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UGRC 210 ACADEMIC WRITING 2 Session 3 Reading II: Practical Session Lecturer: Dr. David Odoi Contact Information: [email protected] College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/2015 2016/2017 Reading II: Practical Session Introduction Dear student, you are welcome to Unit 3 of your course. In the previous Unit you learned about reading strategies and the place of reading in your course as a university student. In this Unit we are going to have some practical lessons in reading and we want you to take note of the various methods that are used to produce or develop readable and understandable passages. The point being made here is that Reading and Writing are parallel

literary processes. Reading is described as the act of constructing meaning while transacting with text. Similarly, the process of writing is described as one which involves the construction of meaning while the writer is dealing with text. The two activities go hand in hand Slide 2 You must note that to help readers understand a piece of writing, authors try to present their details in a clearly organized way. Writers can build an idea or ideas from a sentence to paragraph or a whole text. I hope you remember our lessons on methods of developing the controlling idea in a paragraph in UGRC 110 Unit 3. We need that information very much in this Unit. If you have forgotten this, then quickly revise that and then let us continue with this Unit. Authors can choose to use any of several common patterns to arrange their details. Sometimes authors may build a paragraph or longer passage only on one pattern. You must also note that often, the patterns are mixed for the author to make his message understandable. Therefore, you need to know the common patterns used by authors to develop the information in a reading text so that we can understand what we are reading or even use those patterns of writing in our essays to help our readers understand the ideas we wish to put across. This Unit will cover the following patterns related to reading and the paragraph Section 1 Process analysis

Section 2 Narration Section 3 Description Section 4 Cause and effect Section 5 Compare and contrast Slide 3 Objectives By the end of this Unit, you should be able to identify different methods of paragraphs in a reading material use some of the methods of presentation read a text with some level of ease Slide 4 Section 1 Process Analysis Introduction I warmly welcome you to this section of Unit 3 analysis. In this Section

I want us to have a practical session on a text that is mostly developed on the Process Analysis pattern. The function of paragraphs in any text you have to read is to explain, illustrate, discuss or prove a thesis. Objectives By the end of this Section you should be able to: read a text note what a process is identify the dominant pattern used in the text answer questions related to the text Slide 5 What Is Process Analysis? What we must remember is that process analysis explains a step by step approach to how something works or it is done. In other words in this pattern, the information explains the steps in a particular procedure. The steps or stages show how a phenomenon functions or how a goal or end is achieved. This method is used in developing expository readings or writing of essays. Let us look at this example. My Favourite Dish-Banku and Tilapia

Banku and fish is a favourite dish of most ethnic groups in the south of Ghana. It also happens to be my favourite. I want to show you how to prepare this special dish. To prepare Banku, you need some good quantity of corn dough and cassava dough. You then mash the dough with water and it turns into a thick paste. This paste is placed in a medium size pot. The thick paste is the put on fire and stirred slowly with a special wooden spoon. The paste then slowly cooks and takes on a solid form because the water in it evaporates. So, some water is added to the food as it cooks at some intervals. Slide 6 The bank is deemed cooked after about twenty minutes depending on the quantity. The banku is rolled into small balls and placed in another bowl. For the tilapia, it is first cleaned. The scales are taken off and the fish is washed and spiced. Spices that could be used include ginger and fish seasoning. The fish is next put on a grill and it is turned over periodically until it is properly cooked or grilled. It is then taken off the fire and garnished. The Banku and tilapia normally goes with mashed pepper mixed with

tomatoes, onions and ginger. The pepper is washed and placed in a n earthenware bowl. The pepper and tomatoes and other ingredients are mashed into a semi liquid form. The food is now ready to be served. Slide 7 Activity 1.1 You will realize from your studies in UGRC 110 that the process analysis type of reading is also related to other types of patterns. For instance, the reading on how to prepare banku and tilapia contains some levels of description and some narration BUT the predominant pattern used here is the process analysis. Now let us answer some questions related to the passage but first, read the passage again. What is the first thing to do when you want to prepare banku? Why do you have to mash the dough into a semi liquid form?

