Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy

Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy

Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy Opener Essential Question How effective is monetary policy as a government tool? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2 Guiding Questions Section 1: The Federal Reserve System How is the Federal Reserve System

organized? The Federal Reserve System has a sevenmember Board of Governors and one person who acts as the chair. It also has 12 Federal Reserve Banks and 2,600 member banks across the country. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3 Guiding Questions Section 2: Federal Reserve Functions What does the Federal Reserve do? The Federal Reserve provides banking and fiscal services to the United States government. It also

clears checks, supervises lending practices, acts as a lender of last resort, regulates the banking system, and regulates the money supply. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4 Guiding Questions Section 3: Monetary Policy Tools How does the Federal Reserve control the amount of money in use? In order to control the amount of money in use, the Federal Reserve can change the required reserve ratio, raise or lower the discount rate, and buy or

sell bonds through open market operations. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5 Guiding Questions Section 4: Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Stabilization How does monetary policy affect economic stability? The actions taken by the Fed to alter the supply of money in circulation are used to keep the economy stable and avoid the pitfalls of recessions and inflation.

Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6 Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy Section 1 Objectives 1. Describe banking history in the United States. 2. Explain why the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 led to further reform. 3. Describe the structure of the Federal

Reserve System. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8 Key Terms monetary policy: the actions that the Federal Reserve System takes to influence the level of real GDP and the rate of inflation in the economy reserves: deposits that a bank keeps readily available as opposed to lending them out reserve requirements: the amount of

reserves that banks are required to keep on hand Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9 Introduction How is the Federal Reserve System organized? The Federal Reserve System has: A seven-member Board of Governors with one governor acting as the chair 12 District Reserve Banks 4,000 member banks and 25,000 other depository institutions across the country

Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10 What is Monetary Policy? The Federal Reserve Systems most prominent task is to act as the main spokesperson for the countrys monetary policy. Monetary policy refers to the actions that the

Fed takes to influence the level of real GDP and the rate of inflation in the economy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11 Banking History The role of a central bank in the U.S. economy has been hotly debated for many centuries. The First Bank of the United States, which issued a single currency and reviewed banking practices, only lasted until 1811, when Congress refused to extend its charter.

The Second Bank of the United States was established in 1816 to restore order to the monetary system. It lasted until 1836, when its charter expired. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12 Banking History, cont. A period of chaos and confusion followed. Reserve requirements were difficult to enforce among the various state and federal chartered banks. The Panic of 1907 finally convinced Congress to act.

The nations banking system needed to address two issues: Greater access to funds A source of emergency cash to prevent bank runs Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13 Federal Reserve Act of 1913 The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 attempted to solve these problems. This Act created the Federal Reserve System, which consists of 12 banks that can lend money to other banks in times of need.

Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14 The Fed and the Depression Checkpoint: Why did the Fed fail to prevent the financial crisis that led to the Great Depression? Congress hoped to avoid a situation like the Great Depression by creating the Fed, but it was unable to. The system did not work well because the regional banks each acted independently. By the time Congress forced the Fed to take strong

action in 1932, it was too little, too late. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15 A Stronger Fed In 1935, Congress adjusted the Federal Reserve so that it could respond more effectively to future crises. The new Fed enjoyed a more centralized power so that the regional banks were able to act consistently with one another while still representing their own districts banking concerns.

Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16 Structure of the Fed The Federal Reserve System is overseen by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve. This seven-member board is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The President also appoints the chair of the Board of Governors from among these seven members.

Recent chairs have been economists from business, the academic world, or government. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17 Former Fed Chairs Alan Greenspan, a former economics professor and head of the Presidents Council of Economic Advisors has been the most notable chair of modern times. Ben Bernanke, the head of the CEA and former economics professor as well, became chair in 2006, when Greenspan stepped down. Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18 Twelve Federal Reserve Banks The Federal Reserve Act divided the United States into 12 Federal District one Federal Reserve Banks is located in each district. Each district is made up of more than one state and Congress regulates the makeup of each Reserve Banks board of nine directors to make

sure it represents many interests. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19 Member Banks All nationally chartered banks are required to join the Federal Reserve System. State-chartered banks join voluntarily. All banks have equal access to Fed services whether or not they are Fed members. Each of the 2,600 member banks contributes a small amount of money to

join the system, which means the banks themselves own the Fed, keeping the system politically independent. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20 The Federal Reserve System About 40 percent of all United States banks belong to the Federal Reserve. At which of the three levels of this Fed structure would a

nationally chartered bank in your community fit? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21 FOMC The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) makes key monetary policy decisions about interest rates and the growth of the United States money supply. FOMCs decisions can affect financial markets and rates for mortgages as well as many economic institutions around the world.

