One important and obvious realization when thinking about death is that death is inevitable. The time death will come is uncertain, but that it will arrive is irrefutable. Human bodies cannot withstand all the ravages of accidents, disease, and/or old age. Bodies wear out; people die. Certainty? In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes. Bereavement refers to the state of loss. Grief is a multifaceted response to loss. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, it also has physical, cognitive, behavioral, social and philosophical dimensions.
Human beings express a wide variety of grief responses. These are influenced by personality, family, culture, spiritual, and religious beliefs and practices. This lesson focuses on the beliefs, customs, and practices related to death, primarily in mainstream America. Mourning is synonymous with grief over the death of someone. It describes a cultural complex of behaviors in which the bereaved participate or are expected to participate. While customs vary between different cultures and evolve over time, many core behaviors remain constant. Using euphemisms, metaphors, and slang terms instead of
death and dying terms is sometimes desirable in helping with the healing process. This alternative language can sometimes be amusing and/or distancing. Pushing up daisies, the big sleep, off to the happy hunting grounds, dead as a mackerel/doornail, going home, shuffling off to Buffalo, bought the farm, cashed in, checked out, croaked, curtains, crossed over, drop dead, departed, dust to dust, eternal rest, expired, give up the ghost, kick the bucket, last breath, the hour has come, the race is run, the days are numbered, on the heavenly shores, passed away, passed on, perished, resting in peace, rubbed out, succumbed, six feet under, terminated, thats all she wrote, give up the ghost, done in, withered away, etc. It is very difficult for parents to talk to children about death and dying, because it is the ultimate loss of control. Some parents prepare children for death using nature as the tool. Dying leaves in the fall or the death of a pet might introduce the child to death. Parents that allow the child time to experience the loss of a pet, without softening the blow by
immediately buying another animal, may be preparing their child for future losses. Be honest. Its scary to know the truth, but its scarier if you dont know. Parents cant fix everything. People cant always be happy. Technology has brought real and fictional On TV, children see people killed, who then show back up in another episode a day later, creating confusion or an illusion. Who Killed Cock Robin is a nursery rhyme beginning: Who killed Cock Robin? I, said the Sparrow, with my bow and arrow, I killed Cock Robin. Probably the most wellknown theory on the stages of grief might be from
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' 1969 book, "On Death and Dying." Since the time of that publication, todays psychologists generally agree that those reactions are experienced in response to any loss, including the loss of life of a loved one. The 5 stages of grief have been revised to include at least 7 - Shock (or Disbelief) responses: - Denial - Anger - Bargaining - Guilt - Depression - Acceptance STAGE 1: SHOCK -serves to prevent feelings of being Individual stages overwhelmed, allow time for integration are not necessarily
and processing of event at first experienced in STAGE 2: DENIAL order, or at all. -no, it cant be; this cant happen, I dont believe it STAGE 3: ANGER -against those who caused the death -against the government who didn't do more to protect citizens -against God for allowing it to happen -against the dead for not doing more to save themselves (though it seems irrational) -against self (feelings of guilt) STAGE 4: BARGAINING -I promise Ill do better if only
Take me instead STAGE 5: GUILT -feelings of survivor guilt: "Why should I still be alive and theyre not? or If only I had done more STAGE 6: DEPRESSION -inability to cope emotionally; physical reactions (nausea, head or stomach aches, nausea, loss of appetite); experienced as intense feelings of loss and sadness that may last weeks, months, or years. STAGE 7: ACCEPTANCE -Finding inner strength through listening to each other, support groups, family;
moving toward integration of With 17 people dying every day in the United States for lack of an organ transplant, more and more people are considering the possibility of donating organs - or even their entire bodies - after death. With advances in medical science, its now possible to donate: Organs (before and after death) Tissue (including skin, bone, corneas, heart valves, blood vessels and tendons) Bone marrow (before and after death) Your entire body, for medical research
Under the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1984, its illegal to sell or buy- human organs or bodies. Anyone violating this law can be fined and/or sent to jail. Available transplant organs are gifted according to many factors, including: Location of the donor and recipient Severity of illness Physical characteristics like blood type, size, and genetic makeup Factors like wealth or celebrity status are not considered
The whole body donation program for the state of Nebraska is handled by the Nebraska Anatomical Board. Enrollment in the program is required on record before death. Donors may designate the recipient of their choice: University of Nebraska, Creighton University, or Nebraska Anatomical Board-unspecified Many bodies are rejected, including those of minors under 18 years old unless a deed form is co-signed by parents or legal guardian; bodies that have undergone extensive autopsies, trauma, highly contagious disease, excessive obesity, or emaciation; and bodies of persons whose families object. After cadavers are used for at least 2 years, the cremains (cremated remains) can be returned to the family for final disposition, if desired.