What is the next thing to do after the dough has been mashed? Slide 8 Why do we have to add water to the banku paste while it is cooking? What are the dominant transitional words used in the text? Identify at least three of them and note their function Good work. Congratulations What I want you to know is that reading is not done anyhow. There are some things necessary to do when reading. Reading has a lot to do with comprehension. Reading also has a lot to do with writing. Let us try another activity. Activity 1.2 The following sentences are not in chronological order. Read the sentences and place them in the right order. Take out

any sentence that does not add up to the text and its thesis. I am providing a topic sentence for you to begin the text. Kwabena works hard to become a good student. He spends many hours hanging out with his friends. During class hours, he takes a lot of notes. He spends time at the library reading and researching for more information after classes. Slide 9 He studies every evening for two hours. In the morning, he reads over the previous days work. He loves to work in the community but he prefers work that enhances his school work. He dotes on his friend Afua and he encourages her to spend time at the library too.

(1a) Now write out the transitional words that help to show the process Kwabena adopted to become a good student. Slide 10 I hope this exercise was easy. Congratulations. I have taken you through exercises to draw your attention to reading and writing using the process analysis pattern as the dominant pattern employed by authors to make their message clear. Now let us now try a final activity in this section. Activity 1.3 Write at least four paragraphs on. How to become a successful Youth Leader Your answer should be on a separate sheet of paper. Read your answer in your Tutorial

class and see what comments would come up. Incorporate some of the useful suggestions into a rewritten paper. I hope you will write this well and produce a good paper. Congratulations in advance. Summary Well with this activity, we have come to a close on this practical session on reading in the predominantly Process analysis pattern. Remember that the process analysis pattern combines with other patterns to show how something is done or how it works. Chronology is therefore necessary to make the pattern useful to you. See you soon in the next section. Slide 11 Section 2 Narration Introduction You are welcome to section 2 of this Unit. In Section 1 You learned some practical lessons on the use of the process analysis pattern of paragraph writing as it relates to reading. In this Section you and I will go through some texts that are narrative in the main. Remember, as you read along that there is a link between READING and WRITING.

Objectives By the end of this Section you should be able to identify a text as mainly a narration answer questions on such a text write a text using mainly narrative paragraphs Slide 12 Have you ever been frightened by someone or something in the dark? How did you behave after the incident? I believe, in such instances that you would want to tell the experience to someone or to some people. If you are not sure of what frightened you in the dark you can hardly describe that which frightened you. In such instances, you are likely to NARRATE than describe what occurred to you. Activity 2.1 Let us read and discuss the following text: The medium height ever-smiling assistant vice-principal, Dr. Aggrey walked into the durbar grounds to witness the opening of Achimota. He encounters young Nkrumah. Hey my young man! How are you doing today?

I am very fine sir. How are you coping with yours studies? You must help to make Africa proud. I will sir but I sometimes feel nervous with white teachers around me. Slide 13 Aww that is OK. We need the white man to help us just as we need a black man. Just think of the keys of a piano! The black keys and the white keys work together to give a good harmony Nkrumah thought of this for a while and still had doubts about equality with the white race. (1) You may have noticed that the main characters in this text are Nkrumah and Dr. Aggrey at Achimota school. (2) You should also note that the two personalities talked about Africa as their homeland. (3) The two men also talked about the need for the white and black races to work together. (4) Nkrumah was not totally convinced about equality of the races. What I also want you to note here is that a pure dialogue is used to bring up the issues I have enumerated above. So, you have to read the dialogue carefully to

understand or even see what issues are raised. Slide 14 Activity 2.2 Now, let us compare the above dialogue to the following excerpt from Kwame Nkrumahs autobiography. About this time the Prince of Waless College at Achimota was officially opened by the Governor, Sir Gordon Guggisberg, before a large and colourful gathering of chiefs and government officials. Among the chiefs was the Kumasihene, a notorious ruler of Ashanti who had earlier on been deported to the Seychelles by the Governor because of alleged participation in human sacrifices. But the figure to whom all Africans looked that day was Dr. Kwegyir Aggrey, assistant viceprincipal and the first African member of staff. To me he seemed the most remarkable man that I have ever met and I had the deepest affection for him. He possessed intense vitality

and enthusiasm and a most infectious laugh that seem to bubble from his heart and he was a great orator. It was through him that my nationalism was first aroused. He was extremely proud of his colour but was strongly opposed to racial segregation in any form and although he could understand Marcus Garveys principle of Africa for Africans, he never hesitated to attack this principle. He believed conditions should be such that the black and white races should work together. Co-operation between the black and white peoples was the key note of his message and the essence of his mission, and he used to expound this by saying: Slide 15 You can play a tune of all sorts on the white keys and you can play a tune of all sorts on the