FOMC members include: Chapter 16, Opener All 7 members of the Board of Governors 5 of the 12 district bank presidents President of the New York Federal Reserve Bank The six other district bank presidents who serve one-year terms on a rotating basis Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22

Review Now that you have learned about how the Federal Reserve System is organized, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. How effective is monetary policy as an economic tool? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23 Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy

Section 2 Objectives 1. Describe how the Federal Reserve serves the federal government. 2. Explain how the Federal Reserve serves banks. 3. Describe how the Federal Reserve regulates the banking system. 4. Explain the Federal Reserves role in regulating the nations money supply. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25

Key Terms check clearing: the process by which banks record whose account gives up money and whose account receives money when a customer writes a check bank holding company: a company that owns more than one bank federal funds rate: the interest rate that banks charge each other for loans discount rate: the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges commercial banks for loans Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26

Introduction What does the Federal Reserve do? The Federal Reserve: Serves as banker and financial agent for the U.S. government Issues currency Clears checks Supervises lending practices Acts as a lender of last resort Regulates the banking system through reserve requirements and bank examinations Regulates the money supply Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 27 Serving Government Among the most important functions of the Fed is to provide banking and fiscal services to the federal government. The U.S. government pays out about $1.2 trillion each year to support social insurance programs. To handle its banking needs when dealing with such large sums, the federal government turns to the Federal Reserve. Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28 Banker Checkpoint: What does the Federal Reserve do in its role as the governments banker? The Federal Reserve maintains a checking account for the Treasury Department that is uses to process Social Security checks, income tax refunds, and other government payments. Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29 Agent The Fed also sells, transfers, and redeems securities, such as government bonds, bills, and notes. Under the Federal Reserve System, only the federal government can issue currency, which takes place at the United States Mint. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 30 Check Clearing The Feds most visible function is its check-clearing responsibilities. The Fed can clear millions of checks at any one time using high-speed equipment. Most checks clear within two days. Chapter 16, Opener

How long does it take most checks to clear? Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 31 Supervising Lending Practices To ensure stability, the Federal Reserve monitors bank reserves throughout the banking system. The Fed Board studies proposed bank mergers and bank holding company charters to ensure competition in banking and financial industries. The Fed also protects consumers by enforcing truth-in-lending laws, which require sellers to provide full and accurate information about

loan terms. Checkpoint: How does the Fed protect consumers who take out bank loans? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 32 Lender of Last Resort Banks lend each other money on a day-today basis, using money from their reserve balances. Banks can also borrow money from the Fed. They do this routinely and especially during financial emergencies. The Fed acts as a lender of last resort, making emergency loans to commercial

banks so that they can maintain required reserves. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 33 Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 34 Regulating the Banking System The Fed coordinate the regulating activities of banks, savings and loan

companies, credit unions, and bank holding companies. Each financial institution that holds deposits for customers must report daily to the Fed about its reserves and activities. The Fed uses these reserves to control how much money is in circulation at any one time. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 35 Bank Examinations The Fed and other regulatory agencies also examine banks periodically to make

sure that each institution is obeying laws and regulations. Bank examiners can force banks to sell risky investments or to declare loans that will not be repaid as losses. They can also classify an institution as a problem bank and force it to undergo more frequent examinations. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 36 Regulating the Money Supply The Federal Reserve is best known for its role in

regulating the nations money supply. The Feds job is to consider various measures of the money supply and compare those figures with the likely demand for money. The more money held as cash, the easier it is to make economic transactions. But, as interest rates rise, people and firms will generally keep their wealth in assets that pay returns. The general level of income also influences money demand. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 37

Stabilizing the Economy Too much money in the economy leads to inflation. It is the Feds job to prevent this by keeping the money supply stable. In an ideal world, where real GDP grew smoothly and the economy stayed at full employment, the Fed would increase the money supply just to match the growth in the demand for money. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 38 Review

Now that you have learned what the Federal Reserve does, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. How effective is monetary policy as an economic tool? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 39 Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy Section 3 Objectives

