Electromagnetic Waves Reading Shen and Kong Ch. 3 Outline Review of the Quasi-static Approximation Electric and Magnetic Components of Waves The Wave Equation (in 1-D) Uniform Plane Waves Phase Velocity and Intrinsic Impedance Wave-vector and Wave-frequency

Maxwells Equations (Free Space with Charges) Differential form Integral form E-Gauss: Faraday: H-Gauss: Ampere: In statics, both time derivatives are unimportant, Maxwells

Equations split into decoupled electrostatic and magnetostatic equations. In Electro-quasistatic (EQS) and magneto-quasitatic systems (MQS), one (but not both) time derivative becomes important. Quasi-static Maxwells Equations Electric Fields Magnetic Fields MQS

EQS For the error in the QS approximation to be small or EQS vs MQS for Time-Varying Fields Why did we not worry about the magnetic field generated by the time-varying electric field of a motor ?

animate A typical motor frequency of 2000 rpm satisfies EQS approximation for free-space As another example, note: At 60 Hz, the wavelength (typical length) in air is 5000 km, therefore, almost all physical 60-Hz systems in air are quasistatic (since they are typically smaller than 5000 km in size) Coupling of Electric and Magnetic Fields

Maxwells Equations couple the E and H fields: animate Uniform Electromagnetic Waves Ey varies along the z-direction and E is constant in the two other directions Uniform Electromagnetic Waves Ey varies along the z-direction and Ey is constant in the other two directions

animate Electromagnetic Waves Ey-field cannot vary in z-direction without a time-varying B-field and waves must have both electric and magnetic components ! Uniform Electromagnetic Plane Waves The y-component of E that varies across space is

associated with the x-component of B that varies in time Uniform Electromagnetic Plane Waves Source free: The Wave Equation Time-varying Ey generates spatially

varying Bz Time-varying Bz generates spatially varying Ey The temporal and spatial variations in E y are coupled together to yield the Wave Equation. The Wave Equation via Differential Equations

Faraday: Ampere: Substitution yields the wave equation: Uniform Plane Wave Solutions The 1-D wave equation

Ey(z,t) is any function for which the second derivative in space equals its second derivative in time, times a constant. The solution is therefore any function with the same dependence on time as on space, e.g. The functions f+(z-ct) and f- (z+ct) represent uniform waves propagating in the +z and -z directions respectively. Speed of Light

The velocity of propagation is determined solely by the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability: The functions f+ and f- are determined by the source and the other boundary conditions. animate Magnetic Field of a Uniform Plane Wave In vacuum

A Uniform Plane Wave Inside a material where is known as the phase velocity of the wave The Characteristic Impedance

is the intrinsic impedance of the medium given by Like the velocity of propagation, the intrinsic impedance is independent of the source and is determined only by the properties of the medium. Sinusoidal Uniform Plane Waves

where is known as the wave-number Sinusoidal Uniform Plane Waves Sinusoidal Uniform Plane Waves Spatial quantities:

Temporal quantities: How Are Uniform EM Plane Waves Launched? Generally speaking, electromagnetic waves are launched by time-varying charge distributions and currents, that together must satisfy: Man-made systems that launch waves are often called antennas. Uniform plane waves are launched by current sheets:

mage is in the public domain. . K Dipole Antenna Quarter wavelength vertical antenna has one connection to the vertical element and uses earth connection to provide an image

for the other quarter wave. The voltage and current waveforms are out of phase. The antenna generates (or receives) the omni-directional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane. The antenna does not have to be re-orientated to keep the signals constant as, for example, a car moves its position. Voltage Electric fields (blue) and magnetic Quarter

fields (gray) radiated by a dipole wave antenna veritcal antenna Current Coaxial Cable feeder Connection to earth

KEY TAKEAWAYS Time-varying Ey generates spatially varying Bz Time-varying Bz generates spatially varying Ey The1-D Wave Equation has solutions of the form

with propagation velocity: (speed of light) and more generally: (phase velocity) where is known as the intrinsic impedance

is known as the wave-number MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers Spring 2011 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.