Why prioritise marked consonants? Some research suggests we should target MARKED properties in order to facilitate acquisition of unmarked aspects of the system. Markedness is a concept from the study of the sound systems of all natural languages. A marked feature in a language implies the necessary presence of another feature hence implicational relationship. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
In markedness theory, in English, fricatives, the voiceless stops that occur in /s/ clusters (the adjuncts), affricates and clusters are marked. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen 1. 2. 3.
4. FRICATIVES are marked, implying stops. VOICED STOPS are marked, implying voiceless stops. AFFRICATES are marked, implying fricatives. CLUSTERS are marked, implying singletons.
In intervention 1. Target fricatives to get fricatives and stops. 2. Target the voiced stops /b/, /d/, /g/ to get voiced and voiceless stops. 3. Target affricates to get affricates and fricatives. 4.
Target clusters to get clusters and singletons. get means to facilitate generalisation to Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen We cant look at a consonant and figure out whether it is marked. We simply need to know the information. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP) Can you say these?    Can you say these?    Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen sonority theory
Sonority is the amount of stricture or sound in a consonant or vowel. Steriade (1990) proposed a numerical hierarchy. Most sonorant vowels = 0 glides = 1 liquids = 2 nasals = 3 voiced fricatives = 4 voiceless fricatives = 5 voiced stops = 6
voiceless stops = 7 Least sonorant Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen sonority theory We prefer to articulate words with a rise and fall in sonority; p sound or starts with Most the least sonorous stricture in
the middle. segment, a voiceless stop, /p/ followed by a liquid, // with a vowel, // or // at the peak, to the less sonorous nasal, // finally falling to the least sonorous voiceless stop, //. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen This rise - fall tendency is called the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP) 
and  are more natural for us to say than  and  Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen All clusters are marked, but are some clusters more marked than others?
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen One approach to classifying two-element clusters in terms of markedness is to rank them according to their sonority difference scores. e.g., /kw/ (7 minus 1) sonority difference score of 6 /fl/ (5 minus 2) sonority difference score of 3 /fl/ 3 is more marked than /kw/ 6 Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Sonority difference scores
2- element clusters with SMALL sonority differences of 2, 3 or 4, and 3-element clusters, may better promote generalised change to singletons and clusters. Gierut and co-workers provide evidence and target selection guidelines. If we work on the more complex, more marked clusters the others may emerge without being directly targeted. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Sonority difference scores 2- element clusters with SMALL sonority differences 2, 3singletons or 4, and 3-element And weofget without clusters, may better promote generalised targeting them directly!
change to singletons and clusters. Gierut and co-workers provide evidence and target selection guidelines. If we work on the more complex, more marked clusters the others may emerge without being directly targeted. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Whats missing? Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Adjuncts /st/, /sp/and /sk/
Morrisette, Farris & Gierut postulate that initial /s/+ stop clusters are adjuncts and not true clusters, and therefore are not subject to the implicational relationships amongst clusters with respect to sonority, and generalisation. Meaning, if you target adjuncts you will get adjuncts only. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
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