Soil Forming Factors - South Dakota Envirothon

Soil Forming Factors - South Dakota Envirothon

SOIL FORMING FACTORS Presentation Created By: Katrina M. Wilke What is Soil An evolving, living layer at the Earths surface (pedosphere) In dynamic equilibrium with other layers

Mediates most of the biological, geological, physical, and chemical interactions Importance of Soil Provides food, minerals, fuels, fiber, and building material for humans Provides water, nutrients, and habitat for plants, microorganisms, and animals

Mediates waste disposal (decomposition) and water filtration Soil as a Natural Resource Limiting and non-renewable resource Human society is built on a terrestrial foundation Abuse can result in the collapse of civilizations

Understanding soil can result in sustaining and improving the human habitat Soil Composition? Minerals of different sizes Organic materials Open space

Water Air a_comp.aspx Healthy soils have 45% mineral, 5% organic matter, 25% air, and 25% water Mineral Particles and Soil Texture Sand: 0.05-2.00 mm

Silt: 0.002-0.05 mm Soil texture is the ratio of mineral particles There are twelve soil textures Clay: <0.002

Soil Forming Factors Parent Material Climate Organisms Relief

Time Soil Forming Processes Additions Inputs of water, nitrogen, sediments, salts, organic matter, fertilizers Losses Leaching, erosion losses, nutrient losses, water losses, carbon as CO2, nitrogen losses Translocations Movement of clays, soluble salts, minerals and

organic material Transformations Mineralization of organic matter, alteration and dissolution of minerals, secondary layer Soil Forming Processes LOSSES ADDITIONS TRANSLOCATIONS TRANSFORMATIONS LOSSES How are Soils Made? Parent Material Parent Material: What is it?

Unconsolidated material in which soil forms Grouped according to how the material is moved Loess and ash Glacial till Peat Floodplain sediments alluvium Glacio-fluvial deposits colluvium rock weathered in plac

residuum Parent Material: Types Moved by gravity Colluvium Moved by wind Eolian (sands and loess) Moved by water Alluvium

Parent Material: Types Weathered in place Moved by ice Residuum (bedrock) Glacial

Volcanoes Climate Climate: What is climate? Precipitation Temperature

Wind Seasonal and daily changes Microclimates Climate: What does it effect? Vegetative growth (rate and kind) Rate of biological, physical, and chemical

reactions Leaching Weathering Transportation of material Climate: Precipitation (inches) 15 17 15

19 15 21 15 27 29 19 25 23 21 21 17 21 19 19 15 19

19 21 21 15 23 23 25 25 25 27 27 23

27 23 27 Climate: Temperature (average max) 83 87 85 87 85 85 87 89

83 83 89 91 91 91 91 77 79 77 81 83 85

91 89 93 89 93 83 89 91 93 93 89 87 87 87 91

87 Climate: Soil Development Cold, dry climates weak to modest profile development Photo taken by the Redfield SSO, Used with Permission Warm, humid climates strong, deep profile development

Organisms Organisms: Types Vegetation Fauna

grass, trees, shrubs, and agricultural crops native and non-native macro: nematodes, arthropods, earthworms, insects, small vertebrates micro: bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa Humans Organisms: Vegetation Roots hold soil in place and create pore space Provide nutrients for soil microorganisms

Water travels through root channels Different roots have various effect on soil Soil Formed in a Prairie Soil Formed in a Forest Organisms: Native Vegetation Climate

Topography Biological factors Soil factors Soil density Depth Chemistry Temperature Moisture Organisms: Fauna

Macro Excavate and rearrange Contaminate Micro Decompose organic matter Convert materials into plant nutrients

Bio-remediation Organisms: Humans Increased population and agriculture Equipment and chemicals Industry and urban settlements Infrastructure and mining

Topography Topography: What is it? Steepness, landscape position and surface shape of a section of land p153.html Topography: What does it effect? Local changes in climate

Aspect effects moisture and temperature Water movement Depth, wetness, color, etc of soil profile All other forming factors are constant Rate of water flow

Infiltration Runoff Topography: Landscape Positions Hill or Mountain Shoulder Backslope River Valley Terrace Footslope Tread Depression

Riser Toeslope Channel & Floodplain Summit Catena Concept: Hydrology Latin for chain Sequence of soils in different positions in the landscape

Erosion-Deposition Solute transport Differential soil hydrology Catena Concept: Hydrology Aerobic Hydrologic flow Ground water table Weathering & Solute Leaching Anaerobic

Solute Precipitation Catena Concept: Soil Development Shoulder Well drained, relatively deep soil Backslope Footslope

Increased surface runoff, thinner soil more poorly drained, thick soil Summit wetter than the shoulder and backslope Time Soil_forming_factors Time

Period soil is subjected to weathering Soil formation can be a slow process Changes can occur in hundreds to millions of years Short term changes Human activity

Natural disasters Fire, flood, volcano Time: Soil Development Time: Soil Development Time Parent Material Young Soil Entisol Mature Soil Mollisol Older Soil

Alfisol Time: Young Soil In the process of adjustment to its environment. A fresh deposit of alluvium or earthy manmade fill is soil if it can support plants. Constantly subjected to

erosion Time: Mature Soil In dynamic equilibrium with climatic and vegetative influences Not changing either physically or chemically Stable environment Soil Degradation Physical, Chemical, and Anthropogenic Degradation: Physical Erosion Compaction Water excess and deficit 2011/11/30 Soil_compaction Degradation: Chemical Acidification r4082e08.htm Salinisation

Leaching Microbial respiration Irrigation Sodification roc198131.htm Degradation: Anthropogenic Deforestation Improper irrigation

Misuse of land Acid rain Overgrazing Construction waste Excessive use of

Heavy metals fertilizers Power generation Poor land drainage emissions Thank you for your time! USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex (including gender

identity and expression), marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, political beliefs, genetic information, reprisal, or because all or part of an individuals income is derived from any public assistance program.

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