SOL Key Terms

SOL Key Terms

SOL Key Terms monotheism monotheism

belief in one all-powerful God Judaism (1st), Christianity (2nd), and Islam (3rd) polytheism

polytheism belief in more than one god Hinduism

non-theistic Non-theistic a religion that does not focus on the worship of a god

Buddhism atheism atheism

the belief that there are no gods and no supernatural world animism

animism the worship of nature spirits instead of one particular god proselytize

proselytize to try to convert someone to a religion Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism are proselytizing religions

10 Commandments 10 Commandments God's laws for Jews - given to Moses

also followed by Christians Torah Torah

Jewish holy book Christians call it the Old Testament messiah

messiah savior - Jews believe a messiah will come and save them Christians believe Jesus is the messiah and will come again

Bible Bible

Christian holy book

Made up of Old and New Testaments Old Testament - Jewish scriptures New Testament - life of Jesus and the teachings of his disciples (most written by Paul)

trinity trinity Christian belief that God has 3 parts - father,

son, holy spirit Kaaba Kaaba

shrine in Mecca holiest place for Muslims black box it used to hold polytheistic gods/idols

Koran/ Quran Koran/ Quran holy book of Islam

jihad jihad Arabic word meaning struggle Muslim holy war

if a Muslim dies fighting for Allah, he will go straight to heaven 5 Pillars

5 Pillars of Islam

faith prayer

pilgrimage alms fasting (during Ramadan) 5 things all Muslims must do

Ramadan Ramadan month Muhammad received revelations from Allah

Muslims fast during this month caste system Caste System

hierarchy in India - made up of different levels each level is called a varna every varna has certain duties to perform called dharma people are born into a varna and then do not move out of it

the only way to move up or down is to be reincarnated at a higher or lower level in your next lifetime you get reincarnated higher by having good Karma which you get by completing the dharma of your varna

Vedas Vedas holy writings of Hinduism

Four Noble Truths Four Noble Truths

1. suffering exists 2. desire causes suffering

3. no desire = no suffering 4. the way to end desires is to live by the 8 fold path Eightfold Path

Eightfold Path the 8 ways to live that Gautama came up with that would end desires and end suffering 1. Right View Wisdom

2. Right Intention 3. Right Speech Ethical Conduct 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort Mental Development

7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration nirvana

nirvana nothingness - when your spirit ends reincarnation and becomes one with the universe the ultimate goal of Buddhism

West Bank/Jerusalem Conflict West Bank/Jerusalem Conflict religious war in Middle East

West Bank of Jordan River in Israel Israeli Jews and Palestinian Muslims are still fighting over it today Both see Jerusalem as a holy city and want to control that area

Kashmir Conflict Kashmir Conflict

religious war in India

Kashmir is a region of northwestern India The people there are Muslim Pakistan (Muslim country near there) is fighting India (Hindu country that owns Kashmir) for control of the land

Northern Ireland Conflict Northern Ireland Conflict religious war going on there between

Catholics and Protestants Great Britain (Protestant) controls Northern Ireland The rest of Ireland (Catholic) wants GB to give up control

Balkans Conflict Balkans Conflict religious wars between Orthodox Christians

and Muslims have been going on since the Crusades the U.S. went in to Kosovo in the late 1990s to protect Kosovar Muslims that were being slaughtered by Serb Christians

Thirty Years' War Thirty Years' War religious war - 1618-1648

between Protestants and Catholics in German states of the Holy Roman Empire. France joined (Cardinal Richelieu) for nonreligious reasons - wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs

Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church only major religious group in western Europe during Medieval Period

center of Medieval life Head of the church is the Pope Crusades

Crusades wars fought against Muslims in the Middle East by European Christians led to more trade and an increase in money in Europe

