Standard Title Slide Title Line Two - OCLC

Standard Title Slide Title Line Two - OCLC

Libraries in the Digital Age (LIDA) 2012 Zadar, Croatia, June 18, 2012 I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google. Motivating student engagement with the digital information service environment Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist The worlds libraries. Connected. I find Google a lot easierso many journals come up and when you look at the first ten and they just dont make any sense. I, kind of, give up. (USU7, Female, Age 19) The worlds libraries. Connected.

Then and Now Then: The user built workflow around the library Now: The library must build its services around user workflow Then: Resources scarce, attention abundant Now: Attention scarce, resources abundant (Dempsey, 2008) The worlds libraries. Connected. Understanding Motivations & Engagement The worlds libraries. Connected. Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment?

Funded by JISC OCLC Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Oxford University David White Alison Le Cornu, Ph.D. In partnership with University of North Carolina, Charlotte Donna Lanclos, Ph.D. The worlds libraries. Connected. Residents Significant online presence & usage

Collaborative activity online Contribute online Mobile device dependence >10 hours online/week (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Visitors Functional use of technology Formal need Passive online presence Favor FtF interactions <6 hours online/week (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected.

Video: goo.gl/wW1oB First Monday Paper: goo.gl/ RFSLz (White & Connaway, 2011) The worlds libraries. Connected. Why Visitors and Residents Project? If we build it, they will NOT come. Shifting changes in engagement with information environment Effect of larger cultural changes influenced by Web? New attitudes towards education? Gap in user behavior studies Need for longitudinal studies

Investigate context and situation Inform project & service design to improve engagement & uptake (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) (Connaway & Dickey, 2010) (Cool & Spink, 2002) The worlds libraries. Connected. Why Visitors and Residents Project? Understand motivations & expectations for using technologies Enable educators & service providers to make informed decisions Position role of library within the workflows & information-seeking patterns of students & faculty Influence design & delivery of

digital platforms & services Investigate & describe user-owned digital literacies (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Visitors and Residents (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Objectives Examine links between age & technological engagement Describe social network in which digital & analog information-seeking strategies are embedded Inform JISC Developing Digital Literacies strand Create matrix of implementation options

(White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Triangulation of Data Several methods: Semi-structured interviews (qualitative) Diaries (qualitative) Online survey (quantitative) Enables triangulation of data (Connaway et al., 2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Ethnography Rapport

Observations Conversations Diaries Ethnography enables us to establish rapport with target communities & become immersed in other peoples existence (Connaway & Powell, 2010) The worlds libraries. Connected. Diaries Ethnographic data collection technique Get people to describe what has happened Center on defined events or moments (Connaway & Powell, 2010)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Interviews Allows for probing, clarification, new questions, focused questions, exploring Enables data collection for extended period of time (Connaway & Powell, 2010) The worlds libraries. Connected. Surveys/Questionnaires Encourages frank answers Eliminates variation in the question process Can collect large amount of data

in short period of time Delivery In-person Telephone Mail Email Online Point of contact (Connaway & Powell, 2010) The worlds libraries. Connected. Project Phases Phase 1: Interviewed Emerging educational stage individuals Last year of secondary/high school & first year of university Majority of students aged 18 & 19 with a few outliers Phase 2:

Interviewed individuals in Establishing (second/third year undergraduate), Embedding (postgraduates, PhD students), & Experienced (Scholars) stages Some Phase 1 and Phase 2 participants agreed to submit monthly diaries (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Project Phases Phase 3: Continued interviews Continue collecting diaries Test interview & diary results with in-depth survey 50 participants from each educational stage from US & UK

Use findings to Explore possible trends Identify transitions between stages Phase 4: Interview second group of 6 students in Emerging stage Help determine if methods of engagement change over time The worlds libraries. Connected. 4 (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) Phase 1 Emerging educational stage 31 participants 16 US 15 UK

Quantitative data: Demographics, number of occurrences of technologies, sources, & behaviors Qualitative data: Themes & direct quotes (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Phase 2 Continued interviews Establishing (2nd-3rd year undergraduates) 10 (5 US, 5 UK) Embedding (postgraduates, PhD students) 10 (5 US, 5 UK) Experienced (scholars) 10 (5 US, 5 UK)

Began data analysis (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Phase I and 2: Participant Demographics 61 participants 15 secondary students 46 university students and faculty 34 females 27 males 38 Caucasian 5 African-American 2 Two or more 1 Asian 2 Hispanic 13 Unidentified (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Participant Gender (US vs. UK) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 US UK 19 16 15 6

