From Good Women to Gender Equity: A History

From Good Women to Gender Equity: A History

From Good Women to Gender Equity: A History of the Struggle for Womens Rights One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman; it is civilization as a whole that produces this creaturewhich is described as feminine. Simon de Beauvoir Definitions

Sex: the biological differences between men and women which are universal and determined at birth. Gender: the social roles and responsibilities of men and women that are created in our families, our societies, and our cultures. Matrilineal Cultures Kinship is traced through the maternal lines.

Property ownership in hands of women. Account for 15% of all cultures. Hopi Pueblo Navajo Malys (S.E. Asia) Khasi & Nayer (India) Tiwi (Australia) Minangkabau (Indonesia largest group)

Egalitarian Cultures Shared power and control of material resources between sexes. Iroquois (women had political control in tribal councils, controlled rituals) Mbuti (Zaire) Agta (Philippines women are the hunters) Yoruba/Ibo} women had own crops, men had to pay to marry, women had political power

Dahomy women fought in armies Arapesh (New Guinea both sexes cooperative, sensitive Tchambuli (New Guinea females dominant & rational; men are submissive, emotional, Polyandry Women have multiple husbands. Women control property and inheritance. Kaingang (Amazon basin)

Todas (Southern India) Chukchee (Siberia) Large swaths of Tibet, India, Nepal Please, my dear brothers, let your wives and sisters go to the voter registration process. Later you can control who she votes for, but please, let her go.

Afghan President Hamid Karzai, trying to persuade traditionalist men to let women register to vote Paid Advertisement CONSERVATIVES AGAINST BUSH ANNOUNCES THE MOST REVOLUTIONARY NEW PARTY IN OVER 150 YEARS We are against the war in Iraq, illegal immigration, all abortion,

same sex marriage, the out sourcing of American jobs, and believe voting rights for women has turned out to be a bad idea. If you want to find out more about us, contact us at the following: The 21st Century Conservative Party P.O. Box 65266 ~ Shoreline, WA 98155 Paid for by Conservatives Against Bush AD printed in the Salt Lake Tribune Blackstones Commentaries

on English Law (1765): In marriage husband and wife are one person, and that person is the Requirements of the Husband A man shall leave father and mother and cleave to his wife (Matt 28) Let every man have his own wife. (1 Cor)

Husbands shall dwell with their wives according to knowledge, giving honor unto them, as unto the weaker vessel. Husbands love your wives, even as Christ loved the Church, and gave himself for it (Eph 5) So ought man to love their wives as their own bodies, he that loveth his wife, loveth himself (Eph 5) Let the husband render unto the wife due benevolence (1 Cor.) If a husband provide not for his own wife and children, he is worse than an infidel (1 Tim) A man shall cheer up his wife (Deut 24:5)

Husbands love your wives, and be not bitter against them (Cor 3:12) Art thou bound to a wife, seek not to be loosed (Cor 1:27) Let not the husband put away his wife (1 Cor) Let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth..God hateth putting away (Mat 2) Requirements of the Wife A wifes desire shall be to her husband (Gen 3) (i.e. she shall be subject unto him) Wives submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord (Eph

6) Let not the wife depart from her husband (1 Cor) Let the wife tender unto her husband due benevolence (1 Cor) The wife hath not power of her own body, but the husband (1 Cor) She that is married careth (or should care) how she may please her husband (1 Cor) I will that women marry, bear children, guide the house (1 Tim) A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband (Prov 42). The woman which hath an husband, is bound by the law to her husband, so long as he liveth (Rom 7)

Aged women should behave as becometh holiness & that they may teach the young women, to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands (Dut 2) A married womans legal position was as follows: Property and possessions she owned before and that she acquired after marriage became her husbands Wages she earned were his. In the event of a divorce, he had custody of their

children. She could not sign a business contract nor sue anyone nor be sued by anyone. Her husband had to pay all her debts. [In other words she was not recognized as an independent economic entity.] On the other hand, if she committed a crime, she was punished for it. [morally independent] Daumier

Lithograph 1844 In the 1820s & 1830s Jacksonian Democracy and the evangelical revival known as the Great Awakening promoted the notion that regular Americans had the character and intelligence to participate as

citizens and make the world a better place. Lucretia Mott Worlds AntiSlavery Convention 1840

Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony (after 1851) Seneca Falls