You can note your desire to be an organ donor on your drivers license. An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. The principal aim of an autopsy is to discover the cause of death, to determine the state of health of the person before he or she died, and whether any medical diagnosis and treatment before
death was appropriate. Forensic Autopsy: Done for legal purposes; takes several days to weeks to complete; no family permission is required; used to determine the cause of death: Natural, Accident, Homicide, Suicide, Undetermined Clinical Autopsy: Usually performed in hospitals to determine a cause of death for research and study purposes. Permission from legal next of kin is required. Coroner's Autopsy: The county medical examiner/ coroner may require an autopsy for any purpose, including practice, in the states interest. No permission of the family is required.
Y-incision for abdominal cavity Incision from ear to ear on back of scalp; scalp peeled forward over face and skull opened to inspect brain A death certificate is a document issued by a government official such as a registrar of vital statistics, and declares the date, location and Before issuing a death cause of a person's death. certificate, the authorities usually require a certificate from a physician or coroner to validate the cause of death and the identity of the deceased.
Purposes of the certificate: 1.review the cause of death to determine if foul-play occurred 2.may also be required in order to arrange a burial/cremation 3.to prove a person's will Embalming is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to delay decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral if desired. The three goals of embalming are: preservation, sanitization, and presentation (or restoration) of a dead body. Most states require embalming, refrigeration, or burial within 24 hours after death (except for religious objections). After death has been determined by the physician or coroner, it is verified by:
1. rigor mortis a change in the muscles after death that causes a stiffness in the limbs 2. lividity a settling of the The mortician (funeral director) or embalmer, following the familys direction, transports the deceased to the mortuary (funeral home). The identity of the deceased is verified, and the corpse is washed and disinfected with germicidal solutions. The embalmer bends , flexes, and massages the arms and legs to relieve rigor mortis. The human body begins to dehydrate after a person dies. Because the skin is so dry, it "pulls away from nails and hair." This makes it appear as though the nails and hair are growing, but in fact, it's really the opposite. The body is shrinking. Moisturizer can be applied to help with a
more natural appearance to the skin. The process of closing the mouth, eyes, shaving, etc is collectively known as setting the features. The eyes are closed and kept closed with an eye cap under the lid that keeps them shut and in the proper expression, or with adhesive. The mouth may be closed via suturing, using an adhesive, wire, or other specialized device. Care is taken to make the expression look as relaxed and natural as possible. Ideally, a recent photograph of the deceased while still living is used as a guide.