Renaissance Renaissance

word means rebirth

it is the period after the Medieval period started in Italian city-states was a rebirth of Ancient Greek and Roman ideas and culture

classics classics ideas, culture, education, etc. of Ancient Greece and Rome

reborn during the Renaissance humanism humanism

an interest in the classics focus on individuals interest in all humans being the best they can be

secular secular non-religious Renaissance art was often secular

sonnet sonnet 14 line poem about 1 topic

Shakespeare is famous for writing them Printing Press Printing Press

invented by Johannes Gutenberg made books cheaper spread Renaissance and reformation ideas indulgence

Indulgence a certificate one could buy from the church that would lessen one's sin A way to buy forgiveness

usury usury lending money and then charging lots of

interest the Catholic Church was against this this made merchants turn against Catholicism because they wanted to be able to charge usury

laity laity church members not in the clergy

95 Theses 95 Theses Luther's 95 complaints against the church

nailed to the church door on October 31, 1517 Biggest complaint was against the sale of indulgences Lutheran Church

Lutheran Church the first protestant denomination Martin Luther's followers

predestination predestination John Calvin's teaching that God chooses who goes to heaven before people are born

Anglican Church Anglican Church church created in England by Henry VIII and

Elizabeth I it was a combination of Protestant and Catholic beliefs/practices controlled by English government Pope was not in control

Inquisition Inquisition Roman Catholic Church court set up to punish

Protestant heretics Jesuits Jesuits

All male order of priests sent out to be missionaries of the Catholic Church society started by Ignatius of Loyola started Catholic schools all over the world

trade routes trade routes road or waterway traveled to exchange products and ideas. many routes began during Medieval Period:

1. silk roads across Asia to Mediterranean Sea (silk, tea, spices, porcelain) 2. trans-Saharan (across the Sahara) in North Africa (gold, salt, slaves) 3. maritime (sea) routes across Indian Ocean (textiles)

4. South China Sea routes connect China w/Southeast Asia (spices) 5. Western Europe: river routes (Rhine) and trade on the Mediterranean Sea 6. Northern Europe: links to the Black Sea (Danube River)

shogun shogun Japanese military leader

had the political power in Japan tried to keep Europeans out of Japan during this time isolationism

isolationism national policy of not interacting with the rest of the world - ex. Japan U.S. also practiced this policy to try and stay

out of World War I and World War II Gave up the idea of being isolated from the worlds problems after WWII foreign enclaves

foreign enclaves special areas in China where the emperor allowed European trading companies to trade

spices spices product that Europe relied on - came from

Asia middleman middleman

someone who buys something and then sells it to someone else the Arabs were middlemen for spices Gold, Glory, God

Gold, Glory, God 3 reasons why Europeans wanted to explore the world money, fame, and spread Christianity

cultural diffusion cultural diffusion the spread of culture

circumnavigate circumnavigate to go around the world

first done by Ferdinand Magellan's crew then by Sir Francis Drake conquistador

conquistador an early Spanish conqueror/explorer Hernan Cortez conquered Aztecs Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas

colony colony a settlement ruled by a "parent country"

Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange exchange of goods and ideas between the Old and New Worlds

Named after Christopher Columbus changed the world as new products were brought new places plantation system

plantation system Used throughout the Americas Europeans set up farming plantations to grow cash crops

they used Native Americans to do labor when they died of diseases, Europeans began taking slaves from Africa Mercantilism

Mercantilism belief that a country's power depends on its wealth caused nations of the world to try and build

up wealth and compete for colonies bullion bullion

gold and silver it's how a nation's wealth was measured triangular trade

triangular trade

a trade route with 3 legs that forms a triangle began around 1500 connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas The selling of slaves from Africa to the New

World was the most profitable leg of the triangular trade network (middle passage) the 3 main legs of the triangular trade route

the 3 main legs of the triangular trade route 1. Europe to Africa (w/rum and manufactured goods)

2. Africa to Caribbean (w/slaves - called the Middle Passage) 3. Caribbean to Europe (w/sugar and rum) sugarcane

sugarcane crop planted in Caribbean by English very profitable Very labor intensive which increased the

demand for slaves diseases diseases

Europeans brought diseases with them to the New World the diseases killed off the Native American population (especially small pox)

absolutism absolutism belief that monarchs get their power and their right to rule directly from God therefore they have absolute power

