Society and Religion - Mrs. Dillon's History Site

Society and Religion - Mrs. Dillon's History Site

Chapter 3 The Age of Reformation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. ifixion, Matthias Grunewald, 1515. Painted on the e rmation. Northern (German) Renaissance. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Michelangelos Pieta, 1499. Renaissance inspira

Society and Religion Social and political conflict The Reformation first broke out in the Free Imperial cities in Germany and Switzerland. Emerged during sharp conflict b/w emerging nations of Europe, which meant independent towns were overridden by national law and custom. Many lost their traditional rights/freedoms. Guilds were often on the forefront of Reformation. Economically and socially rising- most underdogs were pro-Reformation. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church Reformation could not have happened without the earlier challenges to the Churchs authority: Avignon papacy (1309-1377) French-dominated College of Cardinals, they expanded papal taxes and sold indulgences. The Great Schism (1378-1417): Scandal of two popes: One in Italy (Urban VI), one in France (Clement VII). This pitted England vs. France again. The Conciliar Period: The establishment of a church council that could elect and depose Popes and regulate their actions.

The Renaissance papacy: The Borgias and Medicis corruption. Lay criticism of the church was growing Many sought a more egalitarian church Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Modern Devotion Also known as The Brothers of the Common Life, they fostered lay religious life without surrendering the world. Clerics and laity shared a common life stressing

individual piety and practical religion. They have been seen as the source of humanist, Protestant and Catholic reform movements. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Lay Control Over Religious Life The benefice system, the sale of religious office to the highest bidder, was collapsing. Communities were loudly protesting financial and spiritual abuses, such as the sale of indulgences. City governments were endowing preacherships.

Magistrates were restricting the growth of ecclesiastical properties and clerical privileges. Humanism, printing press, postal system, and travel increased peoples knowledge. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Martin Luther & the German Reformation Late Medieval Germany lacked the political unity to enforce large scale religious reforms. By 1517, discontent with the church was ripe

enough for Martin Luthers critiques to take hold. 1507, Luther was ordained 1510, on his visit to Rome, he found the German complaints about the Church to be accurate 1512, he earned his doctorate in Theology at the Augustinian Monastery in Wittenberg Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. St. Anthony Tormented by Demons, c. 1475

Martin Schongauer Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Justification by Faith Luther was plagued by his sense of a disconnect between his own sinfulness and the perfect righteousness God required for salvation. He concluded that God does not demand charitable acts and religious ceremonies, but just faith in Jesus Christ as perfect righteousness. Good works were expected, but did not earn one salvation. We should do good things selflessly, not as a way to get into heaven.

Doing good pleases God, but He doesnt take it into account upon judgment of souls. That would make God the puppet of man! He despised the phrase righteousness of God because only God is perfect enough to be righteous. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Indulgences Though a priest could absolve a penitent of guilt, he still had an eternal penalty to pay. Absolution could turn that into a temporal (earthly) punishment. The remission of that temporal penalty was an indulgence.

Originally given to Crusaders who died in battle. Starting in 1343 (Avignon Papacy), the church started selling letters of indulgence. They needed money! By 1476, they were extended to Christians in purgatory! By Luthers time, they were often sold for small cash payments. Luthers protest in his Ninety-five Theses (October 31, 1517) was against the impression that indulgences remitted sin, which made it seem as if salvation could be bought and sold. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. ann (John) Tetzel selling indulgences: As soon as

basin rings, right then the soul to Heaven springs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Charles V The Ninety-five Theses were embraced by Nuremberg humanists, which made Luther a central figure in an already organized national German cultural movement. He was called before the general of his order to answer for his criticisms. As sanctions were being prepared against him, Emperor Maximillian I died (1519), which turned attention away from Luther.

Charles I of Spain succeeded his Grandfather and became Emperor Charles V (of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles I: nephew of Catherine of Aragon, grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. AND CATHOLIC! Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Charles V of HRE= Charles I of Spain. Had connections to the Hapsburgs of Austria and the Augsberg Fugger Banking House of Austria; he secured 7/9 votes of the imperial ELECTORS:

9 German princes who could elect the new HR Emperor. One of those 7 was Fredrick the Wise, who took pride in the Univ. of Wittenberg, where Luther worked, and he vowed to protect Luther. Charles agreed to let a German imperial court and Regency council consult with a Diet of the HRE on all major issues: Prevents Spanish imperial action against Germans! Young Martin Luther:

Catholic monk Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Luthers Excommunication and the Diet of Worms June 27, 1519, Luther debated Prof. John Eck in Leipzig. Questioned the infallibility of the pope and the inerrancy of church councils. Defended writings of John Huss, who had been killed for heresy.

