Social and emotional development across the lifespan
Social and emotional development across the lifespan I noticed my opponent had tears in his eyes. I could not concentrate and lost my desire to win There can be no knowledge without emotion. We may be aware of a truth, yet until we have felt its force, it is not ours. To the cognition of the brain must be added the
experience of the soul. Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), British novelist. Shared balance of power Affective development incorporates personal, social and emotional aspects of learning and development the inner life of the child. The affective side of learning is the critical interplay between how we feel, act and think. There is no separation of mind and
emotions; emotions, thinking and learning are all linked. (Jensen, E. 1998). Affect precedes cognition (Damasio, 1994. Descartes error) DECS Learner Well-being framework Wellbeing is central to learning and learning is central to wellbeing. Educators make a positive contribution to learner wellbeing. Wellbeing is built on the strengths of individuals,
groups and communities working together. DECS learner wellbeing pages Three aspects of well-being: Emotional closely linked with social aspects and include emotional development and control, coping, autonomy, positive self-development, trust and attachment. Social include parent-child relationships, sibling relationships,
peer relationships, positive social behaviour, empathy and sympathy. Spiritual include beliefs, values, morals and ethics; a sense of meaning and purpose; altruism; and a sense of connectedness to something larger than oneself. Affective development Emotional, social & spiritual elements: are part of a holistic view of child development interconnectedness are dynamic change over time develop differently & at different rates for each
individual diverse occur in context interaction between individual and environments are perceived in different ways multi-dimensional Bronfenbrenners (1989) model importance of environment/experience Emotional development (Intrapersonal) (Cognitive function thinking, intelligence)
Affective function emotions (can also include interpersonal functioning) Conative function motivation (Moon, 2009 in Van Tassel Baska et al) Gardner (1983, 1999) Multiple intelligences Intrapersonal good understanding of self, profoundly aware of own feelings, dreams, ideas, true to own goals. March to a different drummer. Reflective - enjoy keeping a journal. Interpersonal easily understand
other people, perceptive of their moods and feelings. Natural leader and a skilled mediator; can break up a fight between two of your friends and still remain on each persons good side. Emotional Intelligence Mayer & Salovey (1990, 1997) Ability to monitor one's own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to
guide one's thinking and actions. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Ability model of emotional intelligence Ability to reason with emotions Capacity of emotions to enhance thought Individuals high in emotional intelligence have
the ability to perceive, understand and manage emotions on the one hand and to allow emotions to facilitate their thought on the other. Mayer, Perkins, Caruso & Salovey (2000) Keys to learning relate to emotional & social intelligence School success is not predicted by a childs fund of facts or a precocious ability to read so much as by emotional and social measures. (Goleman, 1995:194) Confidence Curiosity Intentionality Self-control
Relatedness Capacity to communicate Cooperativeness Emotional & social intelligence Goleman (1995, 1999) Emotional [intrapersonal] self-awareness (knowing own internal states) self-regulation (managing own internal states, impulses & reactions) motivation (intrinsic tendencies that guide success) Social [interpersonal] empathy (awareness of others feelings, needs & concerns)
social skills (adeptness at developing and maintaining relationships). Daniel Goleman interview Daniel Goleman talking about social intelligence Moral development: The level of internalisation of values and beliefs that regulate ones conduct in human relations. The domain of the moral begins where the
domain of the social begins. (Durkheim, 1925) Review - Views of the child Are children naturally good? (Rousseau 1712-1778) Therefore education should allow their nature to flourish (laissez-faire). Are children naturally evil? (Wesley 1703-1791) Therefore education should break childrens will (spare the rod & spoil the child). Are children blank slates? (Locke 1632-1704) Therefore education provides the experiences from which children develop knowledge & reason (Teach rules).
Are children competent? (Elkind 1987) Therefore education should be aimed at teaching children in an intellectually appropriate manner, because of the developmental nature of intelligence and the human ability to reason (Provide tools). Theories of moral development: Different paradigms Behaviourist All behaviour, including moral behaviour, is learned from external authority. Cognitive developmental
Childrens moral and cognitive reasoning occur in parallel development. Social Learning Behaviour is imitated Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Used interviews & observations to evaluate childrens moral reasoning & behaviour Young children are egocentric & powerless in relation to adults, so they are heteronomous in their moral orientation. As children develop perspective taking, they develop a concept of reciprocality.