Edict of Nantes Edict of Nantes created by Henry IV of France

it gave French Protestants (Huguenots) their religious freedom It was taken away by Louis XIV of France who then took away the Protestants' religious freedom

It is an example of absolute power, because it was created and then taken away on the whim of a king Scientific Method

Scientific Method the methods for finding the truth by examining facts and using reason developed by Francis Bacon

The steps are: 1. observe 2. hypothesis 3. test hypothesis hypothesis

hypothesis a theory to explain why something happens reason

reason using logic, thinking, and observation to figure something out when someone tests a hypothesis instead of just relying on tradition or belief they are

using reason during scientific revolution people began using reason heliocentric theory

heliocentric theory Nicolaus Copernicus' idea that the sun was the center of the universe Proven by Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei

natural law natural law moral laws that can be proven with reason

just like scientific laws Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment Ideas

New ideas about government People have the right to overthrow unjust rulers People have natural rights that cannot be taken away by the ruler

Led to democracies Economic Distress Economic Distress

money problems taxes too high, not enough money Social Injustice

Social Injustice when a group of people are treated unfairly Religious Intolerance

Religious Intolerance when a religious group is treated unfairly or outlawed Nationalism

Nationalism a great pride in your people or nation and wanting them to be independent if you are ruled by an outside country

Magna Carta Magna Carta

English document signed in 1215

Placed clear limits on the English King The King was now under the rule of law He could not tax without the approval of the Royal Council He could not put a man in jail without trial by

jury Common Law Common Law

body of English law - applied to all people Laws that are made by judges decisions over time rather than government legislation jury trial

jury trial a trial where guilt or innocence is decided by a group of peers, NOT just some judge

Parliament Parliament

like our Congress majority of people in it were Puritans

they led English Civil War against Charles I after the Glorious Revolution they had more power than the monarch Glorious Revolution

Glorious Revolution called this because there was no bloodshed Parliament asked William and Mary to come take over England

England didn't want absolute monarchs any more After this, Parliament had more power than the king William and Mary did what Parliament wanted, because they were thankful to get to be the

monarchs Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence

written by Jefferson influenced by Enlightenment - especially Locke people have rights (life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness) Peoples rights can't be taken away

government exists to protect peoples rights when government doesn't rule justly, people should rebel U.S. Constitution

U.S. Constitution influenced by the Enlightenment Bill of Rights based on English Bill of Rights, Locke's ideas, and Voltaire's ideas

The U.S. Government is set up based on Montesquieu's ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances Bastille

Bastille French prison/ symbol of royal tyranny July 14, 1789 = Bastille Day (like our July 4) On this day, the Third Estate stormed the

Bastille and released several political prisoners This is the beginning of the French Revolution Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror after the Third Estate liberals took over the French government, they began executing anyone who disagreed with them

This led to chaos and more revolution Eventually Napoleon took over, became dictator and brought order Code of Napoleon

Napoleonic Code Code of Napoleon Napoleonic Code laws of Napoleon

made all people equal he spread these ideas all over Europe as he conquered it Haitian Revolution

Haitian Revolution Toussaint L'Ouverture leads Haitian slaves in an uprising Creates first black run country in the New

World (Western Hemisphere) Inspired by the American and French Revolutions South American Revolutions

South American Revolutions inspired by the French and U.S. revolutions Bolivar lead South American countries to fight for independence from Spain

Congress of Vienna Congress of Vienna meeting of European countries after many

years of fighting France/Napoleon Europe was a mess after all the fighting they met to come up with a plan to restore order to Europe Restored a balance of power

Restored monarchs to their thrones balance of power balance of power

no one country should be too powerful - the way France had been liberals

liberals in general, these are people who want more changes and more freedoms In the 1800s, they were unhappy with Congress of Vienna

they wanted enlightened government they did not want absolute monarchs conservatives

conservatives in general, these are people who wanted less change in the 1800s a stronger central government and fewer individual rights

