Metabolism of Sulfur containing amino acids Dr. Ketki
Metabolism of Sulfur containing amino acids Dr. Ketki K Assistant Professor Dept of Biochemistry HIMS Varanasi Sulfur containing amino acids
The sulfur containing amino acids: Methionine, cysteine & cystine Methionine is glucogenic & essential amino acid Serves as a precursor for the synthesis of cysteine & cystine which are non-essential Cysteine & cystine are interconvertible Cystine is found exclusively in protein
Methionine: required for the initiation of protein biosynthesis The sulfur - containing amino acids: almost an exclusive dietary source of sulfur to the body Metabolism of Methionine It may be divided into three parts 1. Activation of methionine & transmethylation
reaction 2. Conversion of methionine to cysteine & cystine 3. Degradation of cysteine & its conversion to specialized products Synthesis of SAM Methionine metabolism
Methionine Accepto r Methyl transferase
CH 3 Methylate d product Adenosylhomocysteinase Sadenosylhomocysteine
Homocysteine Adenosine SAM 2Pi + Pi
ATP THF N5-Methyl THF Methionine
adenosyltransferase H2 O Activation of methionine Methionine has to be activated to Sadenosylmethionine (SAM) or active methionine [to donate the methyl group]
The synthesis of SAM occurs by the transfer of adenosyl group from ATP to sulfur atom of methionine This reaction is catalysed by methionine Sadenosyltransferase (MAT) 3 isoenzymes for MAT Three high energy phosphates (3ATP) are consumed in the formation of SAM SAM is the main source of methyl groups in body
Methyl transfer: SAM transfers the methyl group to an acceptor & gets itself converted to S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme: methyltransferase
Homocysteine: S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is hydrolysed (adenosyl group is removed) to homocysteine & adenosine enzyme: adenosine homocysteinase Methionine synthesis (from homocysteine): Homocysteine can be remethylated to methionine by N5-methyl tetrahydrofolate
This methyl group is donated from one-carbon pool, with the help of vitamin B12 In this manner, methionine can be regenerated for reuse Homocysteine degradation: Homocysteine condenses with serine to form cystathionine
This is catalysed by PLP dependent cystathionine-synthase Absence of this enzyme leads to homocystinuria Cysteine synthesis: Hydrolysis of cystathionine to form homoserine & cysteine enzyme: cystathionase Net result: SH group is transferred from methionine to serine to form cysteine
It is c/a trans-sulfuration reaction Final oxidation Homoserine is deaminated & then decarboxylated to form propionyl CoA Which enters into TCA cycle as succinyl CoA Which is converted to glucose
Transmethylation The transfer of methyl group (-CH3) from active methionine/SAM to an acceptor is known as transmethylation SAM acts as donor of methyl group to the acceptor ,so that acceptor is converted to methyl acceptor The enzymes involved in the transfer of methyl
group : collectively k/a methyl-transferases Origin of methyl group: derived from one carbon pool Methyl THFA can transfer methyl group to homocysteine Vit B12 acts as co-enzyme Explain folate trap
Transmethylation reactions Methyl group acceptor Methylated product Guanidinoacetate
Methyl lysine "As soon as the fear approaches near, attack and destroy it." Chanakya quotes (Indian politician, strategist and writer, 350 BC-275 BC)
Cysteine Metabolism Content 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
Introduction Synthesis of cysteine Degradation of cysteine Metabolic function of cysteine Disorders a/w cysteine metabolism Cysteine (Cys)(C)
Non-essential Glucogenic amino acid Cysteine : present in large quantity in keratin of hair & nails Formation of cysteine is by using the carbon skeleton contributed by serine & sulfur originating from methionine
Synthesis of Cysteine Degradation of Cysteine 1) Trans-amination 2) May be removed as H2S 3) Decarboxylation Pyruvate formation from cysteine
Decarboxylation of cysteine Metabolic Functions of Cysteine Formation of Glutathione 1) Amino acid transport 2) Co-enzyme role 3) RBC membrane integrity
4) Prevents met-hemoglobinemia 5) Conjugation for detoxification 6) Activation of enzymes 7) Formation of Taurine 8) Keeping correct structure of proteins Glutathion e
Role of glutathione in Amino acid transport Role of glutathione as Co-enzyme 2GSH ( Reduced) GS-SG (Oxidized) + H2 Hydrogen released is used for reducing other substrates
1) Maleylacetoacetate Fumarylacetoacetate 2) Cysteic acid Taurine 3) (Iodine) I2 + 2GSH 2HI + GS-SG Role of glutathione in maintaining RBC membrane integrity Free radical scavenging
Role of glutathione in preventing methemoglobinemia 2 Met-Hb-(Fe 3+) + 2 GSH 2Hb (Fe 2+) + 2 H + + GS-SG Glutathione is required to convert metHb(ferric state) to normal Hb (ferrous state) Role of glutathione in conjugation for detoxification
Helps to detoxify several compounds by transferring the cysteinyl group, Eg: 1) Organophosphorus compounds 2) Halogenated compounds 3) Heavy metals 4) Drug metabolism
1) GST 2) Peptidase 3) Acetylase Role of glutathione in keeping the enzymes in reduced ,active state Formation of taurine
Cysteine to cystic acid and then taurine Taurine is used for conjugation of bile acids Taurine + Cholyl CoA Tauro cholate + CoASH Taurine: Inhibitory Neurotransmitter in CNS Formation of taurine from cysteine Role of glutathione in Keeping correct structure of proteins
Cysteine residues in polypeptide chains form disulfide bridges to make active proteins, e.g. insulin & immunoglobulins Inborn errors of sulfur containing amino acid metabolism 1)
Acquired Hyperhomocysteinemia Inborn errors of sulfur amino acid metabolism Cystinuria (cystine-lysinuria): The most common inherited disease/AR It is characterized by increased excretion of cystine
Elevation in the urinary output of ornithine,arginine & lysine A specific carrier system exists in kidney tubules for the reabsorption of amino acids, namely cystine, ornithine, arginine & lysine (COAL to recall) In cystinuria, this carrier system becomes defective leading to the excretion of all these four amino acids
in urine (cause) Cystine is relatively insoluble & increased concentrations leads to precipitation & formation of cystine stones in kidney & urinary tract (c/f) Cystinuria is usually identified in the laboratory by cyanide nitroprusside test The treatment includes restricted ingestion of dietary
cysteine & high intake of fluids Cystinosis (cystine storage disease) Cystine crystals are deposited in many tissues & organs of reticulo-endothelial system throughout the body These include spleen, lymph nodes, liver, kidney, bone marrow etc.