black keys, but for harmony you must use both the black and the white. I could not , even at that time, accept this idea of Aggreys as practicable, for I maintained that such harmony can only exist when the black race is treated as equal to the white race; that only a free and independent peoplea people with a government of their owncan claim equality, racial or otherwise, with another people. At the beginning of the rainy season, in April or May, the training college closed down for vacations. I had been so busy adjusting myself to my new life that I had not been able to look around for means of earning money. On account of this I could not go home to Half Assini but had to stay on in the college and do what I could to earn a living until term began again. In the evening after the college had broken up, I was standing in the deserted art auditorium talking with two other students who had also been forced to stay behind, when Aggrey suddenly walked in. He was brimming over with life and excited about his leave which he was spending in England and America.(p.12) Are the information in the dialogue similar to those in the above excerpt? Yes they are almost the same. The main difference here is that one presents the information in a dialogue and the other is basically a NARRATION. So let us answer a few questions on the two examples I have shown you. Slide 16

Activity 2.3 1.Give three advantages of the dialogue as mode of reading or writing. 2. Give three advantages of the Narration type of reading. 3. Which of the two modes is preferable to you? Give three reasons for your preference. 4. Write about an interesting journey you undertook recently. Your answer should be in at least 4 paragraphs and written on a sheet of paper for your Teaching assistant to assess. I hope you were successful in writing this essay for your Teaching Assistant. Congratulations Summary Well, this brings us to the end of this section. I have tried to bring to your attention the need to identify a text that is basically in the narrative pattern. I have also drawn your attention on how to write an essay using in the main the narrative pattern of reading and writing. Let us meet again in the next section that will help you to use the descriptive types of paragraph in reading or writing.

Slide 17 Section 3 Description Introduction Welcome to this section of your course. In Section Two you basically learned about the Narration type of paragraphs. In this section I shall teach you about the descriptive type of paragraph and I hope you will be able to use it as part of a bigger piece of writing. Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to note what a descriptive paragraph is identify a descriptive paragraph from a piece of writing write a paragraph which describes Slide 18

In our daily lives we do some description of a sort. We can identify a chair as made of wood, comfortable to sit on, material made of velvet and so on. Note that paragraphs may not necessarily be all of one pattern but can combine for a certain effect. We are only making a difference to help you know what to write at each time. A descriptive paragraph makes readers see, feel, and hear what has been seen or felt by others or in the case of yourself, what you have experienced through hearing, seeing or feeling. Note that when you describe a person, a place, or a thing, your aim is to show that selected thing or person vividly and with selected details Now let us look at this example from Kwame Nkrumahs autobiography. Nkrumah was about to meet Sir Charles Arden-Clarke, the colonial governor, the first time. He says: A tall, broad- shouldered man, sun-tanned, with an expression of firmness and discipline but with a twinkle of kindness in his eyes came towards me with his hand outstretched; a hand that I noticed was large and capable looking. He welcomed me and asked how I was. As we

both sat down I sensed that he must be feeling as alert and suspicious of me as I was of him. We lost little time, however, in coming down to the business on hand. I did my best to make it clear to him that I would be prepared at all times to place my cards upwards on the table because it was only by frankness that mutual trust and confidence could be established. He agreed with me wholeheartedly on this and I sensed immediately that he Slide 19 spoke with sincerity. He was, I thought, a man with a strong sense of justice and fair play with whom I could easily be friends even though I looked upon him as a symbol of British imperialism in the country. (p.113) Activity 3.1 What did Nkrumah see and say of the governor? Do you think Nkrumah approves of the governor? Give two reasons for your answer. What did Nkrumah say about the nature of the meeting?

We note here that the governor is described in the opening lines of the paragraph. Nkrumah further describes the nature of the meeting, and finally ends with what he believes the governor to be. So, even though Nkrumahs work is basically a Narration, there are large aspects of description in the paragraph. Slide 20 Take a careful look at this example too: A Friendly Clown On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle--a gift I received last Christmas from a close friend. The clown's short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red cheeks, nose, and lips, and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit is light blue, and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surrounding its ankles and disguising its long black shoes are big pink bows. The white spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half of a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about a foot

high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room. I hope you enjoyed reading this. Let us try answering some questions based on the paragraph. Slide 21

Activity 3.2 What is the topic for description here? Show evidence from the text. In three sentences show what the writer says about the head of the clown. What does the writer tell us about the clothes of the toy clown? What is a unicycle and what does the writer tell us about the unicycle in the passage?