Metternich was a conservative Revolutions of 1848 Revolutions of 1848

started throughout Europe as people revolted against the conservatives and the Congress of Vienna revolutions were led by those who were nationalists and/or liberals

nationalists nationalists were unhappy with Congress of Vienna

they wanted their people to have their own countries - not be ruled by others. many people were ruled by others in order for there to be a balance of power

nationalism nationalism love for your country/people and wanting to have your country strong

often a cause of revolution nation-state nation-state

a state that is based on a common nationality/ethnic group German Confederation

German Confederation after Napoleon was defeated, this was created to be a buffer against the French it was an association of German states it was the beginning of the German states

working together helped lead to Germany becoming unified realpolitik

realpolitik the belief that a country should do whatever it has to do to benefit itself this was Bismarck's philosophy it was the reason he went to war

it helped Prussia/the German people unify decisions were decided by "blood & iron" Franco-Prussian War

Franco-Prussian War Prussia fought and beat France Prussia led by Bismarck took land from France - Alsace-Lorraine - that Bismarck wanted to help unify Germany

example of realpolitik Enclosure Movement Enclosure Movement

movement in Great Britain where large land owners fenced in their lands that used to be open to public use Now fewer people could be farmers (since they couldn't use the public lands)

and it created a large group of available workers for factories industrial revolution

industrial revolution a time of great change in the way things were produced work began to be done in factories by machines instead of at home by hand

more and more people began moving to cities and leaving the farm (this is called urbanization) capital

capital money that is available to be spent on a business

entrepreneur entrepreneur a person who takes a risk to start a business in order to hopefully make money

factory system factory system instead of all work being done by individuals

in their own homes, all the workers came together in one location (a factory) capitalism

capitalism

type of economic system major goals are to make money (capital) and to be free this is what the U.S. has pure capitalism is called laissez-faire - leave the economy

alone and lets nature take its course benefits: people are free to make money the way they want to, anyone with an idea has a chance of becoming rich so there are lots of ideas problems: there is no guarantee you'll make money, you

could lose money, if owners are too free they may mistreat workers to make more money labor union

labor union group of workers united to force owners into improving working conditions strikes

strikes When workers refuse to work as a protest against their employers policies or working conditions (used by unions)

socialism socialism type of economic system

believes that all people should be equal and no one should make more $ than anyone else individuals don't own anything - the society owns everything together the government must be in control of everything and own

everything to make sure that everyone is equal benefits: everyone is equal, no one is poorer than anyone else problems: since you can't make $ there's no reason to come up with new ideas, plus not all people want to be equal - some want to be better

collective bargaining collective bargaining when owners and union representatives sit

down to discuss working conditions Imperialism Imperialism

policy of building an empire to extend a nation's power and territory when one country takes over others and builds an empire

Protectorate Protectorate A country that is technically independent, but is given protection by another country

whether they ask for it or not And the mother country expects something in return a country whose policies are guided by a foreign nation

Colony Colony a settlement of people outside their

homeland linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control (a settlement of people directly ruled by a mother country)

Sphere of influence Sphere of influence area in a country where a foreign power has

exclusive rights to trade or investment British East India Company British East India Company

British traders that band together for trading rights in India Forced parts of India to trade with them exclusively

Boxer Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Boxers were a group of anti-foreigner Chinese

they rebelled against the imperialist European countries that were trading in China the Europeans defeated them so that they could keep trading in China

Imperialism Imperialism building an empire

extending power and territory caused countries to compete and become enemies Militarism

Militarism policy of building up the military to make it the best when countries have big militaries, they

often want to use them Nationalism Nationalism

love for your country - wanting it to be independent/strong countries all wanted to be the best colonies wanted to be independent each country in Europe wanted to be the best

Alliances Alliances countries join together b/c of mutual beliefs

and desires and agree to help each other if attacked now if 1 country is attacked others will end up being involved alliances led to diplomatic failures before WWI

