Nationalism, Republicanism and Change Reconciliation in Northern Ireland
Nationalism, Republicanism and Change Reconciliation in Northern Ireland Trinity College Dublin Learning Outcomes Have a framework for understanding nationalism/republicanism (identity, community, ideology) Understand differences between nationalism and republicanism
Analyse the relationship between changes in nationalism/republicanism and the peace process Trinity College Dublin Key Texts Jennifer Todd (1999) in Ruane and Todd, After the Good Friday Agreement Jonathan Tonge (2002) Northern Ireland: Conflict and Change, chapter 5 Richard English (2009) Terrorism, chapter 3
There are a number of other readings on your syllabus that are worth checking out. Also explore the websites of the nationalist/republican political parties. Trinity College Dublin Identity Community Ideology
Individual and collective selfunderstanding, where we fit in society Feeling of belonging to a certain social group A system of concepts about
self and others Who I am Who we are Why we are this way Trinity College Dublin Nationalism and Republicanism
Irish nationalism & republicanism should be seen in the context of wider nationalist and republican movements Trinity College Dublin Nationalism and Republicanism Nationalism and republicanism may appear monolithic from
the outside (pannationalist front), but this is not the case. (hunger strike memorial, Dungiven) Trinity College Dublin Tonge (2002) Four core themes of nationalism The partition of Ireland was unjust Politics in Ireland
should, therefore, concentrate upon the rectification of this injustice Trinity College Dublin Four core themes of nationalism Self-determination for the Irish people is necessary A purely internal settlement is impossible in Northern Ireland
Trinity College Dublin Tonge, Republicanisms core ideas (from Coogan) Republicanism (linked to development of true Irish state) Nationalism (Ireland has existed as a nation for 1500
years) Trinity College Dublin Republicanisms core ideas Militarism: armed struggle is justified Romanticism (including Gaelic culture and ideas of martyrdom) Trinity College Dublin
Tonge (2002) Republicanisms Core Ideas (from Coogan) Socialism Anti-imperialism Anti-colonialism (NI as colony, ROI as neo-colonial state) Trinity College Dublin
McGarry and OLeary (1995) Nationalists and Republicans disagree about four matters: the present (and future) membership of the Irish nation the feasibility of unifying the Irish nation within an Irish state the goals and means for Irish unification the fundamental causes of the Northern Ireland conflict (page 21) Trinity College Dublin
Tonge (2002) Nationalists and Republicans disagree about four matters: The extent to which Irish people are a single nation The degree to which the British government is responsible for the problem in NI The necessity of Unionist consent for constitutional change The use of force to establish a united Ireland
Trinity College Dublin McGarry & OLeary (1995): Four Types Civic Constitutionalists: declare themselves secular and civic; hold the British state historically responsible; would stress Gaelic language rather than Catholic religion; oppose
violence (page 17) Trinity College Dublin McGarry & OLeary (1995): Four Types Civic Militants: Irish nation should be defined inclusively and territorially, can be sought with violence, Irish territory currently occupied by imperial
power (page 18) (mural, Springhill) Trinity College Dublin McGarry & OLeary (1995): Four Types Ethnic Constitutionalists: Catholic in religious origin and belief, hardline on law, order and social policy, and puritanical if not always authoritarian in matters of private morality. hold Britain historically responsible. endorse
the past struggles of Irish nationalists, but mostly oppose the use of violence to advance the re-integration of the national territory (page 18-19) Trinity College Dublin McGarry & OLeary (1995): Four Types Ethnic Militants: Defend armed revolutionary violence; use some civic rhetoric but largely an
ethnic appeal (page 19) (internment bonfire, Aug. 2008) Trinity College Dublin Group Work: Discuss Focus Questions and Report Back Reflect on the components that make up nationalist and republican identities. To what extent does your own personal identity
include (or not!) any of those components? Does your identity impact on your ability to interact with people with nationalist/republican identities within your organisation or the community? Trinity College Dublin Analysing Change in Nationalism/ Republicanism Todd (1999) on Change The distinctive liberal
nationalism of John Hume and the SDLP Photo: Hume with David Trimble and Bono at 1998 U2 concert Trinity College Dublin Todd on the context of change The assumptions of classic nationalism were shaken by events in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Northern Catholics were mobilized on civil rights rather than nationalist aims; reform of Northern Ireland but not a united Ireland came onto the British
political agenda; and the British political system proved not to provide a favourable arena for such reform (Ruane and Todd, 1996, chapters 5, 8). Republicans attempted to force the British government to change its strategy and to create conditions where classic nationalism would be viable. Constitutional nationalists instead responded by ideological change. (page 53) Trinity College Dublin Humes Ideology: first level principles
Pluralism (rejects classic nationalist model of a world of nation-states; stresses multiple identities and institutional arenas Irish America, EU, local community) Trinity College Dublin Humes Ideology: First level
principles Dialogic (agreement cant be predisposed or coerced, only created by inclusivist dialogue which is supported by institutional safeguards.) Egalitarian (Rights include formal, communal and cultural rights. Diversity is seen as strength, not weakness; syncretic notions of identity based on multiple, overlapping institutional arenas) Trinity College Dublin
Humes Ideology: First level principles Non-nationalism (selfdetermination remains a central value but is redefined in nonnationalist and nonmajoritarian terms) Trinity College Dublin Humes Ideology: Second level principles
Irish identity is a core identity in Northern Ireland Irish identity requires institutional recognition within Northern Ireland Irish identity requires institutional recognition through the involvement of the Irish state in Northern Ireland Sees change as evolutionary, gradualist Trinity College Dublin Todd on Republican Revisions
Traditionally republicanism had combined classic nationalist axioms with an emphasis on the need for complete separation from Britain and for radical social change: in Adamss phrase, republicanism combined separatism, secularism, antisectarianism, nationalism and radicalism (Adams, 1986, pp. 132-33; see also Patterson, 1989). (Todd, page 56) Trinity College Dublin
Factors contributing to change amongst republicans success of electoral strategy after hunger strikes of 1981 increasing role of Irish government in Northern Ireland stalemate in the armed struggle Adams-Hume talks (see Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA)
Temptation of political power? Trinity College Dublin Why did the IRA abandon violence? Richard English (p. 78): 1. Inefficacy of continued violence 2. Potential rewards of more peaceful tactics 3. Acknowledgement of previously unrecognized political and economic realities
Trinity College Dublin Republican Ideology: Convergence with Hume? First level principles: democracy and equality Trinity College Dublin Second level principles Second level principles: Irish unity and independence (but second level more specific than Hume, want: a strong equality agenda
incorporating radical reform of the police, total demilitarization, and strong North/South linkages which would open the possibility of an eventual united Irish nation state, Todd, page 59) Trinity College Dublin Republican Ideology: Differences with Hume rather than compare with gradualist models of European integration, compare with South Africa emphasis on dismantling colonial structures
radical change or transformation of society must occur rather than emphasise inclusivist identities, assume that unionist/loyalist identities were oppositional and supremacist and must change Irish unity still seen as desired but not pre-determined Trinity College Dublin Sinn Fein in Power: a sea change in republicanism? Trinity College Dublin
Who would have thought it? Trinity College Dublin Questions Remain Is this ideological continuity in a new phase of the struggle? Is this a conversion to constitutional nationalism?
Are these simply strategic changes? Is the IRA an old boys club? Trinity College Dublin
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