In your opinion, do you think the toy clown is a precious gift? Give two reasons for your answer. Slide 22 I hope you were able to find the answer to the above questions. I also believe that you noted that the writer started the description of the clown from its head through its dress till he came to describe the unicycle that the clown was sitting on. Congratulations. Now let us try to compose a descriptive paragraph by ourselves. Use the following tips to help you write your paragraph. Slide 23 Activity 3.3

Think about and select a topic you like so much or something you would want to draw attention to in your society or community. Remember that description deals with what you see, feel, or can touch so you need your five senses to be able to bring out the details that will describe. What does it smell like when you are close to what you want to describe? Does it smell like pineapples, smelly sweat? What does it taste like? Is it sweet or sour? What does it feel like to the touch? Is it rough, smooth, slippery or stable? What does it sound like? Does it sound like a storm, is it loud, or soft? Now put all your feelings about this topic in one paragraph. Slide 24 I guess this was challenging but worth it. Congratulate yourself if you were able to do it. If you were not, read the tips again and try once again.

Summary Well dear student, this is the end of section three of your unit. In this section I drew your attention to paragraphs that describe. We noted that paragraphs that describe deal with DETAILS. We appeal to our sense of sight, touch, taste and others to help us to arrive at the details. I hope you will be able to use this type of paragraphs in essays from your other departments. Slide 25 Section 4 Cause and Effect Introduction Welcome to Section 4 of this Unit of your Course in Academic Writing. In the last section you studied how to read in the descriptive pattern of paragraphs. In this Section we will practice the reading and writing using the cause and effect pattern Objectives

By the end of this section, you should be able to: identify a reading text as predominantly a cause and effect type. read for what is a cause and what is an effect. answer questions on a text in the cause and effect mode Slide 26 Cause and Effect Cause and effect basically looks at why a certain action for instance brings about a result or a likely result. For instance you may know that scientists have found that the HIV virus causes AIDS and we may be too aware of its devastating effects. Similarly when something bad happens we may ask What happened. These scenarios tell us that whatever occurs has its roots from something that occurred before. In other words everything that happens can be traced to another thing which happened earlier. Some writers explore events by describing or discussing other events or actions that caused them. This means that they dont just tell what happened; they explain why they do. Cause and effect transitions tell the reader what happened or will happen because something else happened. Some examples of these transitions that indicate cause and effect are: thus, as a

result, therefore, hence, because, consequently, since, and accordingly. Let us look at this example from UGRC110 again: Slide 27 Activity 4.1 Read the following text carefully: Working as a literacy volunteer as a requirement for a community service course taught me more about learning and friendship than I ever expected. When I first went through the training program to become a literacy volunteer, I learned about the process of learningthat is, the way in which people learn new words most effectively. The training I received, though excellent, was no substitute for working with a real student. When I began to discover what other peoples lives are like because they cannot read, I realized the true importance of reading. For example, before meeting my student, a 44 year old single mother of three, she used to travel three miles away to a supermarket to buy her grocery because the prices of items are mentioned on request instead of the nearby supermarket where prices are displayed on the items. In addition, as time went by, my student and developed a friendship that became permanent. Because we saw each other several times a week, we spent a lot of time getting to know each other and we discovered we had certain things in common. In fact as a literacy volunteer, I learned a

great about learning, teaching and helping others. I also established what I hope will be a lifelong friendship. Slide 28 Let us try some questions based on this text. What is the initial action that the writer took? .... Identify at least two outcomes from the writers initial action. Do you think being a literacy volunteer would be a useful activity? Give reasons for your answer.