It turned a war between 2 countries into a war between A LOT of countries Triple Alliance

Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Italy later drops out became known as the Central Powers during WWI

Triple Entente Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia

became known as the Allied Powers U.S. joins this side when they enter WWI Lusitania

Lusitania

British passenger ship sunk by a German U-boat many American civilians are killed U.S. public opinion begins to turn against

Germany U.S. begins to think about going to war Zimmerman Telegram

Zimmerman Telegram telegram Germany sent Mexico asked Mexico to attack the U.S. to keep the U.S. from being able to fight in Europe Germany would then help Mexico get Texas

New Mexico, and Arizona back made U.S. angry enough to declare war against Germany coup d'etat

coup d'etat when a group takes over a government and its leaders in a quick often violent way

NEP NEP (New Economic Policy) Lenin's New Economic Policy He allowed some capitalism even though he

was a socialist, because he wanted to improve the Soviet economy Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles treaty that ended WWI created at Paris Peace Conference treaty greatly punished Germany - they couldn't have a military, they had to pay

money (reparations), they lost all their colonies effect on Germany of this treaty would lead to WWII

14 Points 14 Points Woodrow Wilson's plan to fix the world after WWI

Self-determination and the League of Nations were two of his big ideas League of Nations

League of Nations most important part of Wilson's 14 points all the nations of the world would work together to solve the worlds problems The U.S. never joined

It was a failure Mandate System Mandate System

European countries were given temporary control of territories after WWI to help them eventually become independent France (Syria & Lebanon) Great Britain (Jordan & Palestine - which

becomes Israel) Great Depression Great Depression

worldwide economic depression in 1930s caused by US stock market crash and effects from WWI totalitarian

totalitarian type of government with total and absolute power after WWI, many governments like this came

about (Germany, Italy, Japan, Soviet Union) usually they took away rights but also built their country's economy, military and pride fascism

fascism extreme militarism and extreme nationalism Nazi Party

Nazi Party political party Hitler was the head of believed in total government control

Fascist Party Fascist Party An Italian political party that ruled Italy from 1922 - 1943

5 Year Plans Fascist Party Stalin had several 5 Year Plans to

fix/modernize the Soviet economy Great Purge when Stalin killed 20 million Soviets that

disagreed with him collectivization collectivization

Stalin combined all farms under government control appeasement

appeasement giving into the demands of an aggressor to avoid a fight Blitzkrieg

Blitzkrieg lightning fast war Germany took over Europe as fast as lightning

ex. war starts when they take over Poland Germany defeated France quickly in WWII with the blitzkrieg Outline of WWII

Outline of WWII 1. Germany invades Poland which begins WWII 2. Germany conquers France 3. Germany begins bombing Britain - Battle of

Britain - they don't defeat British 4. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor which brings the U.S. into war 5. D-Day - Allies invade Europe 6. U.S. drops atomic bombs on Japan

Yalta Conference Yalta Conference Roosevelt, Churchill, & Stalin meet and

decide to: 1. divide Germany into 4 zones 2. create the United Nations 3. disarm Germany 4. destroy Nazi Party

United Nations United Nations place for countries to meet and discuss world

problems and create solutions Superpowers Superpowers

2 most powerful countries after WWII U.S. and USSR Atomic Bomb

Atomic Bomb dropped by U.S. on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender during WWII

Axis Powers Axis Powers fascists Germany, Japan, and Italy

Allied Powers Allied Powers U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union

genocide genocide deliberate attempt to kill all members of a

racial, cultural, ethnic group or political group (or any other group of people that share some a common characteristic) anti-Semitism

anti-Semitism anti-Jewish Holocaust

Holocaust Hitler's attempt to get rid of all Jews called the Final Solution included gas chambers and concentration

camps Jews were blamed for losing WWI and for causing the Great Depression Armenian Genocide

