Biology Chapter 4 4-3 Biomes Biome a large group of ecosystems that are characterized by certain soil, climate conditions, plants and animals The climate of a region is an important factor in determining which organisms can survive there Within a biome, temperature and precipitation can vary
over small distances Latitude is an important abiotic factor to both land and aquatic biomes 60N 30N 0 Equator 30S 60S Tropical rain forest Temperate grassland Tropical dry forest Desert
Tropical savanna Temperate woodland and shrubland Mountains and ice caps Tundra Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Temperate forest Northwestern coniferous forest Boreal forest (Taiga) The Terrestrial Biomes
Tropical Rain Forest Precipitation 200-400cm of rainfall annually Soil low in nutrients Plants broad-leaved evergreen trees, ferns, large woody vines and climbing plants, orchids Animals birds, snakes, monkeys, frogs, ants
Temperature warm year round 25-29C Located near equator One small acre may support 100 species of plants Species live at various levels Contains more species of organisms than anywhere else Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Fig. 50.16, p. 908 Desert Precipitation less than 10cm of rain per year Soil sandy soil, low in nutrients and very little or no topsoil Plants succulent plants that have needle shaped leaves to reduce water loss
Animals rattlesnakes, lizards, spiders, roadrunners Temperature humidity is very low so suns rays penetrate and heat the ground quickly so its hot during the day and cold at night Plants are adapted to growing, flowering and producing seed quickly Plants are deep rooted
Desertification conversion of grasslands and other productive biomes to desertlike wastelands Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.13, p. 905 Grassland Precipitation 25-100cm of rain per year Soil very rich in nutrients and deep layer of topsoil
Plants tall and short grasses and small plants Animals bison, wolves, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes Temperature warm summers and very cold winters Found in the interior of continents Also called prairies
Not enough rain to support trees Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Savanna Precipitation 30-50cm of rain per year Soil compact soils Plants grasses, scattered trees
Animals lions, cheetahs, elephants, giraffes, zebras, ostriches, rhinoceros Temperature warm year round, 24-29C Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Woodland and Shrubland Precipitation - 25-60cm of rain per year
Soil low in nutrients and highly acidic Plants hardened tough evergreens, wildflowers, grasses Animals coyotes, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions Temperature hot dry summers with periodic fires and cool moist winters Western or southern coastal region
Also called chaparral in areas dominated by shrubs Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.14, p. 906 Deciduous Forest Precipitation 70-200cm of rain per year Soil moist and fertile, rich in humus (decaying leaves and other organic matter)
Plants birch, maple, oak, elm, evergreens Animals deer, foxes, raccoons, squirrels, birds Temperature warm during the summer and cold in the winter, 0-30C Deciduous Trees lose their leaves annually of bird species
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.17, p. 909 Coniferous (Taiga) Forest Precipitation 30-70cm of rain per year, frequent droughts Soil low in nutrients and highly acidic Plants cone bearing trees, pines, firs, spruces Animals moose, bears, timberwolves, migratory birds Temperature warm during the summer and cold in the winter Needle shape leaves is adaptation for water loss Lies south of the tundra Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.18, p. 910
Tundra Precipitation 20-60cm of rain per year Soil thin moist and nutrient poor Plants mosses, lichens, and grasses that survive in soggy soil Animals caribou, reindeer, artic fox
Temperature cool in summer and freezing in winter Permafrost permanently frozen ground Treeless land Long summer days and short periods of winter sunlight Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Fig. 50.19, p. 911 4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems Nearly s of the Earths surface is covered with water Aquatic ecosystems are often grouped according to the abiotic factors that affect them. The depth of water determines the amount of light that organisms receive
Communities of organisms found in shallow water close to shore can be very different from the communities that occur away from shore in deep water Freshwater Ecosystems Flowing-Water Ecosystems Rivers, streams, creeks, and brooks Originate in mountains or hills
3 Types of Stream Habitats 1. Riffle Shallow Water flows swiftly over rough bottom of sand and rock 2. Pools Deep water flows slowly over smooth bottom 3. Runs
Smooth surface but fast flowing water Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.23, p. 913 Standing-Water Ecosystems Lakes and ponds A Lake has 3 Zones 1. Littoral
All around the shore Water is shallow and well lit Diversity is greatest 2. Limnetic Open water Sunlit water that extends to where photosynthesis takes place
Plankton, diatoms, green algae 3. Profundal Open water Below depth of photosynthesis Bacterial decomposers LITTORAL LITTORAL
LIMNETIC limit of effective light penetration PROFUNDAL Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fig. 50.21, p. 912 Lakes show seasonal changes in temperate regions Spring Overturn
DO from the surface moves to deep water and nutrients released by decomposition moves to surface Fall Overturn Upper layer cools becomes denser then sinks DO moves down and nutrients move up Oligotrophic Lake
Nutrient poor and oxygen rich Deep lake with few phytoplankton Eutrophic Lake Nutrient rich and oxygen poor Has a high rate of biological productivity Freshwater Wetlands Wetland water covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil at least part of the year
3 Types of Freshwater Wetlands Bog wetland that form in depressions where water collects Marsh shallow wetland along river Swamp look like flooded forests, water flows slowly Estuaries
Estuary a place where salt water mixes with fresh water The salinity of an estuary changes with the tides so a large range of salt tolerant organisms live there SALT MARSH (estuary) open ocean sound shallow bay creek Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
tidal cover Fig. 50.29, p. 918 Mangrove coastal wetland that occur in bays and estuaries across tropical regions In southern Florida and Hawaii Dominant plants are salt-tolerant trees, called mangrove Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Fig. 50.28, p. 917 Marine Ecosystems Intertidal Zone Portion of the shoreline between the high and low tides High levels of sunlight, nutrients, and oxygen but productivity may be limited by waves crashing against the shore Organisms that live here have to be adapted to
changing conditions Benthic Zone Includes all sediments and rocks of the ocean bottom Starts at continental shelves and extends to deep sea trenches Pelagic Zone Full volume of ocean water
Divided into 2 Zones 1. Neritic Zone all water above continental shelves 2. Oceanic Zone water of the ocean basins past the continental shelves Includes photic and aphotic zone Most of the photosynthetic activity on Earth occurs in the photic zone of the open ocean by the smallest producers Largest marine zone neritic
zone oceanic zone intertidal zone air at surface continental shelf BENTHIC PROVINCE PELAGIC PROVINCE 0 200
bathyal shelf 1,000 2,000 abyssal zone r ate w lit r sun ate w t" igh
l i "tw r ate w s le s n u s 4,000 hadal zone deep-sea trenches Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
11,0000 depth (meters) Fig. 50.24, p. 914 Coral Reefs Found in tropical coastal water Named for the coral animals whose calcium carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure An extraordinary diversity of organisms flourishes among coral reefs
Reef-building corals grow with the help of algae that live symbiotically within their tissues
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