The Impact of Coaching on Academic Success: A Focus on University Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder A Pilot Study conducted at The Academic Success Program for Students with LD/ADHD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill AHEAD 2010, Denver, CO LD/ADHD College Coaching: A Wellness Model Celebrating Diversity Research Team Dr. Theresa E. Laurie Maitland, CPCC, Principal Investigator
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Erica L. Richman, MSW, Social Work Doctoral student, Research Coordinator University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Dr. David Parker, Research Consultant, CRG, Inc. Wayne State University Kristen Rademacher, M.Ed, CPCC University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill What the Literature Says: College Students with LD/AHD Largest and fastest growing group of disabled students on college campuses (NCES, 2000; Henderson, 2001; Harbour, 2004) Take longer to complete degree than non-disabled peers (Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005, Jorgenson et al., 2003). Graduate at a lower rate than non-disabled peers (NCES, 2003; Wagner et al., 2005) 64% non disabled, 53% disabled (all types) May graduate at a lower rate than peers with other disabling conditions ( Beginning Postsecondary Longitudinal Study Second Follow up, 2001). 13.1% LD/ADHD versus 24.8% other disabling
conditions (after 4 years) What the Literature Says: Possible Reasons for Performance Problems Academic skill weaknesses Underdeveloped Self Determination Skills a combination of skills, knowledge and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior (Field et al., 1998). Underdeveloped Executive Functioning Skills
Lower GPAs, more likely to be on probation, ( Gerber, 1998, Heiligenstein et al., 1999, Rabiner et al., 2008) An umbrella construct reflecting self-regulatory functions that organize, direct, and manage other cognitive activities, emotional responses and behavior (Gioia, Isquith & Guy, 2001). Coexisting psychological and/or psychiatric issues can impact their attitudes, reactions and coping skills (Barkley et al., 2007, Hoy, et al., 1997) What the Literature Says: Best Practices for Serving College Students with LD/ADHD Provide a continuum of services beyond what the law mandates (Brinckerhoff, McGuire, & Shaw, 2002) Didactic Methods (Well-suited for students with LD)
Promote Self-Determination Explain correct answer, process or model a process Content tutoring Learning strategy instruction (Deshler, D. et al., 1996, and Brinckerhoff, McGuire, & Shaw, 2002) To increase self awareness, self advocacy, goal setting, problem solving and decision making Transition Supports Bridge experiences Peer Mentoring Programs
What the Literature Says: Current Research on Coaching Coaching suggested as a new intervention model Hallowell and Ratey, (1994), Quinn et al., (2000) Limited research Zwart & Kalleman (2001) Peer coaching; control group Improvements on LASSI in time management, anxiety, motivation and test taking Swartz, Prevatt, & Proctor (2005) 8 week program, graduate students Case Study Gains in many self regulation skills ; LASSI What the Literature Says:
Current Research on Coaching (contd) Reaser (2008) older college students, graduate student coach 8 weeks of coaching Case Study Gains on LASSI and in goal attainment, organization, positive outlook, overall control of their lives Parker & Boutelle (2009) 54 students, certified coaches Qualitative study Coaching promotes self directedness, self awareness, & self talk Self-talk anxiety helped students organize their lives and reduce What Does Coaching Students Look Like on a College Campus?
Frequent, 30-60 minute in-person or phone appointments (generally weekly) Brief check-in phone calls or emails between appointments (as needed) Coaching Definition for UNC-CH A creative, action-oriented partnership based on model created by Whitworth et. al. (2007) in which students: Set goals in any area of life in which the student desires change (i.e. academics, balance between study and recreation) Work with their coach to develop systems and structures to reach these goals Design the format of their coaching sessions (in-person, phone/ email check-ins, etc.) Agree to be held accountable for commitments made during sessions Deepen their learning about themselves including their values and ambitions which helps to define and refine future goals UNC-CH Website: http://www.unc.edu/asp/
UNC-CHs Coaching Definition (contd) Coaching is not therapy, counseling or learning strategy instruction. An important principle in coaching is the belief that students are expert on their lives and are creative, resourceful and whole. Coaches: Do not provide solutions and strategies for students Listen and ask questions in a way which will elicit solutions and strategies from students Occasionally share information, observations and suggestions for students consideration, students are ultimately responsible for their own decisions Research Questions: What We Wanted to Learn in Pilot Study
1. Does coaching increase participants levels of self-determination? 2. Does coaching improve participants executive functioning skills? 3. Does coaching improve participants overall life satisfaction? 4. From students perspective, what are the key benefits and limitations of coaching? Pilot Study Goals Using the conceptual frameworks of executive functioning, self-determination and life-satisfaction, determine trends or statistical significance on the impact of coaching. Dress Rehearsal for more extensive study planned for Fall 2010 Viability