A defect in the Iysosomal function Cystine accumulates in the lysosomes of various tissues In cystinosis, renal function is impaired It is characterized by generalized amino aciduria The affected patients die within 10 years, mostly due to renal failure
Homocystinurias Homocystinurias : A group of metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation & increased urinary excretion of homocysteine & S-adenosyl methionine, decreased cysteine in urine Plasma concentration of methionine is increased
Homocystinuria type I Enzyme defect: Cystathionine beta synthase Accumulation of homocysteine & methionine,excreted in urine Plasma cysteine reduced Two forms of type I homocystinurias One of them can be corrected with vitamin B6
supplementation (B6 responsive) while the other does not respond to B6. Homocystinuria ll: N5 - N10 - Methylene THF reductase deficiency Homocystinuria lll: N5 Methyl THF homocysteine methyltransferase deficiency This is mostly due to impairment in the synthesis of
methylcobalamin Homocystinurla lV: N5 - Methyl THF homocysteine methyl transferase deficiency This is primarily due to a defect in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 C/F: 1) Mental retardation
blood 3) Cyanide-nitroprusside test: positive in urine ,it indicates urine homocysteine > 300 mg/24h Treatment: The treatment includes consumption of diet low in methionine & high in cysteine
PLP given in large doses (500 mg) : corrects the defect The patients of homocystinuria have high levels of homocysteine & usually die of myocardial infarction, stroke. Homocysteine & heart attack:
Homocysteine & heart attack Homocysteine interacts with lysyl residue of collagen Interfere with collagen cross linking & also defective protein fibrillin forms homocysteine thiolactone
which binds with LDL particles Particles aggregate & endocytosed by macrophages increased tendency for atherogenesis Providing adequate PLP,Folic acid, Vitamin B12 keep homocysteine in blood at normal level
Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia: Increase chance of neural tube defect in fetus,so high doses of folic acid advised during pregnancy Cystathioninuria Autosomal recessive condition Enzyme defect: cystathionase deficiency C/F:
Mentalretardation,anemia,thrombocytopenia Investigation: Cystathionine in blood & urine, Negative cyanide nitroprusside test Treatment: cysteine rich diet, diet low in methionine, PLP in large doses(200-400 mg) Acquired Hyperhomocysteinemia Causes
1) Nutritional: B12,folic acid,PLP deficiency 2) Metabolic: hypothyroidism,chronic renal disease 3) Drug induced: Folate antagonist,B12 antagonist, Pyridoxine antagonist Oasthouse syndrome is due to malabsorption of methionine. Such children excrete methionine, aromatic & branched chain amino acids in urine
DMNA . Mission . Goal Statement. Relevant Team Mission Alignment. Example: HRO. Example "Mission Goal Statement" "Provide forces to execute global missions across full spectrum operations as directed in support of our communities, civil authority, and the National Military and...
Graf Estes et al, 2007: found that SLI children performed worse than their peers without SLI in repeating long and short non words. However, SLI children had a greater difficulty in repeating long non words. "non word length, articulatory. complexity,...
ELDA was developed 2002-2005 with a multi-state consortium (CCSSO). April 2005 was 1st year ELDA administered in OH, about 14,000 ELL students participated statewide. Results available to districts mid-September (results delayed because of technical operational issues with test contractors that...
- Fragmented view of topology and complex routing: limited capabilities to steer traffic from shortest path determined by routing protocols. There is also the . DevOps . model from the IT world which is based on automated services, simplicity in...
Heat exchange between solution/water and reaction (1st law of thermodynamics): q. ... the enthalpy change for the reaction forming 1 mole of a pure compound from its constituent elements. the elements must be in their standard states.
The HLT!!! The Horizontal Line Test The inverse of a relation is a function if and only if each horizontal line intersects the graph of the original function in at most one point. Fails the HLT miserably!!! So, its inverse...
Citator, which is accessible to all with an OUP Law subscription, OXIO. greatly enables research as it permits users to follow citations and other links between content. Oxford International Organizations . sits on the . Oxford Public International Law ....
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!