Mass Labels While Mass Spectroscopy is not covered
Mass Labels While Mass Spectroscopy is not covered in our texts, other mass/density dependent technologies including X-ray Spectroscopy, Gamma Spectroscopy, & Ultrasound Analysis are covered in Guy & ffytche, An Introduction to The Principles of Medical Imaging, Imperial College Press, 2000, Chapters 4,5 & 7. Other coverage is also found in Shung, Chapters 1, X-ray, & 2, Ultrasound, in
Shung, Smith, Tsui, Principles of Medical Imaging, Academic Press, 1992. Mass Spectroscopy/Spectrometry This method uses one of several means to: vaporize a sample ionize &/or fragment it introduce it into a low vacuum space sort the fragment ions based on charge to mass ratio, m/z detect the ions impinging on a charge or
photosensitive device, e.g., film or photodiodes Note that heavy isotopes yield higher m/z for a given compound, yielding multiple MS peaks with heights proportional to the abundance of the isotopes. A Basic Mass Spectrometer Schematic Animations of MS (& other techniques): http://spider-dev.pharmacy.strath.ac.uk/mscpharmana
l/sample.htm A More Detailed Mass Spectrometer http:// www.chemistry.ccsu.edu/glagovich/t eaching/472/ms/images/spectromete r.gif MS Basics & Theory MS Basics in Denmark:
http://188.8.131.52/klab/Kvantfysik_5A1450/var_labbar.htm University of Calgary MS Basics: http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey/ Ch13/ch13-ms.html MS Basics: http://web.njit.edu/~hsieh/ene669/gc_ms.html http://www.astbury.leeds.ac.uk/facil/MStut/mstutorial.htm http://www.udel.edu/chem/koh/chem333docs/MSlect1pp.pdf http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/crossref/ac-mass-spec.html MS Basics PPTs, College of Charleston, Dept. of Chemistry : http://www.cofc.edu/~chem/organic/Slides/MS1/index.htm
http://www.cofc.edu/~chem/organic/Slides/MS2/index.htm http://www.cofc.edu/~chem/organic/ Slides/MS3/index.htm Mass Spectrometry Bulletin: http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/CurrentAwareness/msb/index.asp Volatilizing & Ionizing Samples MS methods differ with respect to complexity of the molecules that can be evaluated & with respect to the sensitivity of the methods. The more energy introduced in volatilizing & ionizing the sample the more likely molecules, especially large ones, will
fragment. While smaller molecules may be introduced directly into the MS ionization chamber as pure compounds or as simplified mixtures resulting from the use of gas chromatographs upstream from the ionization chamber, this is not possible for most high polymers. The parent peak from the ion formed when the entire molecule looses only 1 electron provides molecular mass information. It is often vital to the analysis to find this peak which may only form under relatively gentle conditions.
Getting Polymers to Take Flight Macromolecules may be introduced into the ionization chamber as pure materials or as simplified mixtures filtered through upstream high performance or liquid chromatographs. They may also be lifted from surfaces directly & used to examine surface compositions. The surface itself may be modified to assist volatilization & ionizatin by absorbing much of the thermal energy of the ionization source (laser, microwave, ) &/or by capturing electrons from the
macromolecules to generate ions secondarily. MALDI, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, uses easily volatilized & ionized organics such as cinnamic acid, gentisic acid, & sinapinic acid to improve movement of macromolecules such as peptides from a surface to the ion stream. Nucleic acids may be examined similarly. Validation Issues Calibration for accuracy requires examination of molecules with known parent peak m/z & known
fragmentation patterns. For more complex molecular mixtures it also requires inclusion of internal calibration molecules that provide reference peaks from which to mark m/z positions, e.g., digestive enzyme fragmentation peaks in protein digestion experiments. Note that MS methods may not have uniform sensitivity across the entire m/z range of interest; thus, multiple calibration or reference peaks may be needed. Fragmentation is also frequently run as a series of pulses each of which generate a set of data & noise peaks. Digital accumulation of pulse
results accentuate true peaks & enhance sensitivity by increasing precision & specificity. More Advanced Treatments of MS Introduction to MS, Scripps: http://masspec.scripps.edu/information/index.html Introduction to MALDI: http://www.psrc.usm.edu/mauritz/maldi.html Protein MS Tools: http://prospector.ucsf.edu/
http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/chemputer/isotopes.html Double Focusing MS Schematic http://www-methods.ch.cam.ac.uk/meth/ms/theory/sector.html Applied Biosystems 4700 Proteomics Analyzer, MALDI -TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometer http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/biol/tf/analbio_ms.htm
Example of MS/MS Schematic In MS/MS the initially ionized sample is passed through a 2nd ionization stage to further fragment initially formed ions yielding more structural detail.