of instruments Recruitment Methods Roles & Communication Next Steps Methodology: Participants Demographics Total Participants Recruited Total Participants Completed N=14 N=13 Gender 5 male 8 female Race 8 Caucasian 3 African American 2 Latino
University Status 7 undergraduates 6 graduate students Disability (LD, ADHD, or Both) 8 with ADHD (No LD) 5 with ADHD & LD Additional Comorbid Diagnoses (*62% had co-morbid diagnoses) 6 with anxiety disorder 4 with depressive disorder 1 with anxiety and depressive disorder Participants - Demographics Theresas Caseload Gender, Race, Univ. Status
Graduate ADHD Anxiety Disorder NOS Participants - Demographics Kristens Caseload Gender, Race, Univ. Status Disability Student 1 Female , Caucasian Graduate ADHD, LD Math Depressive Disorder Student 2
Male, Caucasian Undergraduate ADHD, LD Reading Depressive Disorder Student 3 Male, African American Graduate ADHD, LD Reading and Math Student 4 Female, Caucasian Undergraduate ADHD Anxiety Disorder Student 5
Male, Caucasian Undergraduate ADHD Student 6 Female, Caucasian Undergraduate ADHD Background of Coaches Both coaches have comparable types/amount of coaching training Theresa Maitland, CPCC and Kristen Rademacher, CPCC were trained and certified through The Coaches Training Institute. http://www.thecoaches.com/coach-training/ 116
hours of training followed by 6 month certification program requiring successful completion of written and oral competency exams Theresa earned her certification in 2003 Kristen earned her certification in 2007 Methodology: Procedures Eligible participants:
Total number of potential participants = 456 All students with documented LD and/or ADHD who are registered at the ASP and were interested in coaching Willing to commit to at least 8 weekly sessions of coaching Agreed to complete the pre- and postintervention surveys How Participants were Chosen Purposive Sampling Methodology Recruitment ran for first 3 weeks of semester
All ASP students received 3 personal emails All students requesting accommodations online were automatically directed to information posted on website. Incentives: coupons for free coffee and drawing for prizes Before receiving coaching, each participant took 3 preintervention surveys (web-based surveys @ 45 minutes total time) Participants received 8-13 coaching sessions throughout spring 2010 semester After 8 coaching sessions, participants re-took the 3 postintervention surveys Project Manger conducted qualitative interviews with 6 participants during Week 9. Study Participants Coaching Goals Make changes in overall life balance and structure
Have a more positive mental or emotional state 100% of participants wanted to balance social life with academics, plan more deliberately, prioritize better. 61% of participants wanted to improve focus and attention, become more reflective and fully present, reduce anxiety and perfectionism. Improve in academics 54% of participants wanted to stay on top of work, set and keep regular study times, become more active learners, improve grades. Study Participants Coaching Goals (contd)
Explore plans for the future Protect time for fun and recreation 30% of participants wanted to make a plan to use career center, talk with others, identify options and submit applications. 30% of participants wanted to reserve regular time for quiet time, or for a hobby or passion such as painting, fly fishing, music. Improve money management 1% of participants wanted to save money, keep track of spending, pay off credit cards. Methodology: Intervention
Structure of Coaching Sessions Student met with coach for initial 60 minute intake session. Focus of meeting: Student set specific semester goals Coach asked student to reflect on strengths, values, passions Coach and Student designed their alliance Methodology: Intervention (contd) Student met with coach weekly for 30 minute sessions (face-to-face or phone)
Student and coach reviewed progress on goals Coach guided students to reflect on both their progress and setbacks within the context of their strengths, values and passions Coach also guided students to deepen their understanding of their disability as they reflected on their goals Student set goals for following week Quantitative Measures Pre- and Post-Intervention Surveys Life Participation Scale-Adult (Saylor, Sutton, & Khan, in press). Self-Determination Student Scale (Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 2004)
28 item likert scale internet based survey measuring executive functioning skills in adults 92 item yes or no internet based survey measuring self determination Authentic Happiness Inventory (Peterson, 2005) 24 item multiple choice internet based survey measuring students overall life satisfaction Qualitative Measures Purposive sample
6 students (3 per coach) Balance of characteristics (undergrad/grad, gender, race/ethnicity, GPA, S-DSS scores) Individual Open-Ended Interview 1 hour, with Project Manager 11 prompts generated by team Audio-recorded and transcribed Qualitative Measures (cont.) Analysis