Armenian Genocide Armenians forcefully deported and killed by the Ottoman Empire

Great Purge Great Purge Stalin killed 20 million of his own people

Killing Fields Killing Fields Pol Pot, dictator of Cambodia, killed educated people and minorities

Rwanda Tutsi minority is slaughtered by Hutu majority in 1990s

Balkans Balkans Muslims and Croats are slaughtered by

Bosnian Serbs Cold War Cold War

U.S. vs USSR capitalism vs socialism West vs East NATO vs Warsaw Pact

called "Cold" because the 2 sides didn't actually fight but worked to stop each other from gaining more influence in the world Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan after WWII, the U.S. gave Western Europe $13 billion to help them rebuild and prevent the rise of dictators (which happened after

WWI) The U.S. wanted to protect democracies and prevent the spread of communism named for George Marshall - WWII general and U.S. Secretary of State

Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine President Harry S Truman's ideas that the

U.S. would "lead the fight against communism" Caused the U.S. to get involved in conflicts around the world

Containment Containment Policy of Truman Doctrine U.S. would not fight the USSR but would

contain communism or stop it from spreading NATO NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization the alliance between the U.S. and western capitalist countries against communism Warsaw Pact

Warsaw Pact alliance between the USSR and the Eastern European countries they dominated

Berlin Wall Berlin Wall Soviets built a wall around East Berlin so that its citizens couldnt leave and go to West

Berlin a real-life Iron Curtain Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets place nuclear missiles in Cuba U.S. orders them to be removed & sets up a naval blockade of Cuba It appears as though the Cold War will

become a Hot War Soviets back down and remove missiles from Cuba Iron Curtain

Iron Curtain term used by Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) to describe the separation between Communist Eastern Europe and

Capitalist/Democratic Western Europe Korean War Korean War

The U.S. fight North Korea to keep communists from taking over South Korea Korea divided on 38th parallel U.S. policy of containment is successful

Vietnam War Vietnam War The U.S. fight North Vietnam to keep communists from taking over South Vietnam

The U.S. loses Vietnam become communist The U.S. policy of containment fails Arms Race

Arms Race competition between the U.S. and USSR to create the best military

mutual assured destruction mutual assured destruction also called deterrence theory knowing that both you and your enemy could

destroy each other This is the main reason we never went to war with the USSR Chinese Civil War

Chinese Civil War Chinese communists - led by Mao Ze Dong Mao defeated Chinese nationalists - led by Chiang Kai-shek

Nationalists form a new Chinese nation on island of Formosa (Taiwan) Indian Independence

Indian Independence led by Gandhi against British India divided into India, West Pakistan (now Pakistan), and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)

passive resistance passive resistance fighting without fighting

boycotts, marches, protests, sit-ins, etc. used by Gandhi apartheid

apartheid South African policy of separating whites and blacks blacks were given everything inferior for decades black South Africans struggled

for equality Developed Countries Developed Countries

better access to technology stronger more diverse economies higher literacy rates/better education better access to good health care

slower population growth because of family planning/birth control usually have capitalism & free markets women tend to have equal rights and often work outside the home/get educations

as countries become developed their citizens want more liberty and rights Developing Countries

Developing Countries

little access to technology weaker economy

often dependent solely on one crop or one type of work weak education systems high illiteracy rates high population growth b/c: 1. less family planning knowledge

2. more kids needed to work on farms 3. high infant mortality rate makes people try to have more kids often controlled by dictators and rarely have free markets/capitalism women have traditional role - homemaker, caregiver

people often do not realize what it means to truly have liberty European Union European Union

An organization of European countries working together to try to compete with strong economic countries like the U.S. and Japan

NAFTA NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement ex. of a free trade agreement (no taxes on

goods made in another country) This is between US, Mexico, and Canada. WTO

WTO World Trade Organization international trade agreement to work towards more world wide free trade

UN UN (United Nations) United Nations nations of the world work together to solve

problems IMF IMF (International Monetary Fund)

International Monetary Fund makes loans to poor countries trying to develop economically

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