Appealed to the authority of scripture alone. These views were published in 1520. Luther was excommunicated on June 15, 1520. The Diet of Worms Presided over by Charles V Luther presented his views and was placed under the Imperial ban as well. Luther was forced into hiding, protected by the Elector Frederick, where he translated the Bible into German. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Spread of the Reformation The Emperor was distracted by war with the French and the Turks. In exchange for German troops, he permitted each local prince to enforce the ban as he saw fit, essentially giving them each religious authority in his own domain More religious freedom. In many cities, princes began to enact religious reforms, and they welcomed Lutheran preachers. The Elector of Saxony and the prince of Hesse both

instated Protestantism in their lands. By the 1530s German Protestant lands formed the Schmaldkaldic League and prepared for war with the Catholic emperor. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. he burning of Jack Rorbach, a peasant rebel, in 152 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Peasants Revolt Reformation had more internal division than external

interference in its first decade. The peasants initially saw Luther as an ally, asking him for support in their demands to end serfdom and for other economic reforms. Luther initially had sympathy for them, but when they invoked his name in their revolt he called them un-Christian. Peasants violently revolted against their noble landlords 15241525. Luther urged the nobles to crush them. 70,000-100,000 peasants were killed. For Luther, the freedom of Christianity lay in inner spiritual release, not revolutionary politics. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Albrecht Drer, Northern Renaissan artist. Memorial to the Peasants Revolt, 1527. Does Drer support or condemn the rebellious peasants? Drer painted portraits of the Fug a great merchant family the peasan hated, as well as of Margrave Casi a slayer of peasants and Anabaptis

Where is the sword located? He who wants to commemorate his victory over the rebellious peasan might use a structure such as I portray here. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Swiss Reformation Preconditions: Growing Swiss nationalism (patriotism) and opposition to providing mercenaries, which was one of Switzerlands main sources of

employment. Desire for Church reform. The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli Former mercenary chaplain. Humanistically educated, he credited Erasmus as setting him on the path to reform. By 1518, he was known for his opposition to the sale of indulgences, mercenenary service, and religious superstition. In 1519, Zwingli became the peoples priest in Zurich.

Ended priestly celibacy, petitioned for right of clergy to marry. Acknowledged possible paternity of a daughter with a woman out of wedlock. Became a peoples priest in Zurich in 1519 anyway. March 1522, broke the Lenten fast. Preached the authority of Scripture alone. If there is no literal support in Scripture, it should be dismissed. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Marburg Colloquy Philip of Hess: German Reformer and noble,

wanted to unite Swiss and German Protestants at a castle in Marburg to work out differences. Theological difference between Zwingli and Luther were too drastic. Zwingli: Christ is only spiritually present in the Eucharist, not physically. Luther: Christ is physically present in the Eucharist. Zwingli thought this was medieval. The Swiss Civil Wars 1529 and 1531 between Catholics and Protestants Ended in Protestant victory, and Catholics had to

recognize the rights of Swiss Protestants. Zwingli was hacked to pieces on the battlefield at Kappel. Heinrich Bullinger, his son-in-law, took his place as leader and eventually merged with Calvinism. Bruyns Seduction Of Christ (1547). A Catholic portrayal Christ being tempted Martin Luther, who is

Satan in disguise. The figure of Luther asks Jesus to transfo a stone into bread, t which Christ replies, Man cannot live on Bread alone. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. he Swiss Confederation, in the Holy Roman Empire (1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Anabaptists & Radical Protestants Anabaptists: devout fundamentalist Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism counted in Scripture. Predecessors of Mennonites, Amish, and Quakers. Didnt believe Luther and Zwingli were demanding enough reforms.

Anabaptists & Radical Protestants Conrad Grebel and the Swiss Brotherhood Refused to baptize children, believing that only a consenting adult can accept Christ Physically separated themselves from secular society The Anabaptist Reign in Munster Dutch emigrants led an Anabaptist takeover in 1534-1535. Persecuted by Lutherans, Catholics, and Zwinglians alike. The features of the regime included charismatic leaders and

polygamy. City was closed off to Lutherans and Catholics. It was crushed by united Protestant and Catholic armies. Skeletons were left hanging in the city as a warning to all radicals. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Anabaptists & Radical Protestants Other radical groups: Spiritualists: anti-institutional religion.