An embalmer has passed a National Board Examination and Licensing procedure, and has completed a study in anatomy, chemistry, and mortuary science. Immediate family members only have rights to view or assist with body preparation. The actual embalming process usually involves four parts: 1. Arterial embalming - draining blood and displacing it with chemicals (using the gravity of a slanted table and a pump) 2. Cavity embalming suctioning internal fluids from a small abdominal incision, puncturing hollow organs, and filling the cavities with chemicals
3. Hypodermic embalming injecting embalming chemicals under the skin 4. Surface embalming supplements other methods and includes the restoration of injured body parts with modeling wax Embalming chemicals are a variety of preservatives, sanitizing, and disinfectant agents and additives used to temporarily prevent decomposition and restore a natural appearance for viewing a body after death. Typical embalming fluid contains a mixture of formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol, and other While embalmers hope solvents. The fluids are or can be colored to to create a somewhat restore a more life-like appearance. life-like appearance of the corpse, the goal is not to truly make the
person appear alive. This would prolong denial. Family and friends may view the body and remark he doesnt look natural. No, the corpse does not look natural. The person is no longer alive. After embalming, the body may once again be washed and dried. Moisturizing creams may be applied, as well as lightlyfragranced powders. The body is dressed. Wax may be used to repair damaged areas of the body. The family usually selects the clothes for the deceased. Makeup is used on both men
and women, designed to add depth and dimension to a person's features that the lack of blood circulation has removed. The embalmer may fix the hair and add makeup, or trained cosmetologists may be hired for this purpose. Once again, a recent photo of the deceased may be helpful. Using the exact makeup, nail polish, and hair style of the deceased prior to death might be possible. Cremation is the practice of disposing of a human corpse by burning. A body to be cremated is first placed in a container for cremation, (regular casket, a simple corrugated cardboard box, a plain wooden box, or a special liner from a rented casket, and then placed in the crematorium/crematory. The chamber where the body is placed is called
the retort, which incinerates the body at 1400 2100 F. During the process, flesh, organs, and other soft tissue is vaporized and oxidized due to the heat, and gases are discharged through the exhaust system. The entire process usually takes about two hours. Larger bone pieces are put into a machine, grinding them into finer fragments resembling wood-ash in appearance. Cremated remains are returned to the funeral home/ A columbarium is a special wall next of kin in a plastic or entombment facility with container in a cardboard box small niches for cremains. or velvet sack, along with an Some people prefer cremation official cremation certificate.
to slow decomposition of the Some families bury cremains, body. Some prefer it because of while others keep them in cost, simplicity, and their homes. There are environmental concerns. environmental concerns with spreading the cremains elsewhere. How about setting them aloft in a helium balloon, or shoot them up in fireworks, or have them made into a manmade diamond, added to a manmade coral reef, or carry them in a locket? A funeral director may or may not be a qualified embalmer. The funeral director, or mortician, runs
the mortuary business. They manage and maintain the funeral home (mortuary). They counsel and work together directly with the families or next of kin in regard to the conduct of the funeral service and disposition of the deceased. In the 1800s the local funeral director, once known as an undertaker, typically operated a furniture store and built caskets too. Today, the manufacture and sale of coffins, caskets, and urns is a separate industry. Casket 6 sides COFFIN 8 sides
Full couch lid is one piece Receptacles for burial can be purchased or rented (used for viewing only or a funeral service prior to cremation or body donation). The cost of the receptacle is usually the most expensive portion of the total funeral cost. Considerations in Purchasing a Casket Lumber or metal costs: Bronze, copper, stainless steel (in various gauges or thicknesses, and wood (mahogany, walnut, cherry, maple, oak, ash, poplar, pine, and wood veneers). Thickness and type of metal or wood Exterior shell design Corner design Finish: brushed, glossy, satin finishes Interiors: velvets, crepes, satins Hardware such as bed frame, raising, lowering, and tilting mechanisms, locks
Gasket seals Jewish Orthodox requirements (must be fully biodegradeable and have holes drilled in the bottom to hasten decomposition) The National Funeral Directors Association estimates the average cost of a funeral in the United States as of July 2004, is $6,500, not including burial cost. Social Security allows a benefit of $250. The cost of the funeral is dependent upon the services used and the merchandise selected. There are three places where expenses are incurred: 1. Professional Services (embalming, printing obituaries, the hearse) 2. Merchandise selected (casket, vault, urn) 3. Cash Advance Items. Cash advance items are items that the funeral director pays for on a family's behalf, that are not
directly their services. These items include clergy honorarium, music honorarium, grave opening, flowers, lunch, and monument work Pre-planned and pre-paid funerals do 3 things: 1. Locks in preinflationary prices 2. Removes the burden of funeral planning for relatives at a time when their judgment may be impaired 3. The funeral preferences of the deceased can be carried out without question Families that feel any sense of guilt about the death tend to be emotionally over-loaded and make decisions about funeral costs that they really cant afford.
Prior to many funerals, a viewing or visitation is held. Family and friends use this ritual with an open casket to realize the death and deal with grief. During the viewing, pink-colored lighting is sometimes used near the body to lend a warmer tone to the deceased's complexion. A closed casket may be desired (lid is closed), especially if the body was damaged. For Irish descendants or others, a wake usually lasts 3 full days.
