Sport Injuries Treatment Sport and Exercise Science Criteria P5 Describe first aid and common treatments used for four different types of sports injury Assessment help:For P5, learners must describe first aid and common treatments used for four different types of sports injury. Lessen objectives You should be able to tell me at the end of the lesson What treatments do you know already?
Rice (PRICED) Heat Cold Strapping Support aids These are just some examples First Aid
First aid this is the immediate treatment that is given to an injured person. When a suitable person arrives on the scene they can provide care and support. There are certain things that the person should do 1) assess the situation and check for danger 2)make sure the area is safe (debris/electricity) Continued 3)assess if the casualty is conscious and check their ABC A-AIRWAYS open the airway B-BREATHING- are they breathing C-CIRCULATION- check their pulse
4)do this as soon as possible 5)call for assistance/999 6)if there is no pulse then you will have to do cardiac compressions DANGER? make sure it safe to give help YES NO History YES
Find out what has happened. Signs and Symptoms How does the patient feel or look? Try to work out whats wrong. Treatment Remember If youre not sure, always seek professional medical advice. Remove Danger Response?
Make the scene safe. Do not take risks. Shout and gently shake or tap the casualty. NO Help! Shout for help, but dont leave the casualty yet. Airway
Open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Normal Breathing? Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds. YES Secondary Survey Check for bleeding, injuries and clues (see your first aid book). If youre not sure if
breathing is normal, treat it as though it is not. Recovery Position Dial 999 Now NO (If not already done) Resuscitation 30 to 2
Recovery Position (see book). Dial 999 if not already done. Monitor Airway and Breathing. Keep the casualty Warm. Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths. Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths. Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation. If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue. Calling for the Ambulance If the person is injured and needs professional attention then you must ensure that someone rings for an ambulance
Dial 999 and ask for an ambulance Give your exact location Give clear details of the accident and severity of the causality Give your telephone number and the sex/age of the causality When the ambulance arrives tell them about how the causality has behaved /state of conscious/ and if they needed resuscitation and so on Contents of a first Aid Box What needs to be in the 1st Aid box (discuss in 2s) The contents for a 1st aid box for a workplace or leisure centre must meet legal standards, be clearly marked and accessible.
So what's in the box Sterile adhesive dressings (aka plasters) range of sizes Sterile eye pads and eye bandage Triangular bandages (used to stop bleeding or make slings) Large/medium dressings with bandage attached to it Disposable gloves (dealing with blood/bodily fluids) Face shield for resuscitation Bleeding
How should be external bleeding be treated Work in pairs to discuss this Lay casualty down Applying direct pressure with a gloved hand or finger to the site of the bleed and try to place a clean dressing over it ASAP Elevate and rest the injury site Seek medical assistance http://www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/First-aid/Every day-First-Aid/Bleeding-heavily Internal Bleeding Very difficult to diagnose but there are some common signs and symptoms Coughing up blood
Vomiting blood Weak rapid pulse Cold clammy skin Rapid breathing (they may be gasping for blood) Treatment of internal bleeding Lay the casualty down
Raise the legs of bend the knees Loosen tight clothing Seek medical attention ASAP Give nothing by mouth (why) Reassure the casualty (they may go into shock so it is important to keep them calm. Shock The most important distinction to make between the different forms of shock, is between psychological (or mental) shock and physiological (or circulatory) shock Physiological shock Physiological shock is a dramatic reduction in blood flow that, if left untreated, can lead to collapse,
coma and even death Usually will have cool moist skin, weak rapid pulse and swallow breathing Keep reassuring them, lay them down (not working against gravity) Keep feet up if there is no injury to spine, legs, head etc. Psychological shock Psychological shock can occur after a physically or emotionally traumatic experience but it effects
your state of mind (although this can give you symptoms such as palpitations and feeling faint, it doesnt usually lead to serious physical collapse). Unconscious Adult casualty If you see someone on the ground you will need to check if they are responding. If you still receive no response gently shake the person, if the person is not injured but is unconscious then they should be put in the recovery position This position allows the fluid to be drained away from the nose and throat so they do not choke
If you suspect that they have a back injury then they should NOT be put in this position Fractures As you know there are 5 different types of fractures and all the closed fractures can be treated in the same manner but an open fracture needs to be treated much differently. A fracture can normally be diagnosed if the injured area is deformed, tender, swelling, cannot move it, has a protruding bone, discoloured skin, and possibly bleeding. The person should be told not to move the injury. Cont....