Autonomous morality occurs when the child is capable of abstract reasoning & makes moral choices based on the specific nature of the situation & a consideration of the motives & intentions of each individual. Piaget stage development True mental stages meet several criteria: Qualitatively different ways of thinking Structured wholes (general & consistent patterns of thought) Progress in an invariant sequence Hierarchic (old insights arent lost but integrated in new, broader frameworks)
Cross-cultural universals Challenge to thinking disequilibrium development of new schema higher stage of development Piagets stages of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 1987) Interviewed boys aged 10-16 & considered their responses to a series of questions about moral choices & reasoning. Moral development is hierarchical & progresses through 3 levels, in
sequence, each with 2 stages. Level 1 egocentric orientation Level 2 social orientation Level 3 principles orientation Development occurs when existing schema isnt able to solve dilemma. Lawrence Kohlberg Moral development emerges from thinking about moral problems. Not simply maturation, nor a process of socialisation. As we find our moral schemas
inadequate to provide solutions for a problem, we are motivated to come up with more sophisticated ways of thinking. Moral reasoning + critical analysis & reflection = growth Carol Gilligan (1936 - ) Critical of Kohlbergs theory male bias, women score generally lower than men Orientation towards justice is a male concept Female orientation is towards compassion & care
Three stages: Self survival Responsibility for self & others Interconnection between self & others Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory & womens development. The failure to see the different reality of womens lives and to hear the differences in their voices stems in part from the assumption that there is a single mode of social experience and interpretation (p. 174).
The conception of morality as concerned with the activity of care centers moral development around the understanding of responsibility & relationships, just as the conception of morality as fairness ties moral development to the understanding of rights & rules (p. 19). Morality
Being true to oneself How to choose the right thing Caring & compassion for others How to live in harmony with others How to evaluate other peoples behaviour Search for meaning & purpose higher values Moral autonomy & responsibility Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Humanistic psychology Concerned with positive
mental health rather than problems Peak experiences Hierarchy of needs (1945) Motivation Brief description of importance/application of Maslow's hierarchy Maslows hierarchy of needs What a man can be, he must be.
What is the secret to lifelong happiness? Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi speaks about creativity, fulfilment: Csikszentmihalyi discussing happiness - TED talk Maslow (1954): self-actualisation Experience each moment fully, vividly & with total concentration
Think of life as a process of choices your choices Listen to yourself; trust your inner voice Take responsibility for yourself Dare to be different, non-conforming, real Do what you do with joy, and do it well Set up conditions that will allow more peak experiences; perceive the world & life positively Open up to yourself, identify your defences, and find the courage to give them up Erik Erikson (1902-1994) "Human personality in principle develops according to steps
predetermined in the growing person's readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of and to interact with a widening social radius" Eriksons theory of human psychosocial development (1963, 1972) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. Infancy Trust vs mistrust Toddler Autonomy vs shame/doubt Early childhood Initiative vs guilt Middle childhood Industry vs inferiority Adolescence Identity vs role confusion Young adult Intimacy vs isolation Middle age Generativity vs stagnation Old age Egointegrity vs despair Students song about Eriksons theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-i9ckfFRcd4
Childhood stages 1. If infants needs are met consistently & responsively by parents, infants will develop secure attachment with parents & learn to trust their environment. 2. If parents encourage childs use of initiative & reassure them when they make mistakes, child will develop confidence to cope with future situations requiring choice, control, independence. 3. If parents encourage, & are consistent in discipline, child will learn boundaries of acceptable behaviour. 4. If child finds pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking
success, they will develop a sense of competence. Adolescence 5. "Who am I?" To successfully answer this question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face. Positive outcome: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfully, s/he will come out of this stage with a
strong identity, and ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and his/ her role in life in general. 6.Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity. 7. People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children, or helping the next generation in other ways.