Slide 29 I hope you were able to note that first, the writer decided to be a literacy volunteer. I also hope that you got to know that being a literacy volunteer gave the writer to opportunity to learn, to teach someone to read and also to make a friend. So, you can see from the text we have just answered that one cause can bring about some effects. I also hope that you realize that the last line of the text talks about a possible effecta lifelong friendship! Congratulations! Let us try a longer text. Slide 30 Activity 4.2 Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it. I never knew that a university education can bring about profits. When I was twenty-one, I had the chance of entering one of the prestigious universities in our country. I counted

myself as lucky because out of every hundred children that start primary school, less than one person enters the university. The four years of study passed quickly and I was glad I graduated from the university with a good class. Graduation opened the paths to numerous profits. For National Service, I was sent to a rural community that needed help so desperately in my subject. I was so glad to help and so I traveled the whole length of my country to assist in this rural community. Many doors began to open for me to touch a lot of lives. I met a group of thirteen young men willing to learn. They were, in fact, very hungry for knowledge. Here I was, very inexperienced but now being looked upon as a repository of knowledge. I had to recall all my powers of retention, add it to the syllabus, and carve a magic that would mesmerize these young chaps. My charges were to sit for their final exams in a matter of two terms . I asked myself whether I have done enough and whether they were psyched up Slide 31 for the task. Of course prayers were inevitable! They all passed. I looked back at my university education and God for this miracle. Now these young people are all grown up and very well established but they still look to me as their guru. The languages spoken in my new environment were very unfamiliar. This posed a real

challenge and I told myself I had to do something about it. My little knowledge in linguistics which I learned at the university proved useful. I decided I would simply learn the languages by association of sounds and words of those languages to my native Ga. At the end of eleven years, I have been able to master four hitherto unfamiliar languages by listening, and associating words with others from my first language. As at now, a lot of people marvel at my ability to speak so many languages. I really get a blast when people are unable to place my origins because I change languages so quickly in a single discussion that involves people from different ethnic backgrounds. I really thank my elementary linguistics at the university for this. Next week, I shall be engaged in a language policy discussion. I have been invited as a resource person. I am going to make some money because I speak many languages and the nation wants to tap into this knowledge. I do not know what I will be engaged in after this policy discussion! My university education is paying off in several ways! Slide 32 1. 2.

3. Write an outline on the passage. What is the authors main claim? ....... Write down two effects of what the author claims

Slide 33 Do you agree with the author that knowledge of other languages apart from ones own is important? Support your answer with examples that you know of.

What is the attitude of the author? Give evidence of your answer from the text. I believe that was easy. If you found difficulties, read the relevant portions of UGRC 110, plus this section again and try again! Summary This section drew your attention to readings which use the cause and effect pattern. We noted that a single cause can lead to an effect or effects. Therefore we have to consciously use the cause and effect mode if it has to show that it is the dominant pattern. We shall meet again in section 5 and talk about readings in the compare and contrast pattern. Bye for now. Slide 34 Section 5 Comparison and Contrast Pattern Introduction Welcome to Section 5 of this Unit. In the last section I raised issues on reading related to cause and effect types of reading and writing. In this Section I want you to have a practical session on the use of comparison and contrast types of reading and their accompanying writing.

Objectives By the end of this section you should be able to read a text which is mainly on the compare and contrast pattern answer questions related to the text summarize information from the text write an essay using the compare and contrast pattern in the main In UGRC 110, I introduced and discussed methods of paragraph development and I identified various patterns of paragraph development. We noted in our discussions of UGRC 110 and also in this Unit of UGRC 210 that one cannot use a single pattern of development. You also remember that I taught you how to use summaries to incorporate information into a text. You will need this skill in this Section. Slide 35 Compare and Contrast This pattern of paragraph development involves similarities and differences between two different things or issues. You may compare for instance tertiary education and second cycle education. Or, you may

want to compare on campus education as against Distance education. When you do this you will look at similarities or differences. On campus education affords students opportunity to meet lecturers face to face right from the beginning whereas Distance education students see lecturers only at the end of their courses. This is a glaring difference. In terms of similarity, we can see that the quality of information given to each set of students is the same. The compare and contrast pattern of paragraph development makes use of transitional terms like : whereas, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, and but among others. Slide 36 Activity 5.1 I now want you to read the following text and let us discuss it. This text is from Buscemi (2005) When students complete a first draft, they consider the job of writing doneand their teachers too often agree. When professional writers complete a first draft, they usually feel they are at the start of the writing process. When a draft is completed, the job of writing can begin. (The Makers Eye) Identify the two things that have been compared here.

