Standard 2 - District Five Schools of Spartanburg County
Standard 2 The impacts of economic developments and westward expansion on each region and democracy 2.1 11 slides Impact of westward expansion on nationalism and democracy Expanding the franchise Native Americans States rights
Land acquisitions Westward Expansion Westward expansion intensified both nationalism and sectionalism in the US Nationalism- a devotion to the interests and culture of ones nation Sectionalism- the placing of the interests of ones own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole Every region supported
expansion, but they differed on policies of the federal government Westward Expansion Louisiana Purchased from France for $15 million in 1803 President Thomas Jefferson was concerned about Frances presence in America Impacts Individualism- promoted settlement of the frontier Sectionalism- provided raw materials that
were transported on the Mississippi River Democracy- Jefferson expanded the power of the president by using the elastic clause in the Constitution Westward Expansion Oregon President Thomas Jefferson asked Louis and Clark, with the help of Sacajawea, to explore the territory Americans demanded Fifty-four Forty or Fight! Originally shared by Britain and the US, but in 1846 the border was set at the 49th parallel Used for agriculture and fur trade
Impacts Individualism- 1,000s of settlers traveled west on the Oregon Trail Sectionalism- the wests economy was based on agriculture and industry Democracy- strengthened the federal governments role in securing national borders Westward Expansion Texas Americans moved to Mexican controlled Texas and eventually revolted to form their own republic The US annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845
Impacts Individualism- Texans likened themselves to the Patriots during the Revolution because they believed Mexico was impeding on their rights Sectionalism- due to Texas reliance on agriculture slavery was an important part of the economy Democracy- prompted debate in Congress over slavery and the impact another slave state would have on the balance of power in Washington Westward Expansion Mexican Cession Ceded by Mexico in 1848 after the Mexican War
The US and Mexico fought over the southern border of Texas and land claims in the west Impact Individualism- 1,000s of settlers moved to California in search of gold Sectionalism- the west depended on agriculture, mining, and industry to support the economy Democracy- established the US as a dominate force in North America Political Impact Expansion impacted nationalism
by promoting the idea of the pioneer as the iconic American The common man became the epitome of democracy Expansion fueled the nationalist idea of Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny- 19th c. belief that the US would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory Political Impact Expansion provided additional
government owned land available for purchase These lands insure the spread of democracy as territories became new states The right to vote was enjoyed by most US males due to the availability of cheep land for purchase In the 1820s-30s, states dropped property qualifications and expanded the franchise to all white males, while disenfranchising African American property owners
Political Impact President Andrew Jackson supported the Indian Removal Act, a formal policy to remove Natives to the west Native Americans of the southeast responded by resistance (Seminoles in Florida) and assimilation (Cherokee in Georgia) but both failed Assimilation- a minority groups adoption of the beliefs and way of life of the dominate culture Native Americans of the southeast were forced to move to the Indian Territory in
Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears Political Impact Enslaved African American families were forced to split due to slave owners taking only part of their human property with them on the trek west The rest of the slave family was left behind in the east
Political Impact Increasing economic differences and the growing conflict over slavery caused a greater split between the North and South Northern and western manufacturers supported a high tariff to protect industry Southern planters opposed the tariff because they relied on trade with Europe This conflict would lead to the Nullification Crisis of 1832 when South Carolina threatened to secede from the union over high tariffs
Political Impact In the 1830s, South Carolina used the argument of states rights to declare the tariff null and void A compromise and the threat of federal troops led South Carolina to rescind their nullification of the tariff Nullification- a states refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
South Carolina did not retract the right of a state to nullify an act of Congress 2.2 5 slides The effects of the Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny on the United States relationship with foreign powers Texan Revolution Mexican War
Historical Background South American nations had wars of liberation during the early 19th c. Mercantilist relationships with Spain were broken and Britain established strong trade ties Mercantilism- an economic system in which nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade After the Napoleonic wars, the restored monarchs wanted to reestablish their colonial possessions
Britain feared colonization of Latin America would interfere with their trade interests and asked the US to help support their resistance The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe warned European nations not to attempt to reestablish any colonial claims The US military power was very limited in the early 19th c. so the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine depended on the British navy
It wasnt until the late 19th and early 20th c. that the US military could enforce the Monroe Doctrine on its own Manifest Destiny The phrase Manifest Destiny wasnt coined until the 1800s but the belief was present in Americans since the first settlers The belief that Americans had a God-given right to all the land
of the North American continent Manifest Destiny was based on the belief that Americans were culturally superior to other inferior peoples Texan Revolution Many Americans moved into Texas at the invitation of the Mexican government Provided more land for cotton and slavery Texans were expected to obey the laws of Mexico When the Mexican government outlawed slavery,
the Texans revolted and won their independence The Mexican government did not recognize Texan independence The Republic of Texas was independent for almost 10 years because the US was trying to avoid a controversy over adding another slave state Manifest Destiny became a rally cry causing the election of President James K. Polk and the annexation of Texas Mexican War President James K. Polk attempted to purchase additional land from Mexico but
was denied American troops were sent into a disputed area located between Texas and Mexico Shots were fired and the Mexican War began American troops infiltrated deep into Mexican territory In the peace treaty, the US acquired land that included California, New Mexico, and Arizona This was not American territory or unclaimed land The Mexican War established a combative relationship between the US and Mexico that