http://www.fastcomtec.com/ fwww/tofmas/wrecmas.htm Proteomics & nucleic acid work often require use of MS/MS after initial MS. Use of MALDI-TOF 1st followed by MS/MS in proteomics: http://bmbus6.leeds.ac.uk/www/presentations/MassSpec /index.htm MS vs MS/MS Analysis: http://www-helix.inrialpes.fr/article386.html
http:// www.ionspec.com/Applications/applications_info.htm Plasma Injector www.chm.bris.ac.uk/pt/diamond/image/mwmbms.gif The Ion Trap www-methods.ch.cam.ac.uk/.../ theory/iontrap.html
org-anal/reports/regmsf/regmsf.htm Biological Mass Spectrometry: http://www.amolf.nl/research/biologica l_mass_spectrometry/main.html Mass Spectroscopy Applications BioMS at UMass: http://www.umass.edu/karbon13/index.htm
Proteomics & MS: http://www.mrc-dunn.cam.ac.uk/research/proteomes.html DNA Sequencing: http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~skiena/648/pres entations/massspec/dna.html Epigenotyping using MS: http://www.epigenome.org/index.php?page=epigenotyping1 Archaeometry Laboratory U. of MO Research Reactor: http://www.missouri.edu/~rjse10/home.htm Related Topics
Fragmantation patterns of organic ions: http://poohbah.cem.msu.edu/courses/CEM924JA/ Fan_Shuan2/organic/index.htm Analytical Microscopy: http://www.nrel.gov/measurements/analytical.htm l Other Mass-Dependent Methods Crystallography: Heavy Atom Substitution: http://cns.csb.yale.edu/v1.0/tutorial/text.html TEM Staining:
http://www.lehigh.edu/~ols0/tem/staining.html http://www.aecom.yu.edu/iag/samples/files/TEM.html http://www.cimc.cornell.edu/Pages/Gallery.htm http://www.pegacat.com/cbetts/phd/index.html X-ray, Ultrasound, & MRI Contrast Media
Development of the work documentation on the equipment of Ground Control Complex and Ground Complex on the Data Receiving, Processing and Distribution of the Space Complexes "Electro-L" and "Spectr-R" Update of the existing onboard and ground hardware and software for...
GHS pictogram: A symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical. ... PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: Steve Sluka ...
Sinking was the way I felt. And hollow. And alone. By Dorothy Aldis Author's Purpose: Tell Story Jimmy Jet By Shel Silverstein I'll tell you the story of Jimmy Jet - And you know what I tell you is true....
A list of revision histories appears on the right hand side of the screen. Click on one to view the chart. Once the original chart form is located, click "Restore this session." Now the chart form is back to the...
Divine Right Theory. ... Define systems of government based on participation. Identify different ways that power can be distributed geographically within a state. Describe a government by the distribution of power between the executive and legislative branches.
Henry Wallace and others like him discovered that hybrids were heterotic - they performed better. Over time, new inventions came: different ways for hybrid production, mechanization, fertilizers, transgenic traits. In addition, the world was changing - population was growing, and...
The shared goal must be articulated and communicated widely. If you can define scope and deliverables and the like it just makes it that much clearer for the collaborators. In the case of the Waterloo CMS Project, a complete Charter...
A day in the life of a Change Agent. Undergraduate Teaching Assistant. University of Exeter. Business School . September 2011-January 2012 "Involving undergraduates in the design, delivery and evaluation of classroom based learning enhances student ownership of the learning environment...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!