Comment on the attitude of students to writing. State which type of attitude to writing that you prefer and give at least two reasons for your preference. I guess that was fairly easy. Remember that you always have two things to give a contrast or a comparison! Congratulations. Slide 37 Activity 5.2 Now let us try something longer. The text is someones opinion on an issue I want you to find out.

A Fear Born out of Sorrow More than a100 people were killed in the tragic bombing of the Oklahoma federal building in 1995. About 6,000 die in Africa each day of AIDS. Between 8,000 and 10,000 people die of starvation daily. Tragedies occur all around us, and we accept them out of necessity as a part of life. But sometimes the horrors of tragedy affect us in a new way: it overwhelms a nation and stuns the international community. This what happened last week when two hijacked passenger planes hit the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and their resulting collapse killed thousands of people from several countries. News of the tragedy flashed around the globe. Everywhere, it seemed, people in uncomprehending horror listened to reports on their radios or watched endless replays on their televisions. Several countries declared days of mourning and scheduled services of remembrance. Now, one week after the attack, tokens of grief and letters of condolence still flood US embassies and government offices worldwide. But why is the outpouring of grief so much deeper for this tragedy than for others? Why the attack isnt considered just a large scale repeat of the Oklahoma City bombing? Could it be that our grief is more than sorrow, and that our loss is much more than what lies in the rubble? Slide 38 The Oklahoma City bombing was grievous and alarming, but localized. The

bomber was soon arrested, his motives deduced and justice served. While lives were changed and a nation was shaken, the world community remained composed. However, the September 11 attack unsettled us more, in part because the World Trade Center stood for so much more than the Oklahoma Federal Building did. The twin towers symbolized American domination of world finances: they were a major center for the internet, a hub for international businesses, and an emblem of American life. The fall of the towers struck violently at the nations psyche, and the manner in which they were destroyed-with Americas own airplanes, filled with many American passengers- has raised questions about Americas security and future. Threatened to their core, Americans have demanded retaliation- But against whom? The terrorists identity is not clear, and evidence seems elusive. In a sense, an unknown offender ha injured Americans, who beat the air in the dark. In such a case, terrorism is aptly named, for Americas outcry expresses more than sorrowit also expresses fear. Slide 39 The fear that Americans feel comes partly from the uncertainty related to this attack. The attackers demonstrated technical and planning skills that surprised

Americans, making them question their safety and fear future attacks. Air travel, long considered safe, now includes security measures like armed guards, luggage searches, and bomb-sniffing dogsall strategies to achieve safety. As Americans struggle to find answers in the shattered peace, nations are forming alliances, war seems imminent, and the world waits anxiously to see where it will all lead. Slide 40 Fear and uncertainty are new to Americans living today because America has not been attacked in this way since Britain ruled her as a colony. While the bombing of Pearl Harbor awoke many to the fact that America could be targeted, the Japanese bombers hit Hawaiithen a US territory, not a state and not the mainland. Following World War ll, many in the world community again thought of America as the invulnerable Land of Opportunity. However, this belief is now shattered, and

many citizens of the global village fear that what was lost last week includes more than what lies in the rubble. Slide 41 On September 11, 2001, America along with its Western allies, lost its aura of invincibility. As the whole world watched, the towers fell, and we stumbled in shock and pain. Moreover, as times passes America may fail to identify its enemy and to understand the attack. If this happens, the oppressed people of the worldto some extent victims of Western culturewill take notice. It is now one week since the towers fell, and the world still grieves. However, mingled with this grief is the fear that we may be mourning not only for the lives lost, but also for our lost way of life. Slide 42 Activity 5.1 What issues have been compared and contrasted in this passage?

Identify at least two smaller issues that have also been discussed in this passage. Summarize the authors main concerns in 150 words ........ I know this may be a bit challenging but if you had problems, read the text once again and try doing the exercise. If you were able to do this, congratulate yourself. Slide 43

Activity 5.2 Good job done. Let us try a final activity here. Write an essay of five paragraphs on Compare and contrast the social control systems in two ethnic groups in Ghana. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper and present it to your Teaching Assistant. Summary I hope you have enjoyed this Section of Unit 3. In this section we took a look at how to read a text which uses the compare and contrast pattern of paragraph development. We read some passages and identified which issues have been compared. We also tried to summarize the main concerns of writers in their texts and we use our knowledge on the compare and contrast method of reading and writing to write an essay. Bye for now. Slide 44

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