1. Describe the process of money creation. 2. Explain how the Federal Reserve uses reserve requirements, the discount rate, and open market operations to implement monetary policy. 3. Explain why the Fed favors one monetary policy tool over the others. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 41 Key Terms money creation: the process by which money enters into circulation

required reserve ration (RRR): the fraction of deposits that banks are required to keep in reserve money multiplier formula: a formula used to determine how much new money can be created with each demand deposit and added to the money supply Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 42 Key Terms, cont. excess reserves: bank reserves greater than the amount required by the Federal Reserve

prime rate: the rate of interest that banks charge on short-term loans to their best customers open market operations: the buying and selling of government securities in order to alter the supply of money Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 43 Introduction How does the Federal Reserve control the amount of money in use? The Federal Reserve controls the amount of money in use by changing the required

reserve ratio. The Fed can lower or raise the discount rate in order to decrease or increase the money supply. The Fed also uses open market operations to buy and sell government securities, which can alter the money supply. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 44 Money Creation The U.S. Department of the Treasury is responsible for

manufacturing money in the form of currency. The process by which money enters into circulation is known as money creation and is carried out by the Fed and by banks all around the country. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 45 Money Creation, cont.

Checkpoint: How do banks create money simply by going about their business making loans? Banks make money by charging interest on loans. The maximum amount that a bank can lend is determined by the required reserve ratio (RRR), which is calculated as the ratio of reserves to deposits. The RRR, which is established by the Fed, ensures that banks will have enough funds to supply customers withdrawal needs. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 46

Money Creation, cont. In this example of money creation, the money supply increases to $2,710 after four rounds. In this example, what is the RRR? Suppose Joshua deposited only $500 of Elaines payment into his account. How much would the money supply increase then? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 47 The Money Multiplier The money creation process will continue until

the loan amount becomes very small. To determine the total amount of new money that can be created and added to the money supply, economics use the money multiplier formula, which is calculated as 1/RRR. To apply the formula, they multiply the initial deposit by the money multiplier: Increase in money supply = initial cash deposit x 1/RRR The actual money multiplier effect in the United States is estimated to be between 2 and 3. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 48

Reserve Requirements The simplest way for the Fed to adjust the amount of reserves in the banking system is to change the required reserve ratio. What is the effect of reducing reserve requirements? What action taken by the Fed with respect to reserve requirements causes the money supply to decrease? Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 49 The Discount Rate The discount rate today is primarily used to ensure that sufficient funds are available in the economy. To enact monetary policy, the Fed primarily adjusts the federal funds rate the interest rate that banks charge each other for loans. The Fed sets the discount rate, and it keeps this rate above the federal funds rate. Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 50 The Prime Rate Changes in the federal funds rate and the discount rate affect the cost of borrowing to banks and other financial institutions. These changes, in turn, affect the prime rate, which is the rate of interest that banks charge on short-term loans to their best customers. These rates are all short-term rates. To influence long-term rates, the Fed uses other tools. Chapter 16, Opener

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 51 Open Market Operations Open market operations are the buying and selling of government securities in order to alter the supply of money and are the most often used tool of monetary policy. When the Fed sells government securities to bond dealers, does that increase or decrease the

amount of money in circulation? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 52 Bond Purchases When the FOMC chooses to increase the money supply, it orders the trade desk at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to purchase a certain quantity of government securities on the open market. The money form the bond sales gets deposited in the bond sellers banks.

In this way, funds enter the banking system, setting in motion the money creation process. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 53 Selling Bonds and Evaluating Targets The FOMC may also decrease the money supply by selling bonds. This operation reduces reserves in the banking system. The money multiplier process then works in reverse. To judge whether its open market operations are

having the desired effect on the economy, the Fed periodically evaluates one or more economics targets. Close analysis of these targets helps the Fed meet its goal of promoting a stable and prosperous economy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 54 Using Monetary Policy Tools Open market operations are the most often used tool of monetary policy. The Fed changes the discount rate less frequently and today, the Fed does not change reserve requirements to conduct

monetary policy. In setting its monetary policy goals, the Fed keeps close touch on market funds, studying inflation and business cycles to determine its policy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 55 Review Now that you have learned how the Federal Reserve controls the amount of money in use, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question.