Hand-coding by Research Consultant to generate initial set of codes Initial inter-rater reliability check between Research Consultant and Project Manager (63% agreement) Refinement of codebook, 2nd inter-rater reliability check (84% agreement achieved) Final refinement of emergent themes in consultation with the research team coaches. http://www.thecoaches.com/coach-training/ Results speak to coachings ability to enhance selfmanagement of thinking, emotions in manner that promotes students self-determined achievement of goals on campus and in their lives. Results of Research Question 1: Self-Determination
Quantitative Results: Self-Determination Student Scale (Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 2004) Scores increased, although they were not statistically significant (likely due to small population used in Pilot Study) Mean pre-intervention score: 71.50 Mean post-intervention score: 78.67 significance level of .059 an important trend in the data although not statistically significant Self-Determination Student Scale Line Chart Results of Research Question 1: Self-Determination (contd) Qualitative Results (Interview with
Project Manager) Students report increased: Understanding of strengths, weaknesses, patterns Autonomy Self esteem Goal attainment skills Ability to observe and redirect their actions Results for Research Question 2: Executive Functioning Skills Quantitative Results: Life Participation Scale-Adult (Saylor, Sutton, & Khan, in press)
Scores increased, although they were not statistically significant (likely due to small population used in Pilot Study) Mean pre-intervention score: 69.67 Mean post-intervention score: 78.00 Life Participation Scale Line Chart Results for Research Question 2: Executive Functioning Skills (contd) Qualitative Results (Interview with Project Manager) Students reported improved ability to set clear and realistic goals remain focused
problem solve planning in chunks use positive self-talk to reduce stress observe and manage emotions without necessarily being controlled by them. Results of Research Question 3: Overall Life Satisfaction Quantitative Results: Authentic Happiness Inventory (Peterson, 2005) Scores increased, although they were not statistically significant (likely due to small population used in Pilot Study) Mean pre-intervention score: 3.03 Mean post-intervention score: 3.33 Authentic Happiness Inventory Line Chart
Results of Research Question 3: Overall Life Satisfaction (contd) Qualitative Results (Interview with Project Manager) Students reported: Coaching impacted many dimensions of their lives Increase in quality of life due to improvements in academics, emotional control, relationships, financial habits, and plans for the future Enhanced life satisfaction due to their new ability to alter reactions and perspectives
More enjoyment in life because of greater awareness of strengths, interests, passions and making time for these in their lives Success in reaching goals led to more positive beliefs and hope for the future Results for Research Question 4: Benefits and Limitations of Coaching Qualitative Results Benefits (Interview with Project Manager) Students reported that overall, coaching: allowed them to develop skills that they will use on their own, even when they are no longer participating in pilot study. has improved their life overall. helped to clarify career choices that will enhance their life in the future. helped them make better decisions.
helped them feel better emotionally. helped enhance their financial decisions/behaviors. helped them improve relationships with others. Results for Research Question 4: Benefits and Limitations of Coaching (contd) Qualitative Results Limitations (Interview with Project Manger) Students made the following suggestions to make coaching more effective: add more coaches to the staff allow longer sessions provide coaches with greater knowledge of graduate programs house coaches in a student classroom building teach study skills within coaching sessions help students learn more about disability
Discussion: Limitations Small sample size Short intervention phase Measures were subjective and self-report Lack of comparison group Accounting for other variables (i.e. other interventions participants may have used, co-morbid conditions) Interview questions and process Discussion: Next Steps for ASP Would we use same instruments?
S-DSS (Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 2004) appears well-suited for future research at ASP The BRIEF (Roth, Isquith, & Gioia, 2005) may be a better measure of EF skills that include affective dimensions of problemsolving Research other measures of life satisfaction to compare to AHI (Peterson, 2005) Discussion: Next Steps Future studies for ASP?
Larger sample size (control group design?) Use of coaching with at-risk students who do not have disabilities? Does coaching minimize impact of daily anxiety? Is self-talk the internal dialogue that helps students become more selfdetermined? Study the impact of coaching groups? Discussion: Tentative Implications Service providers may want to consider moving away from didactic service delivery models to a more holistic, collaborative model Service providers may want to consider adding coaching to existing services
Train staff Refer students to outside coaches Coaching could be an important part of high-school and summer transition programs Parents and professionals can create opportunities for students that promote self-determination Students must be able to understand the differences between coaching and other traditional services References Barkley, R.A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: The Guilford Press.