The fracture should be immobilised in order to prevent sharp edges of the bone damaging tissue, vessels and nerves, the bone should never be attempt to push the bone back in especially if its an open fracture The site can be immobilised using a splint or a sling A dressing should be applied to the site to protect the area and pressure should be applied in order to try and limit the bleeding but not over the bone http://www.ehow.com/video_5226113_treat-fractureduring-first-aid.html SALTAPS The quicker that the injury is treated the quicker the chances of making an improved recovery and the faster the rehabilitation phase. Treatment can start by using SALTAPS S- see the injury occur
A- ask the casualty what is wrong and where L-look for signs (bleeding, deformity, inflammation, swelling etc) T-touch the injury or close the injury for signs of heat, tenderness, pain etc A-active movement ask them to move the injury through ROM P- passive movement try to move the injured site only if a good range of movement is available S-strength -if they have moved through the steps above with little or no pain then ask them to stand unaided then running/walking This process will help determine how serious the injury is and treatment should then be followed by PRICED PRICED is usually used if a person has suffered
from a soft tissue injury PRICED P- protect the injury from further injury R-rest the injury and discontinue their activity I-ice, an ice pack should be applied to the injured site to help reduce swelling and pain C- compression, gentle pressure should be applied which helps stop fluid to seeping into the injured site E- elevation, the inured site should be supported and be put into a raised position (above the heart) Diagnosis should be done by a professional so the correct treatment is followed Cold and Heat
Application Research Task When and why should we use Cold and Heat Treatment on a injury When and why should we used a mixture of the cold and Heat application sometimes know as contrast bathing Cold application Cooling an injured body part to minimise the swelling and bruising of an injured area and to reduce pain is essential. When a person sustains a soft tissue injury, blood vessels are torn, blood cells and fluid escape into the spaces among the muscle fibres. By cooling the injury site, the local blood vessels are
constricted, so blood flow to the area is reduced. The application of something that is cold to the injured area not only has the effect of decreasing the flow of this fluid into the tissues, but also helps to slow the release of chemicals that cause pain and inflammation. Cold also decreases the feeling of pain by reducing the ability of the nerve endings to conduct impulses to the injured area, as well as reduces bleeding and swelling within injured tissue. It is therefore best to use immediately after injury has occurred, and for up to 48 to 72 hours after an injury. The injured area should be covered with a cloth towel in order to prevent direct contact of the ice with the skin, which could cause a blister or ice burn. The cold application should be applied to the injured area for no more than ten
minutes. During this time the person's skin will pass through four stages of sensation: Cold Burning Aching Numbness - as soon at the skin feels numb, the cold therapy should be stopped The cooling procedure should be repeated every two waking hours. There are a number of methods of cold
treatments (cryotherapy) including ice packs, gel packs, ice spray, a bag of frozen vegetables, or ice bath immersion Heat Treatment The application of heat to an injury site will act to dilate the local blood vessels, thus increasing the blood flow to the area. This type of treatment should only be given in the sub-acute stage in order to aid in the healing process. The increased blood supply will have the effect of absorbing the swelling and removing the dead cells from the injury site. It will also help to increase the growth of new blood vessels in the area and help scar tissue to form. The application of heat to muscles allows them to relax and aids in pain relief. Heat treatment would not be suitable in early
stages of injury, or an open wound or where tissues are very sensitive, such as the genital region. Contrast Bathing Contrast bathing is the process by which alternative treatments of both hot and cold therapy are applied to the injury site and should be used during the sub-acute phase. The application of a hot treatment will increase the blood flow to the area and, when this is followed by cold treatment, the blood flow to the area will decrease and take with it the debris from the injury site. The injured site should be immersed in alternating hot and cold water for periods ranging from one to four minutes, with increased time initially in the cold water.
Support Mechanisms In order to protect and support some injuries, it is possible to use a variety of products that are readily available in chemist, sports retailers, and via the internet including tubigrip, tape, and neoprene support. Bandaging and taping can be carried out in order to prevent injury, or to treat/rehabilitate an injured joint. Both are performed in order to increase the stability of a joint when there has been an injury to the ligaments that normally support it. They limit unwanted joint movement, support the injury site during strengthening exercises, and protect the injury site from further damage.
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