Soil System 5.1

Soil System 5.1

Soil System 5.1 What is soil? Soil is influenced by parent material from the rock below, climate, macroorganisms and microorganisms all acting over a period of time. It is a mixture of inorganic mineral particles and organic material from decomposed flora and fauna that covers the underlying bedrock.

Simply put This This Define the term soil

Complex ecosystem which is made up of minerals, organic material, and inorganic material. It is a habitat for many animals and plants Soil is important!

All the food we consume depends ultimately upon soil Plants grow in it and we either eat the plant or the animals that eat the plants It is a habitat for many organisms Holds water and mineral nutrients that the plants depend on. Soil filters water often altering the chemistry of water Stores and transfers heat so affects atmospheric temperature

Soils components mineral materials nutrients sand silt clay

organisms dead organic matter / humus water air/gases How do huge rocks become soil? Rocks provide the

inorganic components of soil. This happens in 2 ways. 1) weathering (the processes involved in breaking down exposed rocks) and

Dont write background info only Weathering water gets into the gaps freezes and ice expands rock. This process will cause chunks of rocks to break off How do huge rocks become soil?

2) Erosion (the movement and further breaking down of Earths surface by the action of water, glaciers, winds, waves, etc.)

Outline the three stages in soil formation. stage 1: It starts out as rock (parent material) which weathers over time. Parent Rock

Under the soil that is present. Which will get broken down and become part of the soil Outline the three stages in soil formation. stage 2: As plants and other

organisms begin to inhabit, their organic matter mixes with the weathered minerals from the rock. Organic materials Living organisms

provide the organic component through their death and decay. Some living creatures mix the various soil elements through movement and through

their bodies. Outline the three stages in soil formation. stage 3: More and more organic matter mixes in over time and minerals can leach down due to gravity and water, creating the different soil layers.

Humus A dark crumbly substance that is formed when organic material breaks down; it is very fertile for plant growth

Earthworms Pass a great deal of soil through their bodies helping to mix and move soil around Moles dig around and mix soil

Leaf litter and fungi Soil Components graphic organizer use page 238 Fraction Rock Particles Humus Water

Air Soil organisms Constituents Function

Title this section Soil Profile Title this section: Soil Profile

Make sure you have both a left and right side available. Create a diagram of an open soil system after reading the processes of soil formation on page 123.

Translocation- the movement of water either up or down in the soil layers Salinization- Hot dry climate P

Salinization also occurs in agriculture areas like San Joaquin valley Leaching- wetter climates P>E Here the water flows downward in the soil layer

Dissolving minerals and transporting them downwards The soil layer that is leached becomes pale do to loss of minerals Underlying layers become red in color Do to iron oxide deposit state properties of two named soils Sandy soil

Soil textures Clay is very chemically reactive. It also absorbs and holds water well, creating a heavy soil. Clay feels sticky when wet. Silt is a larger particle than clay and feels slippery when wet.

Sand is a course particle that doesnt hold water well creating a light soil. It feels gritty and falls apart easily. state properties of two named soils Sandy soil

Soil textures cont Most soils are a combination of these textures. Loamy soil is soil that has an equal mixture of all three. This soil has a balance of water-holding abilities and freely draining aerated conditions. The clay holds water and nutrients, the sand allows drainage for airspaces for roots to breath, and the silt

holds the two together. Soil activity Goal: You will be able to differentiate between main soil types.

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 Hence..100% So if you have: 50% clay, 80% sand, and 20% Silt what soil do you have?

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 So if you have: 30% clay, 60% sand, then what part silt? ___% Silt what soil do you have?

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 So if you have: 25% clay, 45% sand, then what part silt? ___% Silt what soil do you have?

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 So if you have: 10% clay, 30% sand, then what part silt? ___% Silt what soil do you have?

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 So if you have: 70% clay, 20% sand, then what part silt? ___% Silt what soil do you have?

When determining soil type all 3 numbers used MUST = 100 So if you have: 40% clay, 5% sand, then what part silt? ___% Silt what soil do you have?

Is soil a renewable resource? Yes, but it can take a very long time to form, in some cases only 1 cm of soil is formed every few hundred years. Where might that be? What types of ecosystems would soil form faster and why?

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