Harry Harlow (1905-1981) Harry Frederick (Israel) If monkeys
Harry Harlow (1905-1981) Harry Frederick (Israel) If monkeys have taught Harlow us anything, its that youve got to learn how to love before you learn how to live. -Harry Harlow This Week, March 3, 1961
Primate Studies Maternal Separation Dependency Social Isolation President of APA The Nature of Love 1958 1967 National Medal of Science Revolutionized Child Care Published Works The Human Model From Learning to Love
Harry Frederick Israel Born October 31, 1905 Fairfield, IA Parents Alonzo Harlow Israel Wanted to be a doctor Inventor Garage and Battery Business Mable Rock Harlow Bought a general store No church
Family 1 of 4 boys Robert, Delmer, Harry, Hugh Most competitive All attended Stanford University Delmer diagnosed with Potts Disease Moved to New Mexico Young Harry Bored by science Hated idea of agriculture
Daydreamer, Artist, Poet Ranked highest in class on aptitude test Stanford English major Freshman year Took notes in verse Influenced by: Calvin Stone: Animal Behaviorist Walter Miles: Vision Expert; Rat
Research Lewis Terman: Stanford Binet IQ Test Name Change Influenced by Lewis Terman Took fathers middle name as last name Advice to avoid prejudice
Zeitgeist Telegraph Telephone Electricity in homes Automobiles WWII Zeitgeist Love not subject of
Psychology Loving interaction between parents and children discouraged B.F. Skinner Baby tender G. Stanley Hall Strict discipline for adolescents Bad behavior caused by bad parenting Zeitgeist
J. B. Watson Scientific standards for parenting Babies only feel rage, fear, and love National Congress of Mothers Raising a Baby the Government Way-Molly Ladd-Taylor
Arnold Gesell No adopting young children Changing Times Rene Spitz & James Robertson Filmed how children were treated in hospitals and
orphanages Foundling home v Womens Prison Harry Bawkin, William Goldfarb, David Levy, Loretta Bender Studied need for love/ nurture Changing Times William Goldfarb
Wealthy families children to orphanages Poor families children to foster homes Genetics would say that children in orphanages would be more intelligent than
First Job 1930 UW-Madison Assistant Professorship $2750/yr They expected to place me in a California junior college, and with every Wisconsin winter, I wish to God they had.
First Job 4 Psychology Faculty 3 PhD Students Basement of Administrative Building Made fun of by students Intolerance of difference normal First Experiments Rat studies
Pavlov-esque experiment conditioning cats Conditioning frogs Failure ended up in newspaper 1st claim to fame Idea for primate subjects over game of bridge Clara Mears
One of Harrys students In gifted program More than friends Married May 7, 1932 Robert Mears Harlow born November 16, 1939 Richard Frederick Harlow born
December 10, 1942 Jiggs & Tommy 1st Primate Experiment Childrens games as puzzles Shaped holes puzzle 2nd Experiment Bad temper Finding food
under cups Abraham Maslow Harlows 1st Graduate Student Doctoral dissertation on hierarchy of relationships in primates Ruler and Serf pattern
The Makings of Goon Park 1932 approved to build outdoor cages Accidentally turned into a building Reprimanded for building without permission Gandhi the Spider Monkey ate at dinner table Allowed poor students to live there in exchange for work 1933 appeared on campus map
When we were finished, we were horrified to see how much these Outdoor Observation Cages looked like real buildings! Marriage Issues Clara filed divorce August 14, 1946 Finalized September 6, 1946 Clara granted custody of both sons Moved to Rhode Island to live with
her brother Wisconsin General Test Cube shaped cage Apparatus (WGTA) One side opened for primates to solve puzzles New puzzles Treats under colored
cups Difficulty progressed Monkeys can analyze relationships between colors and shapes Half-brained monkeys Margaret Kuenne Fellow researcher Eloped in Iowa to avoid her losing
her job Married February 3, 1948 Two Children Pamela Jonathan New Lab Early 1950s Old cheese factory Recruited
students to renovate Diplomas in Curiosity Monkey Business Breeding monkeys Diseased monkeys caused for parents deaths Orphaned monkeys would not socialize
Diet or disease? Babies would not eat Clung to cloth in their cages Interest in mother love developed Contact Comfort Experiment Cloth Mother vs Wire Mother Comfort vs Food
Babies choose cloth mother Reach to wire mother for food Immediately go to cloth mother when frightened https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrN BEhzjg8I
Issues/ New Ideas Wire moms babies very dysfunctional Cloth moms babies still dysfunctional Hug, but never hugged Attention shift to give and take of relationships Seymour Levine experiment with rats Overprotection from parent creates rats that cannot function in adult life Babies need interaction and interest to develop properly
Warmth, Movement, and Play Hot vs Warm vs Cold Mother Despised cold mother Swinging vs Rocking vs Stationary Mother More movement/interaction
=better development Rough play vs Tag Taught social skills Learned nonverbal communication Peggy Kuenne Harlow Contributed to Harrys experiments and conducted her own Diagnosed with breast
cancer 1967 1971 finally made Professor of Educational Psychology at UWMadison Died August 11, 1971 Isolation Babies isolated for 6 months-1 year Could not see out of their cage When removed: Lifeless Starved to death if not force fed
Attacked by others because of timidity Had children Apathetic Killed and maimed their children The Pit of Despair (1962) Vertical Chamber Apparatus First few days attempted escape Learned Helplessness Lifelong impact after only half of a week Repairing the Damage
Social Remedy Re-paired with cloth mom 30 minute playdate 5 days a week Study duplicated with living mother No significant difference between groups Increased positive effects with increased playtime
Repairing the Damage Baby Therapists Isolated monkeys paired with normally developed baby Baby would cuddle older monkey until older monkey felt safe Isolated monkeys could return to normal life Worked for 6 month isolates, not for 1 year isolates Monkey See, Monkey Do For 1 year isolates See other monkeys interacting before real
socialization Eventually paired with baby therapist Success! Critics Feminist movement Bruno Bettleheim Leading expert on Autism in the 1960s Accussed HH of creating autistic monkeys with refrigerator mothers HH disagreed and argued for Biology Possible that Autistic children create
refrigerator parents Mother-Infant Bonding: A Scientific Fiction HH & Bowlby Retort: focus on importance of mothers to development, NOT trying to bind women to the home Third Times the Charm Remarried Clara March 1972 2nd honeymoon in England, Scotland, Ireland
Lived happily ever after Developed Parkinsons 1974 Resigned from UW-Madison Moved to Tucson, Arizona The Human Model published Parkinsons progressed rapidly Died December 6, 1981
From Learning to Love published by Clara 5 years after his death The End Questions Do you think that the treatment of the monkeys is justified by the importance of the information gained? Do you think there was a better way that this information could have been proven?
A proposal has been made to replicate these studies, should it be allowed? How do you think childcare would be different if these studies were never done? If monkeys have taught us anything its that youve got to learn how to love before you learn how to live. References Blum, Deborah. (2002). Love at goon park:
Harry Harlow and the science of affection. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
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