lasted into the 20th c. 2.3 5 slides Economic development in the South, the North, and the West during the early 19th c. Influence of economic policy on political controversies Sectionalism Economic differences between the North, South, and the West resulted
in the development of different social values and political interests The North was characterized by harbors and fast flowing rivers The South benefited from fertile land for cash crops The West had an abundance of new resources, farm land, and mineral deposits The West was a constantly shifting as the frontier moved closer to the Pacific Ocean
Economic Differences The North invested in growing factories which attracted large numbers of German and Irish immigrants to the area The South mainly invested in slavery and agriculture The West was largely agricultural Social Reform Economic differences were heightened by social reform
movements Northern reformers called for public education in order to assimilate immigrants Southerners outlawed teaching African Americans to read and did not provide education even for white children Political Controversies Economic differences contributed to political controversies National Bank
South & West- opposed because Northeasterners would have too much economic power Protective Tariff North- supported to protect industries from foreign competition West- accepted in exchange for infrastructure and cheap land South- opposed due to trade with Europe The south also opposed infrastructure improvements in the west, but supported cheap land grants due to the expansion of slavery and cotton
The completion of the Erie Canal and the Transcontinental Railroad strengthened economic and political ties between the Northeast and Northwest Political Controversies Henry Clays American System threatened the economic and political interests of the South and added to the animosity between the regions American System- a political alliance that traded western support for the tariff for northern support of internal improvements and cheap land
Different economic interests contributed to political differences over the extension of slavery into the west Economic interests also caused controversy over the admission of Missouri, Texas, California, and Kansas as new states Economic differences would eventually lead to secession and war 2.4 9 slides Social and cultural characteristics of the North,
the South, and the West during the antebellum period Lives of African Americans Social reform movements Abolition Womens rights North v. South Social and cultural differences emerged first during the colonial period Based on the cultures of the people who settled there
Economies that resulted from varying geography of the regions intensified the differences Increased regional pride led to sectionalism Settlement of the West worsened the tensions between the North and the South Cultural Impacts in the North Puritans in New England Towns and cities grew around the church Education programs were established to ensure church members could read the Bible
Education was expanded in the early 19th c. to assimilate the immigrants Quakers in Pennsylvania Large family farms relied on paid labor instead of slavery Diverse populations in New York City Immigrants were attracted to the jobs in growing industries Most northern states had emancipated their slaves by 1840 Northerners supported political issues that
promoted their regional interests High tariffs and a national bank Cultural Impacts in the South Colonial beginnings Large plantations produced a privileged class that dominated the government, society, and culture Elitist Society The wealthy educated their children privately Public education was not provided for poor whites and teaching slaves to read or write was outlawed Economy
Fewer large towns or commercial cities because navigable rivers brought ships close to the fields Few jobs in industry and lack of available land meant less immigration African Americans The large slave population and significant number of free blacks contributed to the culture and social structure of the South Southerners supported political issues that promoted their regional interests Low tariffs and spread of slavery
Cultural Impacts in the West Increased number of settlers Settlers in the old Northwest reflected the values of New England Southern states influenced the culture of Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas Manifest Destiny Strengthened the settlers since of strong individualism Westerners supported political issues that promoted their
regional interests Cheap land and internal improvements African Americans in the North African Americans lived in all regions of the country Most northern states had emancipated their slaves but some remained into the 1830s Slavery was prohibited in the old Northwest Territory Free blacks who lived in the North did not have the same rights as whites
African Americans were purposefully disenfranchised by law De facto segregation was practiced throughout the North De facto segregation- segregation based on tradition, not law African Americans in the South Most African Americans living in the South were slaves The conditions of their lives depended on where they lived and their masters
Free blacks living in the South lived mostly in the cities and worked as artisans Free blacks were not granted civil or political rights in the South The Abolitionist Movement The Great Awakening of the early 1800s contributed to the development of reform movements The abolitionist movement first developed among Quakers Abolitionists included African Americans (Nat
Turner, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman) and whites (William Lloyd Garrison, the Grimke sisters, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Brown) Different protests were used due to differing effectiveness and radicalness Published newspapers Organized anti-slavery conventions Wrote books
Helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad Secret routes fugitive slaves took to gain freedom in the north and Canada Led rebellions The Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist tactics caused slave owners to justify their culture Southerners argued that slavery was a positive good because slaves were better off than industrial workers in the North
Most northerners were not abolitionists Some abolitionists did not believe that freed slaves should have equal rights The abolitionist movement split over using politics and the role of women in the movement Abolition was not effective until the controversy over western expansion Womens Rights Movement The womens rights movement was active in the North and tied to the abolitionist movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 Met after being denied participation in an abolitionist convention Called for womens rights Women were considered second class citizens Limited access to education No right to own or control property No right to obtain a divorce The womens rights movement was not
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