great Philosophers After the war, there is the rise of philosophers thinkers, ____________________________________" They believe the universe is subject to ________________ and _______________________ laws People could understand these laws through ___________, reason Sophist philosopher Protagoras questions the existence of _____________________________ Socrates Socratesbelieves in questioning, _______________________
of values, actions Convicted of ___________________ young people; is sentenced to ______________ in 399 B.C. Philosophers Search for Truth Plato Platostudent of _______________; writes The Republic an ideal society In 387 B.C., establishes Athens school, the Academy; lasts __________ years His writings dominate European philosophy for _______ years
Aristotle Aristotlestudent of ____________; uses rules of ________ for argument His work provides the basis for the _____________________, which is still used today Tutors _______ -year-old prince who becomes ____________________________________________ Section 4 Alexanders Empire Philip Builds Macedonian Power
Macedonia Macedonia kingdom of mountain villages north of ________________ _____________________________ ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece Macedonians call themselves _______________; the rest of Greece does not Philips Army Philip creates a well-trained professional army; plans to invade Greece
Philip Builds Macedonian Power Conquest of Greece 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece; 336 B.C. King Philip is __________________ His son named king of Macedoniabecomes _____________________________________ Alexander the Great with father, Philip II, and mother, Olympias. Manuscript (14th century). Alexander Defeats Persia
Alexanders Early Life Tutored by Aristotle; inspired by the __________; has military training Becomes king when _______ years old; destroys Thebes to curb rebellion Invasion of Persia 334 B.C. Alexander invades _________; quick victory at Granicus River ______________ king of Persia, assembles army of 50,00075,000 men Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of
Persia to flee Alexander Defeats Persia Conquering the Persian Empire Alexander marches into _______________, and is crowned _______________ in 332 B.C. At Gaugamela in ____________________________, Alexander defeats Persians again Alexander captures cities of ___________________, Susa, and Persepolis Persepolis, the Persian capital, burned to the ground
Ashes of Persepolis signal ______________________ of Persian Empire Alexanders Other Conquests Alexander in India Alexander _____________ his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C. Reluctantly returns to _____________________; he dies in 323 B.C.
Alexanders Legacy Alexander melds ______________ and ______________ cultures; his wife is Persian Empire becomes three kingdoms: (1) ___________________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________ Section 5 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria Result of Alexanders policies is a __________________________ Hellenistic cultureGreek blended with ____________________, _____________________, ______________________ Trade and Cultural Diversity ____________________________ Egyptian city becomes center of Hellenistic civilization Alexandrias Attractions ___________________, called the Pharos, stands over 350 feet tall Museum contains art galleries, a ________, ____________________,
____________________________ Library holds masterpieces of ancient ________________________; supports scholars Science and Technology Alexandrias Scholars Scholars preserve ____________ and ______________ learning in the sciences Astronomy Astronomer Aristarchus proves the _________ is larger than the Earth Proposes that the planets revolve around sun; this is not
accepted for ___________________________ Eratosthenes uses ________________to calculate Earths circumference Mathematics and Physics ______________________ mathematician; his book ______________________ is the basis for courses in geometry Archimedes scientist; accurately estimated the value of ________; his ideas help build force pump and the ________________________ Philosophy and Art
Stoicism and Epicureanism Zeno founds Stoic school; promoted ___________________, simple lives _____________________ believes people should focus on what senses perceive Realism in Sculpture _____________________________________ Hellenistic bronze sculpture over 100 feet tall Sculptors move to non-classical, natural forms; ________________________________
Colossus of Rhodes (294-282 B.C.), huge bronze statue of sun god. Engraving (19th century).
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