Married Womens Property Acts, New York 1860: The real and personal property of any female [now married and] who may hereafter marry, and which she shall own at the time of marriage, and the rests issues and profits thereof shall not be subject to the disposal of her husband, nor be liable for his debts, and shall continue her sole and separate property, as if she were a single female... [and the same would now be true of any property she

received during the marriage] the principle which regulates the existing social relations between the two sexes the legal subordination of one sex to the other is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances to human improvement; andit ought to be replaced by a principle of perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege

on the one side, nor disability on the other. John Stuart Mill (1861) Victoria Woodhull (1838 1927) First female stockbroker First woman to open a bank on Wall Street

First woman to run for President, 1872 no woman that was not willing to be dragged through every kennel, and slopped into every dirty pail of water, like an old mop, would ever consent to run as a candidate. Why it's an ordeal that kills a man. And what sort of a brazen tramp of a woman would it be that could stand it, and

come out of it without being killed? Would it be any kind of a woman that we should want to see at the head of our government? -- Harriet Beecher Stowe Thomas Nast Victoria Woodhull as Mrs. Satan Get thee behind me, (Mrs.) Satan! I'd rather

travel the hardest path of matrimony than follow your footsteps. 1869: Wyoming grants the right to vote to women (in 1890 when their application for statehood was questioned the legislature declared we will remain out of the Union a hundred years rather than come in without the women). 1870: Utah grants right to vote to women

1893: Colorado 1896: Idaho Only states to grant the suffrage in the 19 th century [Era of Progressives: Washington, 1910; California, 1911; Oregon, 1912; Kansas, 1912; Arizona, 1912] Nineteenth Amendment, 1920 Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States

to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Countries Granting Women Voting Rights by Decade Before 1910 Finland New Zealand 1910s

Austria Denmark Germany Iceland Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland ex-USSR 1920s

ex-Czechoslovakia Lebanon Mongolia Sweden United Kingdom United States 1930s Brazil Cuba Pakistan

Philippines Spain Sri Lanka Thailand Turkey Uruguay 1940s Albania Argentina

Bangladesh Belgium Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Chile China Costa Rica Dominican Rep Ecuador

France Guatemala Hungary Indonesia Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Korea, North Korea, South

Laos Liberia Malta Mexico Niger Panama Romania Senegal Singapore Syria

Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Vietnam ex-Yugoslavia 1950s Barbados Benin Bolivia Colombia

Cote dIvoire Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Greece Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras

India Madagascar Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Nepal Nicaragua Peru Sierra Leone

Somalia Sudan Tanzania Togo Tunesia 1960s Afghanistan Algeria Australia

Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Canada Chad Congo Cyprus El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Gambia

Iran Kenya Lesotho Libya Malawi Morocco Nigeria Paraguay Rwanda Swaziland

Uganda Zaire Zambia 1970s Angola Fiji Jordan Mozambique Papau New

Guinea Portugal Switzerland Yemen 1980s Central African Republic Iraq Nambia Zimbabwe

1990s Cambodia South Africa As of 2004, women had a legal right to vote everywhere in the world except in 6 countries in the Middle East: Bahrain Kuwait Oman

Qatar Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as well as in Brunei, a small oil-rich monarchy in Southeast Asia. During the Year of the Woman, 1992, the number of women in the U.S. Senate tripled to 5

and the 29 female representatives in the House became 48. In the 2007 Congress there are 71 women in the House of Representatives and 16 in the Senate, out of a total of 535 elected representatives (16%).

In 2007 just 23.5% of statewide elected officials were women. There were 9 women governors, representing only 18% of the 50 total. (2/3 of all these are Democrats) The legislatures of Norway,

Sweden, Finland and Denmark are all more than 33% women, and nearly every other democracy in Europe has a higher percentage of women political office holders than the U.S. During the 20th century, more than 40 women served as

presidents or prime ministers of their countries. And even 76% of Americans now say they are prepared to elect a woman as president. By 1995, as a result of United Nations efforts, 139 countries ratified Elimination of all forms of discrimination

105 ratified Equal Political Rights 44 ratified Equal Marriage Rights 127 ratified Equal Pay for Equal Value 126 ratified Equality in Employment Only 16% of corporate officers worldwide are women Only 15% of corporate board members

are women Of the top 500 companies, only 10 CEOs are women There are no female senior managers in 38% of companies worldwide Just 69% of U.S. companies have women in senior management positions and just 23% of all senior management positions in the country

are held by women (down 6%) doesnt even make us in the top 10. By comparison 97% of Philippine companies have women in senior management positions and 50% of all such positions are held by women. Is womens role and identity determined by nature or society? Where

does natural femininity end and societal construction of femininity begin? The body and desire: are these sources for shame or happiness? Are they Ajax carries the

body of Achille s Menelau s Carrying Patroclu s

Roman copy of a Greek original Brad Pitt as Achilles in the movie Troy (2004)

Jupiter & Thetis J.A.D. Ingres

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