Outcome Mapping Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Simon Hearn,

Outcome Mapping Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Simon Hearn, Overseas Development Institute [email protected] www.outcomemapping.ca Outline and aims 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduce principles of OM Give an overview of the steps Present an example of OM application Q&A

Acknowledgements This presentation makes use of various materials that were shared by members of the global OM community. Without being exhaustive, special thanks goes to Terry Smutylo, Steff Deprez, Jan Van Ongevalle, Robert Chipimbi, Daniel Roduner, Kaia Ambrose and many others. Source: A guide for project M&E: IFAD Social change can be Complex: Unstable: involve a confluence of actors and factors independent of project duration Non-linear:

Two-way: unexpected, emergent, discontinuous intervention may change Beyond control: but subject to influence Incremental, cumulative: watersheds & tipping points Source: Terry Smutylo Challenges in evaluating in social change interventions

1. Establishing cause & effect in open systems 2. Measuring what did not happen 3. Reporting on emerging objectives 4. Justify continuing successful interventions 5. Timing when to evaluate 6. Encouraging iterative learning among partners 7. Clarifying values 8. Working in insecure situations Source: Terry Smutylo Brief definition of OM A participatory method for planning, monitoring and evaluation Focused on changes in behaviour of those with whom the project or program works

Oriented towards social & organizational learning OM: Brief history 1990s: post-Rio need to demonstrate sustainable results 1998: Barry Kibel and Outcome Engineering 1999: Methodological collaboration with projects 2000: Publication of manual in English 2002: Training, facilitation & usage globally 2006: OM Learning Community 2008: CLAMA 2010: East Africa and beyond The only real voyage of discovery exists, not in seeing new landscapes, but in having new eyes Marcel Proust

Three key concepts in OM: 1. Sphere of influence 2. Boundary Partners 3. Outcomes understood as changes in behaviour There is a limit to our influence Project Sphere of control Partners Sphere of influence

Beneficiaries Sphere of interest There is a limit to our influence Inputs, activities, outputs Sphere of control Outcomes: Changes in behavior Sphere of

influence Impact: Changes in state Sphere of interest Farmers participate in field trials Participating farmers learn how to use drip irrigation equipment Participatory

research on demonstration farms to develop approaches to drip irrigation Extension workers visit demonstration farms Increased knowledge of techniques Farmers adopting drip irrigation methods

Training of extension workers Publication of performance of different setups Reduced numbers of new wells Greater quantities of groundwater available Extension workers promoting drip irrigation

Source: Terry Smutylo Who are your boundary partners? Programme Beneficiaries Stakeholders Boundary Partners The Problem with Impact Impact implies Cause & effect The reality is Open system Positive, intended results Unexpected positive &

negative results occur Focus on ultimate effects Upstream effects are important Credit goes to a single contributor Multiple actors create results & need credit Story ends when Change process never program obtains success ends Source: Terry Smutylo Focus of Outcome Mapping Progr am in fl

it y n u m Com Inputs uence decre as hip s r e own

Activities es es s a e incr Outputs Outcomes Outcome Mapping Impacts

4 Key Planning Questions Why? Vision Who? Boundary Partners What? Outcomes Challenges, Progress Markers How? Mission, Strategy Map, Organizational Practices

Step 1: Vision improved human, social, & environmental wellbeing Step 2: Mission The mission is that bite of the vision statement on which the program is going to focus. Step 3: Boundary Partners Those individuals, groups, & organizations with whom a program interacts directly to effect change & with whom the program can anticipate some opportunities for influence. Step 4: Outcome Challenge

Describes behaviour of a single boundary partner Sets out the ideal actions, relationships activities Describes the boundary partners contribution to the vision Step 5: Progress Markers Love to see (Deep transformation) Like to see (Active engagement)

Expect to see (Early positive responses) How can we measure... Greater awareness Empowered women Community ownership Reduced conflict Increased collaboration Governmental commitment Gender sensitivity Equal access Budgetary transparency Active participation Poverty alleviation Strengthened capacity ?

Step 6: Strategy Maps Causal I E Persuasiv Supportiv e e Step 7: Organisational Practices 1. Prospecting for new ideas, opportunities, and resources 2.

