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PARENTING STYLES AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER IN CHILDREN: A MODERATIONAL MODEL By: Taylor Perlman ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (5th edition.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) developing persistent patterns of inattention and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that interferes with daily functioning (APA, 2013).

Severity: Mild Moderate Severe Presentation types: Combined Predominantly inattentive Predominantly hyperactive/ impulsive ADHD SEVERITY AND PRESENTATIONS The inattention type- 6 or more of the following symptoms: failing to pay close attention to detail

difficulty sustaining attention having a hard time listening when spoken to failing to follow instructions avoiding tasks that require sustained attention becoming easily distracted by extraneous stimuli losing things necessary for the task forgetting to do daily activities These symptoms must have been present prior to the age of 12 and for at least six months to meet criteria (APA, 2013) PARENTING STYLES AUTHORITATIVE:

Warm, encouraging, supportive- high levels of acceptance AUTHORITARIAN: Psychologically demanding, controlling children with low self esteem PERMISSIVE: Little control over children, avoid confrontation children without emotional regulation UNINVOLVED: Neglectful and rejecting issues relating to others and performing in daily tasks (Kimble, 2009)

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SES- social class of an individual involving combination of their occupation, education, and income (APA) Low SES Studies show that children with parents who have fewer educational qualifications are 1.91 times more likely to develop ADHD Lack of resources, low opportunities, little services HYPOTHESIS The interaction between maladaptive parenting styles and low socioeconomic status can predict the severity of self-reported ADHD- Inattentive type among children.

PARTICIPANTS 300 children 53% female, 47% male 68% Caucasian, 22% African American, 7% Asian, 3% other Age range: 8-12 ((M = 10 years; SD = 1.4) 18% 3rd grade, 21% 4th grade, 13% 5th grade, 24% 6th grade, 24% in 7th grade (M = 5th grade; SD = 1.7) Low to high- class families Annual Income: $35,000 to $450,000 (M = $120,000; SD = $49,000) Long Island, New York All parents were heterosexual and living in the same home as the child

MEASURES Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire 62 item questionnaire 5 point scale never to always (1-5) 40 minutes to complete Hollingshead Four Factor Index 20 minutes to complete Occupation and Education Score BASC-3 Self Report (SRP-C) Child

True/ False and 4- point scale Never to Almost always 20-120 Demographic Questionnaire PARENTING STYLE- PSDQ SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS- HOLLINGSHEAD FOUR FACTOR INDEX BASC-3 School Problems Internalizing Problems

Inattention/ Hyperactivity *** I I I I I

am a good listener am easily distracted forget to do things get into trouble for not paying attention have trouble playing attention to what I am doing Emotional Symptoms Index Personal Adjustment PROCEDURE Approved by Long Island University Post Institutional Review Board (IRB) At least one parent signed informed consent and child

signed assent form 40 minutes to complete all items Completed in Roslyn High School Gymnasium Children administered BASC-3 in Gymnasium Parents administered PSDQ in Library DATA ANALYSIS Moderational model Two independent variables Parenting style (categorical) Socioeconomic status (continuous) Dependent Variable

1- Way ANCOVA ADHD (continuous) PARENTIN G STYLE SES PARENTING + SES Interaction

ADHDINATTENTIV E TYPE RESULTS: SIGNIFICANT There was a significant interaction effect between the two independent variables on the dependent variable 1-way ANCOVA analysis results are significant at p < .05 Socioeconomic status is a moderator between parenting styles and ADHD among children RESULTS: INSIGNIFICANT Socioeconomic status was not a moderating variable

between parenting style and ADHD- Inattentive Type Interaction between the two independent variables were not necessary when predicting the dependent variable This suggests that regardless of income, if positive parenting styles were not practiced in the home, severity of inattentive ADHD are likely to increase LIMITATIONS The scale only looks at Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive parenting styles but neglects Uninvolved Parenting Styles Self report questionnaires can be difficult to trust due to the biases of the parents and their children

This study focused on children living in Long Island, NY with heterosexual parents FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS Observe the parents and their interaction with their children to limit potential inaccurate data collection Improve parenting by: teaching behavioral training

Integrating family therapy Encouraging communication Reinforcing coping skills REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103. doi: 10.1037/h0030372 Callahan, C. L., & Eyberg, S. M., (2010) Relations between parenting behavior and SES in a clinical sample: Validity of SES measures, Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 32 (2), 125-138 Doi: 10.1080

Gould, K. L., Coventry, W. L., Olsen, R. K., & Byrne, B. (2018). Gene-environment interactions in ADHD: The roles of SES and chaos. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46, 251-263. Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017. Haack, L. M., Villodas, M. T., & McBurnett, K. (2016). Parenting mediates the symptoms and impairment in children with ADHD-inattentive type. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45 (2), 155-166. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group. Doi: 10.1080 Hollingshead, A. A. (1975). Four-Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Kimble, A. B. (2009). The parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire: A reconceptualization and validation. 1-85. Oklahoma State University. Merenda, P. F. (1996). BASC: Behavior Assessment System for Children. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 28 (4), 229232. Moghaddam, M. F., Assareh, M., Heidaripoor, A., Rad, R. E., & Pishjoo, M. (2013). The study comparing parenting styles of children with ADHD and normal children. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 4, 45-49. Editorial Committee of Polish Psychiatric Association. Norvilitis, J. M., & Fang, P. (2005). ADHD Symptoms Questionnaire [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t16394-000

Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (2001). The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). In B. F. Perlmutter, J. Touliatos, & G. W. Holden (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques, 3, 319 - 321. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Russel, A. E., Ford, T., Williams, R., & Russel, G. (2016). The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 47, 440-458. Doi: 10.1007

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