A STRIKING CHANGE APPEARS IN GREEK ART OF

A STRIKING CHANGE APPEARS IN GREEK ART OF

A STRIKING CHANGE APPEARS IN GREEK ART OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY B.C. THE ABSTRACT GEOMETRIC PATTERNING THAT WAS DOMINANT BETWEEN ABOUT 1050 AND 700 B.C. IS SUPPLANTED IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY BY A MORE NATURALISTIC STYLE REFLECTING SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE FROM THE NEAR EAST AND EGYPT. TRADING STATIONS IN THE LEVANT AND THE NILE DELTA, CONTINUING GREEK COLONIZATION IN THE EAST AND WEST, AS WELL AS CONTACT WITH EASTERN CRAFTSMEN, NOTABLY ON CRETE AND CYPRUS, INSPIRED GREEK ARTISTS TO WORK IN TECHNIQUES AS DIVERSE AS GEM CUTTING, IVORY CARVING, JEWELRY MAKING, AND METALWORKING. EASTERN PICTORIAL MOTIFS WERE INTRODUCEDPALMETTE AND LOTUS COMPOSITIONS, ANIMAL HUNTS, AND SUCH COMPOSITE BEASTS AS GRIFFINS (PART BIRD, PART LION), SPHINXES (PART WOMAN, PART WINGED LION), AND SIRENS (PART WOMAN, PART BIRD). GREEK ARTISTS RAPIDLY ASSIMILATED FOREIGN STYLES AND MOTIFS INTO NEW PORTRAYALS OF THEIR OWN MYTHS AND

CUSTOMS, THEREBY FORGING THE FOUNDATIONS OF ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL GREEK ART. Greek Art in the Archaic Period TWO LARGE CONFRONTING HORSES DECORATE THE SIDES OF THIS BRONZE HELMET. ON EACH CHEEK GUARD IS AN INCISED STANDING LION. STRENGTH AND CALM, THESE CREATURES LENT SYMBOLIC PROTECTION TO THE WARRIOR IN BATTLE. THIS HELMET IS A MODIFICATION OF A CORINTHIAN TYPE, HAVING A PROFILED CHEEK PIECE AND LACKING THE USUAL LONG NOSE GUARD; ORIGINALLY, THERE WAS A SEPARATELY ATTACHED VISOR. Greek Art in the Archaic Period

THE FINEST VASES FROM THE REGION OF CORINTH ARE GENERALLY DATABLE TO THE SEVENTH CENTURY B.C. THIS DINOS, A BOWL FOR THE MIXING OF WINE AND WATER, IS DECORATED WITH PANTHERS, SPHINXES, GOATS, AND LIONS IN TWO HORIZONTAL BANDS. Greek Art in the Archaic Period THIS NOBLE FIGURE OF A YOUTH IS ONE OF THE EARLIEST FREESTANDING MARBLE STATUES FROM ATTICA, THE REGION AROUND ATHENS. IT IS A TYPE OF SCULPTURE KNOWN

AS A KOUROS (MALE YOUTH), CHARACTERISTICALLY DEPICTED NUDE WITH THE LEFT LEG STRIDING FORWARD AND HANDS CLENCHED AT THE SIDE. MOST KOUROI WERE MADE IN THE ARCHAIC PERIOD, BETWEEN THE LATE SEVENTH AND EARLY FIFTH CENTURIES B.C., AND ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE SERVED AS GRAVE MARKERS OR AS

DEDICATIONS IN THE SANCTUARY OF A GOD. Greek Art in the Archaic Period THE GREEK GOD HERAKLES IS PRESENTED HERE NOT ONLY AS A HERO OF EXTRAORDINARY STRENGTH AND VITALITY, BUT ALSO AS A BEAUTIFULLY GROOMED AND, THUS, CIVILIZED INDIVIDUAL. THIS ASPECT IS EMPHASIZED IN ARCHAIC ART. ONLY LATER DO EPISODES OF HIS LEGEND, SUCH AS THE MADNESS THAT HERA INFLICTED UPON HIM,

BECOME PROMINENT IN ART. THE BRONZE STATUETTE WAS PROBABLY COMMISSIONED FOR DEDICATION IN A SANCTUARY. Greek Art in the Archaic Period THE SYMPOSIUM, CONVENTIONALLY INTERPRETED AS A DRINKING PARTY, WAS A WELLESTABLISHED FEATURE OF GREEK, PARTICULARLY ATHENIAN, SOCIETY. FOR OVER A CENTURY, REPRESENTATIONS ON VASES DOCUMENT THAT WINE, WOMEN, AND SONG WERE CENTRAL INGREDIENTS. EVEN MORE WORTHY OF EMPHASIS, HOWEVER, IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SYMPOSIUM AS AN INSTITUTION THAT PERMITTED CITIZENS TO GATHER, TRANSACT BUSINESS, AND, AS PLATO'S DIALOGUE MAKES CLEAR, TO ENGAGE IN SERIOUS DISCUSSIONS. AN ESSENTIAL PIECE OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE SYMPOSIUM WAS THE KRATER IN WHICH THE WINE WAS DILUTED WITH WATER AND FROM WHICH IT WAS SERVED.

Greek Art in the Archaic Period OF THE MORE THAN ONE HUNDRED VASES ATTRIBUTED TO THE AMASIS PAINTER, THIS CUP STANDS OUT AS BEING THE MOST EPIC. THE ARTIST TREATS AN EPISODE RECOUNTED BY HOMER IN GREAT DETAIL IN THE THIRTEENTH BOOK OF THE ILIAD. SEEING THE GREEKS HARD-PRESSED AND DISCOURAGED, POSEIDON ORDERED HIS CHARIOT PREPARED SO THAT HE COULD RIDE TO THEIR AID. Greek Art in the Archaic Period THIS MARBLE RELIEF, WHICH ORIGINALLY INCLUDED TWO FACING LIONS ATTACKING A BULL, ONCE DECORATED THE PEDIMENT OF A SMALL TEMPLE OR CIVIC BUILDING IN ANCIENT

GREECE. THE SUBJECT, ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR IN ARCHAIC ART IN ALL MEDIA, ALLOWED THE ARTISTS TO INFUSE A SYMMETRICAL COMPOSITION WITH VIOLENT MOVEMENT. THE SCENE MAY ALSO REPRESENT THE CONFLICT BETWEEN CIVILIZED LIFE AND NATURE, A THEME SYMBOLIZED LATER BY STRUGGLES BETWEEN THE GREEKS AND THE CENTAURS. Greek Art in the Archaic Period THIS IS A LARGE VOTIVE OFFERING, THE FAMOUS MOSCOPHOROS, MADE OF MARBLE THAT WAS FOUND ON THE ACROPOLIS. IT IS FROM THE ARCHAIC PERIOD, ABOUT 560 B.C. IT REPRESENTS A WORSHIPPER BRINGING A CALF TO BE SACRIFICED TO A DEITY. THE GARMENT

THAT THE MAN WEARS SEEMS TO BE QUITE THIN, SO THAT THE MUSCULATURE OF THE BODY IS CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE DETAILS OF HIS HEAD AND THAT OF THE CALF THAT HE CARRIES ARE VERY INTRICATE. Greek Art in the Archaic Period

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