Seeking feedback from key informants 3. Obtaining the support of your next highest power 4. Assessing and (re)designing products, services, systems, and procedures 5. Checking up on those already served to add value 6. Sharing your best wisdom with the world

7. Experimenting to remain innovative 8. Engaging in organizational reflection Five kinds of monitoring information Contextual InformatIon Program Partner State, status or situational data

Strategies outcomes relevance & viability (behaviour changes in the (actions of the program) partners) implementation (interventions by the program) Swayamsiddha Project Context: Women in India are disempowered Project: Started in 2000, closed in 2005 Funded by CIDA and IDRC Managed by national NGO and local NGOs

Aims: Develop network of government, non-governmental and community based organisations Increase gender responsiveness in local health care, families and community institutions Decreasing drudgery in womens and girls work Increase access to and control of financial services Swayamsiddha Vision Across rural India, women and girls utilize and benefit from appropriate health care, education, food and water security and freedom from violence. Women have access to the markets, credit, banking and municipal services they need to pursue their livelihood goals. They use drudgery-reducing technologies and agricultural inputs that contribute to personal well-being and to ecological sustainability. Villages are fully served by public transport, are well lit at night and police enforce all laws fully

and equitably. Girls attend school full time and families have the information and resources to make informed decisions regarding their health, safety and social needs. Gender equity governs household labor and decision-making; and men in the community understand and support gender-responsive laws. Swayamsiddha Mission The Swayamsiddha Project works with governments, NGOs & CBOs to improve womens health and empowerment. It facilitates the development of womens self help groups. It provides them with funding and training to help them influence community and government services to be more responsive to their health and livelihood needs. It fosters mutual respect and joint action between these self-help groups and: banks; police; health and social service providers; and government agencies. It researches and promotes the application of ecosystem approaches to human health in agriculture and in the provision of health and sanitation services. Swayamsiddha addresses

equity issues in all its activities. It uses participatory methods to monitor progress, to learn how to become more effective in supporting its partners and to report on its results. Families Banks SHG PHCs Police Community Leaders State NGO

State NGO BAIF IDRC CIDA Swayamsiddha BPs State NGO State NGO State NGO

State NGO Outcome Challenge for SHG Womens self help groups are taking action to make community and government services more responsive to the health and livelihood needs of women and girls. They influence banks, police, health and social service providers, local officials and state and national government agencies in relationships of mutual respect and joint action to improve womens well being. Womens self help groups arrange bank loans for members and for life skills training for girls to be included in the school curriculum. They influence local, state and national government policies and expenditures on community improvement and transportation and support women candidates to run for election to local government office.

Progress Markers for SHG Expect to See Womens Self Help Groups: Like to See Womens Self Help Groups:

Holding meetings regularly Discussing a list of shared concerns Opening and contributing to a group bank account Acquiring skills in managing credit programs Soliciting training in maternal & child health for members from NGOs Forming grain banks Lending money to members to finance income generating activities Seeking ration cards from local authorities for needful women Arranging for immunizations by the public health clinic Lobbying police to close down illegal alcohol vendors Calling upon outside expertise to help identify drudgery-reducing technologies Pooling finances to purchase drudgery-reducing technologies

Conducting maternal and child health education sessions for their communities Love to See Womens Self Help Groups: Arranging bank loans for members Arranging for life skills training for girls to be included in school curriculum Lobbying local government for expenditures on community improvements Approaching the State Transport Dept for bus service to their villages Taking action responding to the incidence of violence in their community Lobbying national government depts. to invest in local development projects Putting forth candidates for election to local government council

Strategy Map Causal I Persuasive Supportive - Fund collection of monitoring data - Provide training in organizing and conducting group meetings - Take womens photos - Training in needs identification sessions - Link SHG work to national

for SHGs health program - Take women to banks to open - Training sessions on dealing govt accounts departments - Linking with active, successful SHGs in other communities - Exposure visits to income generating projects elsewhere - Conduct knowledge sessions on maternal and child health - Provide training in maintenance & repair of technologies

- Leadership training for local leaders E - Provide training for health care - Conduct community info sessions on: workers violence, womens rights, sustainable agriculture - Fund creation of Sanitation - Home visits to educate families Planning community-based group - Visit banks, discuss with, educate - Conduct training for PHCs on officials reproductive health - Training and placing researchers in the communities

- Bring in Water and Sanitation NGOs to conduct water purification demonstrations - Provide bicycles for girls - Conduct community forums on SHGs - Information sessions on new technologies (chullha stoves, growing fuel woods, toilets, agricultural tools for women, well repair) - Link PHCs to others delivering gender-based services - Initiate regular Parent/Teacher group meetings vision

mission Banks Womens Self Help Groups BAIF State NGOs Girls & Women Police Families Community Leaders

Public Health Clinics Strategies Strategic Partners 37 Boundary Partners Projects Outcomes BPs outcomes Source: Terry Smutylo

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