On the day after the wake the funeral takes place. Family members and friends will ensure that there is always someone Some cultures and religions awake with the body, traditionally consider the sending of saying prayers. flowers, embalming, or viewing of the body as disrespectful. A funeral may take place at either a funeral home or church, usually 3-5 days after the death of the deceased. During the funeral and at the burial service, the casket may be covered with a large arrangement of flowers, called a casket spray. If the decedent served in a
branch of the Armed forces, the casket may be covered with a national flag; however nothing should cover the national flag. Use of the flag for funerals is governed by law. Funeral services may be conducted by the funeral director or clergy. They may include prayers, readings from the Bible or other sacred texts; hymns sung by the attendees or a hired vocalist; and words of comfort by the clergy. A funeral service provides a place for family and friends to gather for support and to reminisce; an opportunity to
celebrate the life and accomplishments of a loved one; a chance to say goodbye; and the focal point from which the healing process can begin. The funeral identifies that a person's life has been lived, not that a death has occurred. It is also important to notify A eulogy is a speech or writing in tribute to the community a person or people who have recently that this person died. Eulogies should not be confused
has died. There with elegies, which are poems written in are people beyond tribute to the dead; nor with obituaries, the immediate which are published biographies family who have recounting the lives of those who have the right to grieve recently died; nor with obsequies, which a death. refer generally to the rituals surrounding In the United States, black is generally considered the color of mourning. At a time White flowers like this, it is considered from the lily improper by some to draw
family are attention to yourself by traditional wearing bright colors. In flowers for some Asian cultures, white funerals. is the color of mourning. Memorial gifts are sometimes given to the family. These might include food or flowers, or money. Money may aid the family or be designated by the family for a special cause. Example: Memorial money given at the funeral of a person who suffered from Alzheimers Disease prior to death might be designated for research for a cure for Alzheimers; money given to the family of a deceased young father might be designated for his childrens college education. The memorial service is a service given for the deceased without the body
present. This may take place before or after a burial, donation of the body to science, cremation (sometimes the cremains are present), or burial at sea. Typically these services take place at the funeral home and may include prayers, poems, or songs to remember the deceased. Pictures of the deceased are usually placed at the altar where the body would normally be to pay respects by. A memorial service is appropriate when bodies cannot be recovered and identified after mass tragedies or wartime. Funerals and memorial services are in memory of the deadbut they are FOR the living. Burial, also called interment, is the act of placing a body into the ground. After
death, a corpse will start to decay and emit unpleasant odors due to gases released by bacterial decomposition. Burial prevents the living from having to see and smell the decomposing corpse. Jewelry may be removed just prior to the casket being closed for the final time. This discourages the idea of grave robbing for artifacts. In many religious traditions, the pall or body-in-a-casket is carried by 6-8 relatives such as cousins, nephews, grandchildren or friends of the decedent called pallbearers. A burial service may be conducted immediately following the funeral, beginning with a
procession. The large car transporting the pall, the hearse, is followed by the immediate In some military funerals, family and then the other a caisson (wagon carrying attendees, and travels to the artillery ammunition) may burial site. be used to transport the casket. A unique funeral tradition in the United States is the New Orleans Jazz Funeral arising from AfricanAmerican spiritual and French musical traditions. A typical jazz funeral begins with a march by the family, friends, and a jazz band from the home or funeral to the cemetery,
while a band plays somber dirges. Once the final ceremony has taken place, the solemn music is replaced by loud, upbeat music and dancing. The New Orleans dance known as the second line" is where celebrants do a dance-march, while raising the hats and umbrellas and waving handkerchiefs above the head that are no longer being used to wipe away tears. A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremains are buried. The term cemetery, from the Greek meaning sleeping place, implies that the land is specifically designated as a burying ground.