Spirit of God is present and speaks in the hearts and minds of people, not in Church doctrine. Anti-trinitarians: Opponents of Calvinism and strongly supported religious tolerance. Rejected the Trinity. John Calvin Born in France and educated by the Church; in May 1534, he joined the Reformation. Political revolt and religious reform in Geneva

In the late 1520s, Genevans revolted, and in 1527 the city council took power. May 21, 1536 Geneva officially adopted the Reformation. June 1536, Calvin arrived in Geneva. Had been fleeing French persecution. He drew up articles for the governance of the Church, which were approved, after much debate, in 1537. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Young John

Calvin Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Calvins Geneva The Church was organized into four offices Pastors Teachers to instruct the populace Elders, laypeople chosen by the council Deacons to dispense church goods and services to the poor Predestination, the doctrine that only a chosen few

are saved by Gods grace alone, without regard to acts or faith, was central to Calvins theology. Very controversial! Was a haven to exiled Protestants and also had severe laws against wife-beating. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation The Diet of Augsberg: In 1530, Charles V presided over this

meeting of Protestants and Catholics. The emperor ordered all Protestants to return to Catholicism. February 1531, the Schmalkaldic League formed to defend Lutheran interests Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Expansion of the Reformation Throughout the 1530s, German Lutherans formed regional consistories, judicial bodies which

oversaw the new Protestant Churches. Made legal and educational reforms, expanding education to the laity, even girls. The Reformation spread to Denmark and Sweden, and made inroads in Poland (which was very religiously diverse). In the 1540s, Charles V went after the Protestants. In 1547, he crushed the League, putting puppet rulers in Hesse and Saxony and forcing Protestants to return to Catholicism. Many Protestants fled to Magdeburg, Germany

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Peace of Augsburg The Reformation was too entrenched by 1547 to be ended. The puppet ruler of Saxony became a Lutheran. The emperor was forced to relent. In September 1555, the Peace of Augsburg made the division of Christendom permanent. Cuius regio, eius religio, the ruler of a land determines its religion.

Lutherans were permitted to retain church lands confiscated before 1552. It did not extend recognition to Anabaptists and Calvinists as legal forms of Christianity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The English Reformation England was a likely breeding ground for Protestantism, but its advance was slow. England had a reputation for maintaining the authority of the crown against the pope There were already many secret Protestants.

Lutheran writings had already been smuggled in. Lollardy and Humanism also were influences. Lollardy= term for lower/middle working class Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Catherine of Aragon Henry VIIIs wife Catholic Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Aunt of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Originally married to Henrys brother Arthur, who had died. Technically this was against Biblical canon. Mother of Mary, who would be raised Catholic. Could not produce a male heir. Henry VIII Initially supported the Pope against Luther. Two advisers: Thomas More: Humanist, author of Utopia, fiercely Catholic.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey: Chief minister to Catholic Henry VIII Henrys first wife, Catherine of Aragon, did not provide him a son. He wanted an annulment in order to marry Anne Boleyn, which was not granted. Pope Clement VII was prisoner of Charles V It was suggested that he declare himself supreme in English spiritual affairs, which would solve his problem.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Henry VIII 1529: Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was fired for failing to get the annulment. Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell, Lutheran sympathizers, would become his advisors. Later in 1535, Henry would have Thomas More beheaded. One less Thomas.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Reformation Parliament In 1529, Parliament convened for what would be a seven year session. Legislation passed that eventually put the clergy under the authority of the king. In January 1531, the king was made officially the head of the church in England. 1532, published official grievances against the church. January 1533: Henry marries Anne Boleyn, who gives birth to a daughter, Elizabeth, in September.

1534, ended all payments to Rome and gave Henry sole jurisdiction over ecclesiastical appointments. The same year, the Act of Supremacy declared Henry the only supreme head of the Church of England. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Henrys religious conservatism Despite these changes, Henry did not make many concessions to Protestant sensibilities, retaining most of the ritual and doctrinal trappings of Catholicism.

Wives of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon (annulled 1533) Anne Boleyn (beheaded 1536) Jane Seymour (died after giving birth to son Edward, Henrys only male heir, Oct. 1537) Anne of Cleves (annulled July 1540) Catherine Howard (beheaded Feb 1542, age 18) Catherine Parr (survived Henry, who died in 1547, and went on to marry Seymours brother but then she died a year later in childbirth). She convinced Henry to reinstate both his bastardized daughters

(Catholic Mary and Protestant Elizabeth) to the line of succession for his throne. Edward VI When Henry died, his 10 year old son, Edward VI, took over the throne. Ruled under several regencies. Enacted a series of reforms, bringing the Church of England more in line with Protestant England. In 1553, Edward died at age 16, leaving his Catholic half-sister Mary as queen. She quickly reversed the

reforms. Bloody Mary, who died in 1558, leaving the throne to Queen Elizabeth I, when the real Reformation began in England. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Counter-Reformation Even before the Reformation, Catholics had begun to make efforts at reforms, but they were squashed. Popes feared they would lose power if reforms started.