Barkley, R.A. , Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2007). Adults with ADHD: Clinic-referred cases vs children grown up. ADHD Report. 15 (5). Byron, J. & Parker, D.R. (2002). College students with ADHD: New challenges and directions. In L.C. Brinckerhoff, J.M. McGuire, & S.F. Shaw (Eds.). Postsecondary education and transition for students with learning disabilities (2nd ed.). (pp. 335-387). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Deshler, D., Ellis, E., & Lenz, K. (1996). Teaching Adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods. (2nd ed.). Denver:, CO: Love. References (contd) p.2 Field, S., Sarver, M., & Shaw, S. (2003). Self-determination: A key to success in postsecondary education for students with learning
disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 339-349. Gerber, P.J., (1998). Characteristics of adults with specific learning disabilities. In B.K. Lenz, N.A. Sturomski & M.A. Corley (Eds.), Serving adults with learning disabilities : Implications for effective practice. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Gioa, G. A., Isquith, P.K., & Guy, S.C. (2001). Assessment of executive function in children with neurological impairments. In R. Simeonsson & S. Rosenthal (Eds.), Psychological and developmental assessment (pp.317356). New York: Guilford Press. Harbour, W. (2004). The 2004 AHEAD Survey of Higher Education Disability Service Providers. Waltham, MA: Association on Higher Education and Disability. References (contd) p.3
Hallowell, E., & Ratey, J. (1994). Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and coping with Attention Deficit Disorder in childhood and adulthood. New York: Pantheon Books. Heiligenstein, E., Guenther, G., Levey, A.,. Savino, F., & Fulwiler, J. (1999). Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health, 47, 181-185 Henderson, C. (2001). College freshmen with disabilities: A biennial statistical profile by the Heath Resource Center NOH326H98002. American Council on Education: Washington D.C. Hoffman, A., Field, S., & Sawilowsky, S. (1995). Selfdetermination student scale. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University. References (contd)
p.4 Hoy, C., Gregg, N., Wisenbaker, J., Manglitz, E., King, M., & Moreland, C. (1997). Depression and anxiety in two groups of adults with learning disability. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 20, 280-291. Jorgensen, S., Fichten ,C., and Havel ,A. (Spring 2003). Students with Disabilities at Dawson College: Success and Outcomes. Final Report Presented to PAREA. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from http://www.adaptech.dawsoncollege.qc.ca/pubs/PAREA_2k3.pdf Kaufmann, C. (2006 ). Positive Psychology: The science at the heart of coaching. In D. R. Stober & A. M. Grant (Eds), Evidence Based Coaching Handbook (pp. 219-254). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Kilburg, R. R. (2004). Trudging toward Dodoville: Conceptual approaches
and case studies in executive coaching. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 56(4), 203-213. References (contd) p.5 Kravitz, M, & Wax, I. (2003). The K & W Guide to Colleges For Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorders, 7 th Edition : A Resource Book For Students. Parents, and Professionals. New York: Princeton Review. Mangrum, C.T., & Strichart, S. (2003). Peterson's Colleges with Programs for Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Disorders. 7 th Edition. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's. Parker, D.R., & Boutelle, K. (2009). Executive function coaching for college students with LD and ADHD: A new approach for fostering selfdetermination. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(4), 204-215.
Peterson, (2004) Authentic Happiness Inventory Questionnaire. University of Michigan. http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/questionnaires.aspx Quinn, P.O., Ratey, N.A., & Maitland, T.L. (2000). Coaching college students with AD/HD: Issues and answers. Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books. References (contd) p.6 Rabiner, D., Anastopoulous, A., Cosetllo, J., Hoyle, R., & Swartzwelder, H. (2008). Adjustment to college in students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(6), 689-699 pg 4-5).
Reaser, A. (2008) ADHD Coaching & College Students. (Dissertation Florida State University). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Roth, R., Isquith, P., Gioia, G. (2005). BRIEF-A: Behavior rating inventory of executive functioni-Adult Version: Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Saylor, K.E., Sutton, V.K., & Khan, S.A. (in press). Development of an adaptive change measure for adult ADHD: The life participation scale for adults. References (contd) p.7 Snyder and Hoffman (2003). National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Parent/Youth Interviews and for General Population, NLSY 2000 data for 5- through 19-year-olds.. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from
http://www.nlts2.org/reports/2005_06/nlts2_report_2005_06_ch4.pdf Swartz, S.L., Prevatt, F., & Proctor, B.E. (2005). A coaching intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 647-656. U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up BPS:96/01. Tables on Degree Attainment and Persistence of 1995-96 Beginning Postsecondary Students in 2001 by Disability Status and Learning Disability Status. Email from Aurora DAmico: January 29, 2008. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003159 References (contd) p.8
Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Garza, N., & Levine, P. (2005). After high school: A first look at the postschool experiences of youth with disabilities: A report from the national longitudinal transition study-2 (NLTS2). Retrieved May 16, 2008 from: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0 000019b/80/27/fb/9d.pdf . Whitworth, L., Kimsey-House, K., Kimsey-House, H., & Sandahl, P. (2007). Co-active coaching: New skills for coaching people toward success in work and life (2nd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. Zwart, L.M., & Kallemeyn, L.M. (2001). Peer-based coaching for college students with ADHD and learning disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 15, 1-15. Coaching Resources For training or to find a coach Coaches Training Institute
http://www.thecoaches.com Edge Foundation http://www.edgefoundation.org International Coach Federation http://www.coachfederation.org JST Coaching LLC http://www.jstcoach.com/ Thank you! Contact Information for The Academic Success Program for Students with LD/ADHD
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