Some Christians wish to be buried in consecrated ground," usually a cemetery in or near the churchhence the word churchyard or graveyard. Graves near the Gulf of Mexico are above-ground due to the high water tables. Body positioning Burials may be placed in a number of different positions. Christian burials are made extended, lying flat with arms and
legs straight, or with the arms folded upon the chest, and with the eyes and mouth closed. Other practices place the body on its side in a flexed position with the legs folded up to the chest. Warriors in some ancient societies were buried in an upright position. In Islam, the head is pointed toward and the face is turned toward Mecca, the holiest city in Islam. Casket Orientation: Historically, Christian burials were made supine east-west, with the head at the western end of the graveto view the coming of Christ on Judgment Day. Natural burial grounds are also known as woodland cemeteries, ecocemeteries, memorial nature preserves, or
green burial grounds. A growing trend in the U.S. is a natural burial, used in protecting and restoring the natural environment. With a natural burial, the body is returned to nature in a biodegradable coffin or shroud (winding, sheet-like burial garment). Native vegetation or memorial trees are often planted over or near the grave in place of a conventional cemetery monument. The resulting green space establishes a living memorial and forms a protected wildlife preserve. A potters field is a countyowned piece of land for burying the unknown and
indigent. A burial vault is a protective outer container for a casket. One of those or a simpler concrete container called a graveliner may be required by some cemeteries to keep the ground from settling and preserve the beauty and ease the maintenance of the memorial park or cemetery. While basic concrete offers no protection from outside elements, the reinforced vault has a synthetic material or metal applied to the concrete to improve the integrity and strength. Stainless steel, bronze, and copper are
common metals for these. If the decedent served in a branch of the Armed Forces, military rites are often provided at the burial service by representatives of the Armed Forces or Veterans organizations such as the American Legion.a gun salute, Military rites include the playing of Taps (Army bugle call at the end of the day), and the presentation of the folded casket flag to the surviving widow or family member. The military also provides a monument to mark the grave if desired. Others in
uniform, such as firefighters and police officers are honored with special funeral rites. At a police officer's or firefighter's funeral, the bagpipes are often played. A foot procession of department members in full dress uniforms follow fire trucks bearing the caskets of fallen firefighters. The fire trucks pass under an arch of the raised aerial ladders and suspended flags. A mausoleum is a free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the
burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A mausoleum may be temporarily locked or permanently sealed; it encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure. The pyramids of ancient Egypt are also types of tomb, each housing one or more mummies. A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. They are wrapped in a shroud and buried with possessions. Crypts are stone or brick-lined underground spaces or 'burial' chambers for the interment of a dead body or bodies. They often have vaulted ceilings and stone
slab entrances. They are often privately owned and used for specific family or other groups. They are often found beneath public religious buildings, in cemeteries, beneath mausolea, or in churchyards. The poet Edgar Allen Poe wrote of crypts. Catacombs are a network of underground burial galleries, such as caves, grottos, or subterranean places. Burial at sea means the deliberate disposal of a corpse into the ocean, weighted to make sure it sinks. Two reasons for burial at sea are if the
Legally, a Captain can deceased died while at sea and it is bury remains at sea, impractical to return the remains to provided that shore, or if the deceased died on environmental land but a burial at sea is requested regulations and dumping for private or cultural reasons. laws are satisfied. In the United States, ashes have to be scattered at least 3 miles from shore; bodies can be given to the sea if the location is at least 600 feet (200 m) deep. Special regulations may also apply to the urns and coffins
Mass burial is the practice of burying multiple bodies in one location. This may be the only Some married couples, family members, or groups practical means of dealing with an overwhelming number of human of people may wish to be buried in the same plot. Two remains, such as those resulting from a natural disaster, an act of reasons for this: terrorism, an epidemic, or an 1. cost-effective and accident. 2.saves space in cemeteries Coffins can be buried standing on end, with several coffins in one plot. Caskets may also be interred one above another. The
first casket is buried deeper than the traditional 6 feet, and the second casket is buried on top with only a thin layer of dirt In many traditions, a meal or other gathering follows the burial service, either at the decedent's home, fellowship hall at their place of worship, or other off-site location. This provides a time to reminisce and grieve and provide comfort. A headstone, gravestone, tombstone, or monument is a marker used to identify the resting place of the deceased. They can also
offer genealogical information. Materials commonly found in cemeteries are: aluminum, bronze, granite, marble, field stones, and zinc. Each material has features and benefits that are unique to the properties of the metal or stonework being considered. Those of Jewish faith visiting graves might leave a small stone at the graveside. This shows that someone has visited, represents permanence, and is a way of tending the grave. Poor John Gray, here he lies, No one laughs, and no one cries, Where he's gone, and how he fares, No one knows, and no one cares.