8. If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, s/he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson, the healthy adult will not fear death. Identity Mature identity is a matter of having strong, self-conscious and self-chosen commitments in matters such as vocation, sexuality, religion and political ideology (Marcia, 1966). Identity is defined in a context of relationship & judged by a standard of responsibility &
care (Gilligan, 1982). 8 Basic Virtues emerging across lifespan Hope Will
Purpose Competence Fidelity Love Care Wisdom (Erikson) Wisdom R.J. Sternberg Reasoning ability: good problem-solving; logical mind Sagacity: concern for others; listens to others; is thoughtful, fair; knows self Learning from the environment: attaches
importance to ideas and questions; is perceptive Judgment: is sensible; thinks before acting or making a decision; able to take a long view Expeditious use of information: is experienced; seeks out information; learns from the mistakes of the past Perspicacity: has intuition; offers solutions that are on the side of right and truth Why teach for wisdom? Knowledge is insufficient wisdom, not knowledge will help attain personal goals Wisdom inserts thoughtful & deliberate values into important judgements
Wisdom represents an avenue to creating a better, more harmonious world Students are members of communities will become parents/leaders teaching for wisdom will enhance social capital (see Sternberg et al, 2009:105; also Renzulli, 2003) Spiritual intelligence Dorothy Sisk & E. Paul Torrance, authors of Spiritual Intelligence: Developing higher consciousness (2001) Danah Zohar and Dr. Ian
Marshall, authors of "SQ: Connecting With Our Spiritual Intelligence. (2000) Important transition points & stage development across the lifespan Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age In every age there is a turning point, a new way of seeing and asserting
the coherence of the world Jacob Bronowski Family as influence on childs affective development risk & protective factors Family is complex system defining features/interrelationships Eg
Parental style Educational background & values Family climate Expectations & aspirations Beliefs system Extended family/social network & supports Important question is not only how child is influenced by family, but also what influence child has on family Impact of significant life events Divorce of parents:
Decreased academic achievement, less likely to attend college, increase in emotional & behavioural problems Death in the family: Greater risk of depression, anxiety, behaviour problems, forced increases in maturity, sleep problems, medical problems, mental health problems, school performance problems Relocation: Decreased academic achievement, negative impact on friendship networks, increased behavioural problems, promiscuity, negative parent-child relationships
Action if concerned about a childs social and/or emotional well-being GRIP framework (www.responseability.org) Gather information Respond Involve others Promote well-being
Refer to Teachers guide publication and to website for further information Affective development: What do we know? development is complex our theories are incomplete we do not fully understand all the variables and systems in control of development and developmental processes growing database points to the critical role of experience interacting with the organism in affecting the realization of human potential in all domains and across the life span
Internal & external environments/experiences After you understand about the sun and the stars and the rotation of the earth, you may still miss the radiance of the sunset. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) British mathematician and philosopher. Everything educators do has the potential to influence wellbeing. DECS (2007:11) References (1)
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.). Annals of child development (Vol. 6) Greenwich, CT: JAI. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row. Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Avon Books. DECS (2007). Learner Wellbeing Framework: Birth to Year 12. Available at: http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/learnerwellbeing/files/links/link_72840.pdf Delisle, J. (2006). Once upon a mind. Belmont, CA: Thomson. Durkheim, E. (1925). Moral Education. A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education. Translated by E.K.Wilson & H.Schnurer. New York: Free Press. Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory & womens development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why EQ matters more than IQ. New York: Bantam. Henderson, L. (2005). Combining moral philosophy and moral reasoning: The P.A.V.E. moral reasoning strategy. International Education Journal, (6) 2. pp 184193. Hillman, J. (1996) The souls code. New York: Random House. Horowitz, F.D. (2000). Child Development and the PITS: Simple Questions, Complex Answers, and Developmental Theory. Child Development, 71, (1), Pp1-10. References (2) Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching with the brain in mind. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. Marcia, J. (1966). Development & validations of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 5, 551-558.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row. Mayer, J. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development & emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books. Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of intelligence (pp. 396-420). New York: Cambridge University Press. Sisk, D. & Torrance, E. Paul. (2001). Spiritual Intelligence: Developing higher consciousness. Creative Education Foundation. Slee, P.T. (2002).Child, adolescent and family development. (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Sternberg, R.J., Jarvin, L. & Grigorenko, E. (2009). Teaching for wisdom, intelligence, creativity and success. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin. Van Tassel Baska, J., Cross, T. & Olenchak, R.(Eds.). (2009). Social-emotional
curriculum. Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press. Zohar, D. & Marshall, I. (2000). SQ: Connecting With Our Spiritual Intelligence. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
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