How effective is monetary policy as an economic tool? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 56 Chapter 16: The Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy Section 4 Objectives 1. Explain how monetary policy works. 2. Describe the problem of timing in implementing monetary policy.

3. Explain why the Feds monetary policy can involve predicting business cycles. 4. Contrast two general approaches to monetary policy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 58 Key Terms monetarism: the belief that the money supply is the most important factor in macroeconomic performance easy money policy: a monetary policy that increases the money supply

tight money policy: a monetary policy that decreases the money supply inside lag: the time it takes to implement monetary policy outside lag: the time it takes for monetary policy to have an effect Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 59 Introduction How does monetary policy affect economic stability? The timing of monetary policy can help support the Feds efforts to create economic

stability. Monetary policy, properly administered, affects the money supply and, in turn, can help create a stable economy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 60 Monetarism Some economists believe that the money supply is the most important factor in macroeconomic performance. This belief is known as monetarism. Monetary policy alters the supply of

money, which, in turn, affects interest rates. Interest rates affect the level of investment and spending in the economy. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 61 Money Supply and Interest Rates The cost of money is the interest rate. The market for money is like any other market. If the supply is higher, the pricethe interest rates is lower. If the supply is lower,

the pricethe interest ratesis higher. So, when the money supply is high, interest rates are low and when the money supply is low, interest rates are high. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 62 Interest Rates and Spending Lower interest rates encourage greater investment spending by business firms because

a firms cost of borrowing decreases as the interest rate decreases. Higher interest rates discourage business spending. If the economy is experiencing a contraction, the Fed will follow an easy money policy in order to increase the money supply. If the economy is experiencing a rapid expansion that may cause inflation, the Fed will introduce a tight money policy to reduce the money supply. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 63

Interest Rates and Spending, cont. An increased money supply will lower interest rates and a decreased money supply will push interest rates upward. In this way, the Fed has a great impact on the economy. The money supply determines the interest rate and the interest rate determines the level of aggregate demand. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 64 Good Timing Monetary policy must be carefully timed. Policies with good timing achieve economic stability. Properly timed stabilization policy, which makes peaks a little bit lower and troughs not quite so deep, helps smooth out the business cycle.

Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 65 Bad Timing If stabilization policy is not timed properly, it can make the business cycle worse. Government economists do not realize that a contraction is occurring until the economy is deeply in it. It takes time to enact

expansionary policies and by the time these policies take place, the economy may be coming out of the recession on its own or businesses may be reluctant to borrow at any new rate. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 66 Inside Lags Problems in the timing of macroeconomic policy are called lags. The inside lag is the time it takes to implement monetary policy and occurs for two reasons: It takes time to identify a problem

Once a problem has been recognized, it can take additional time to enact policies The second problem is more severe for fiscal policy than monetary policy because monetary policy is streamlined and does not have to go through Congress and the President. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 67 Outside Lags The outside lag is the time it takes for monetary policy to have an effect. Outside lags can be very long for monetary policy

since they primarily affect business investment plans. Because firms may require months or even years to make large investment plans, a change in interest rates may not have its full effect on investment spending for several years. Because of the political difficulties of implementing fiscal policy, we rely to a greater extent on the Fed to use monetary policy to soften the business cycle. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 68 Predicting Business Cycles How should policy makers decide when to

intervene in the economy? If an expansionary policy is enacted at the wrong time, it may lead to high inflation. This is the chief danger of using an easy money policy to get the economy out of a recession. The decision of whether to use monetary policy must be partly based, then, on our expectations of the business cycle. The length of a recessionary or inflationary period determines how the Fed will respond. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 69 Predicting Business Cycles, cont.

How quickly does the economy selfcorrect? Economists estimates for the U.S. economy range from two to six years. Since the economy may take quite a long time to recover on its own from an inflationary peak or a recessionary trough, there is time for policymakers to guide the economy back to stable levels of inputs and outputs. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 70 Approaches to Monetary Policy Checkpoint: How do the two approaches

to monetary policy differ from each other? Interventionist policy, which encourages action, is likely to make the business cycle worse if the economy self-adjusts quickly. A laissez-faire policy, on the other hand, will recommend against enacting new policies. The rate of adjustment may also vary over time, making decisions even more difficult. Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 71 Review Now that you have learned how monetary

policy effects economic stability, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. How effective is monetary policy as an economic tool? Chapter 16, Opener Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 72

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