An epitaph is text honoring the deceased, most commonly Quoth the Raven, inscribed on a tombstone or "Nevermore." plaque. The Best is yet to come. Mine today, yours tomorrow Stranger by the roadside, do not smile When you see this grave, though it is only a dog's, Here Lies Lester Moore, My master wept when I died, and his own hand Four Slugs From A .44, Laid me in earth and wrote these lines on my tomb. No Les, No More Rest in Peace. That's all folks! Step softly, a dream lies buried here.
I told you I was ill. Never Born, Never Died Only visited this planet Earth between December 11, 1931 and January 19, 1990. He beat her 189 times. She only got flowers once. Suicide is the act of intentionally taking one's own life. Views on suicide have been largely shaped by cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. Most religions consider suicide a dishonorable or sinful act; some societies consider it a crime. In
some Asian cultures it has been considered an honorable way to atone for past mistakes or an acceptable military strategy. Assisted suicide, euthanasia, is a controversial ethical issue related to people who are terminally ill, in extreme pain, and/or have minimal quality of life through illness. Self-sacrifice for others is not usually considered suicide. The predominant view in modern medicine is of suicide as a mental health concern. Many countries have buried an unidentified soldier (or other member of the military) in a prominent location as a form of respect for all unidentified war dead. In the United States, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, DC. The Tomb contains remains of unknown U.S. soldiers from World Wars I and II, the Korean Conflict and Vietnam War.
Each was presented with the Medal of Honor at the time of interment and the medals and flags which covered their caskets, are on display inside the Memorial Amphitheater, directly to the rear of the Tomb. The Tomb is guarded "Here Rests 24-hours-per-day and 365-days-per year In Honored Glory by specially trained members of the 3rd An American Soldier United States Infantry (The Old Guard). Known But To God" The afterlife, or life after death, is a generic term referring to a "continuation" of existence, typically spiritual, experiential, or ghost-like, beyond this world, or after physical death. The major views in this area derive
from religion, metaphysics, and science. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the true essence unique to a particular living being. Souls are often considered immortal, and exist before birth and after death. Many different views exist regarding the soul. Some see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it to possibly have a material component, and some have even tried to establish the mass or weight of the soul. Reincarnation means to be made flesh again. It is a belief that some essential part of a living being survives death to be reborn in a new body. According to such beliefs, a new personality is developed during each life in the physical world, but
some part of the being remains constantly present throughout these successive lives as well. Socrates, Pythagoras, and Plato were ancient Greeks that taught about reincarnation. Reincarnation is widely believed in Eastern religions and Native American Indians. Some cultures believe only in the reincarnation of human beings. The idea that the soul (of any living being - including animals, humans and plants) reincarnates is intricately linked to karma the
cumulative sum of a persons existence. Archaeology (archeology) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, human remains, and landscapes. Archaeology is the branch of Anthropology that studies the material remains of past cultures in order to describe or explain human behavior. In Greek mythology, Hades was a god who ruled his land of the dead located beneath the surface of the earth. The Styx was the best-known river in Hades. To cross it, a soul had to be ferried
by Charon, a boatman. He demanded payment, so the Greeks placed coins in the mouths of their dead or on their eyes before burying them. In some cultures they placed silver coins on the eyes of the dead to keep them closed, because if the eyes remained open, we would see our own death captured in their eyes. Although frowned on by most cultures, some good reasons exist to exhume a body: 1. To determine cause of death under suspicious circumstances 2. So survivors can rebury
those that have recently been identified 3. So remains can be reinterred at a more appropriate location (such as when moving a cemetery) Another word for burial or interment is inhumation. Therefore, retrieving the body from the grave is called exhumation or disinterration . 4. To obtain the answers to certain historical questions.