Once the Reformation set in, new religious orders had begun to form. 1524, Theatines to groom church leaders. 1528, the monastic Capuchins- wanted to return to monastic ways of St. Francis to serve the poor. 1530, Somaschi and Barnabites- repair damage in war-torn Italy. 1535, Ursulines- order for women and girls; provide education. 1575, Oratorians- promoted religious literature, art, music. Mystical piety of St. Teresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

The Counter-Reformation The Jesuits were the most successful of the reform movements. Founded by Ignatius Loyola in the 1530s, it was recognized in 1540. Grew from 10 members in 1540 to know more than 15,000 members worldwide. Jesuit= Society of Jesus Based on a military model, he wanted people to be soldiers of Christ. Ignatius: Former soldier, went through intense religious conversion. Preached self-mastery over ones feelings through discipline, selfsacrifice and obedience. Spiritual Exercises: Mental, emotional exercises, meditations Taught Catholics to be better and won back many Protestants to the

Catholic faith. St. Teresa of Avila Spanish mystic Carmelite nun and reformer, explains her religious experience: I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I

could not wish to be rid of it... Primary Source: Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 16471652, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome Italy Primary Source: Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 16471652, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome Italy Primary Source: Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 16471652, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome Italy Europe,

1560 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Council of Trent (15451563) The success of the Reformation forced the Church to call general council, in order to reassert doctrine. In Trent, Northern Italy. In preparation, the pope appointed liberal theologian Caspar Contarini to head a reform commission. His report on fiscal practices of the Church was so bad the Pope tried to suppress its publication, and Protestants circulated it!

The council was strictly under the popes control. Its most important reforms concerned internal discipline. Bishops needed to preach regularly and spend time in their dioceses. Priests were required to be neatly dressed, educated and strictly celibate. Reduced the sale of church positions. No doctrinal concessions were made to the Protestants. They reaffirmed many key doctrines such as:

The role of good works in Salvation The authority of tradition and the Seven sacraments Veneration of saints, relics, and sacred images; Transubstantiation Indulgences Rulers initially resisted the reforms, but eventually the new legislation took hold. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Religious Life in Fifteenth-Century Cities

The clergy were ubiquitous (everywhere). They had legal and political power, and could legislate taxation. Daily life was regulated by the calendar, with frequent fasts and festivals. Monasteries and nunneries were influential institutions. Even many Catholic clergy had concubines and children (but paid fines) and were often resented by lay people.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Religious Life in Sixteenth-Century Reform Cities There were far fewer clergy. Bigger gap between rich and poor. The number of holidays shrunk by a third. Cloisters (monasteries and convents) had nearly disappeared or transformed into hospices, orphanages, or schools. Clergy could marry, pay taxes, be tried for crimes. But nearly half of all original converts returned to

Catholicism by mid-1600s. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Education The Reformation had a profound effect on education, as it implemented humanistic educational reforms. Many reformers were humanists. Counter-reformers emphasized the classic Scholastic (Aristotle) writers: Lombard, Bonaventure and Aquinas.

Some humanists thought that the Protestant takeover of humanism would limit learning; however, the Reformation spread humanist ideas farther than they had been before through university education. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Women The Protestant rejection of celibacy accompanied their rejection of the Medieval tendency to

degrade women as temptresses or exalt them as virgins. Instead, they praised women as mothers and housewives. Marriage was viewed as a partnership between man and wife. Women had the right to divorce and remarry, just as men did. However, wives remained subject to their husbands. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Martin Luther and wife Katharina

von Bora, a former nun. Family Life in Early Modern Europe Between 1500 and 1800, men and women married later than they had before. Men: mid to late 20s Women: early to mid 20s Younger couples couldnt support themselves. Later marriages were shorter marriages. More pre-marital sex More orphans and illegitimate kids.

Marriages tended to be arranged, however it was usual for the couple to have known each other, and their feelings were often respected. Families consisted of two parents and 6-7 children. The church and physicians condemned those who hired wet nurses, but nobles continued to use them. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Family Life in Early Modern Europe The traditional family had features that seemed cold and

distant. The pragmatic (practical) was often stressed over the romantic. Children were sent away at age 13 for apprenticeships; widows/widowers remarried quickly after death of a spouse, Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Literature The Reformation did not only bring about cultural and changes. There were also major innovations in literature.

Miguel De Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish writer. His major work was Don Quixote, which was a satire of the chivalric romances popular in Spain. The juxtaposition of idealism and realism in the novel was very innovative. William Shakespeare was an English playwright. He wrote histories, tragedies and comedies. His work struck universal human themes, many of which were rooted in contemporary religious traditions. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

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