11 4 2 0 Female Male (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Participant Gender (By Stages) 35 30 25 12 20

Male Female 15 10 19 2 5 0 6 7 8 4 3 Emerging

Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Participant Ages (US vs. UK) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4

17 US UK 12 7 2 7 3 1 3 3 3 0

(White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. 3 2 0 Participant Ages (By Stages) 35 30 25 16-19 years old 20-29 years old 30-39 years old 40-49 years old 50-59 years old Unidentified

20 27 15 10 5 0 2 4 1 2 1 Emerging 3 5 1 1 2

1 2 2 4 Establishing Embedding Experiencing 3 (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Participant Ethnicity (US vs. UK) 25 20

15 10 5 21 17 US UK 7 6 0 2 5 0 0

2 (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. 1 0 0 Participant Ethnicity (By Stages) 35 30 25 20 Caucasian Unidentified African American

Hispanic Two or more Asian 22 15 10 5 0 4 6 3 1 1 Emerging 1 2

1 Establishing 4 6 4 1 1 Embedding 4 Experiencing (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Academic Disciplines (By Stages) 18

16 2 14 1 12 10 8 2 8 4 3 2 6 2 4

2 2 4 1 1 1 2 0 Emerging 3 1 4 3

Establishing Embedding Experiencing (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Undeclared Double Major Professions & Applied Sciences Formal Sciences Natural Sciences Social Sciences Humanities Participant Interview Questions 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology and the web for your

studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like. The worlds libraries. Connected. Participant Interview Questions 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? (Connaway & Radford, 2005-2007)

(Dervin, Connaway, & Prabha, 2003-2005) The worlds libraries. Connected. Codebook I. Place II. Sources III. Tools IV. Agency V. Situation/context VI. Quotes VII. Contact VIII. Technology Ownership IX. Network used (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Codebook

I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. FaceBook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected.

Nvivo 9 Qualitative research software Upload documents, PDFs, & videos Create nodes & code transcripts Merge files Queries Reports Models (QSR International, 2011) The worlds libraries. Connected. Facebook 100% 98% 96% 94% 92%

100% 100% Facebook 90% 94% 88% 90% 86% 84% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Social Media & Safety, Security 30% 25% 20% Facebook AND Caution 15% 23% 20% 20%

20% Establishing Embedding Experiencing 10% 5% Emerging (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Credibility 45% 40%

35% 30% 25% 20% Wikipedia AND Authority, Legitimacy 42% 15% 10% 20% 20% 5% 0%

10% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Opportunism 100% 98% 96% 94% 92%

100% 100% Convenience 90% 94% 88% 90% 86% 84% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Sources 100% 80% 60% Databases Wikipedia Books 100% 90% 40% 90%

90% 80% 77% 80% 70% 70% 50% 20% 30% 19% 0% Emerging Establishing

Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Libraries = Books 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% Libraries = Books 58% 50%

50% 20% 10% 10% 0% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Sources

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Librarians 50% Teachers, Professor s 90% 40% 81% 30% 50%

48% 50% 20% 10% 0% 50% 40% 20% 20% 13% 10% 0% Emerging Establishing Embedding

(White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing Peers Decompartmentalization 35% 30% 25% 20% Multi-tasking 15% 30% 26%

10% 20% 5% 0% 10% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing

Control, Choice 60% 50% 40% Available Time Time Wasting 30% 50% 20% 39% 40% 50% 40%

40% 35% 30% 10% 0% Emerging Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing

Time 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% Addiction Distraction 60% 50% 48% 20% 29% 10% 20%

20% 10% 0% Emerging 10% Establishing Embedding (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Experiencing

I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google because I think thats the most popular site which means thats the most correct. (USS1, Female, Age 17) The worlds libraries. Connected. I knew that the internet wouldnt give me a wrong answer. (UKS4, Female, Age 17) The worlds libraries. Connected. I simply just type it into Google and just see what comes up.

(UKS4, Female, Age 17) The worlds libraries. Connected. ...Google doesnt judge you. (UKF3, Male, Age Unidentified) The worlds libraries. Connected. Diaries 20 Phase 1 and Phase 2 participants agreed to be diarists 13 US & 7 UK 9 Phase 1 and Phase 2 participants submitted complete diaries 7 US & 2 UK Share information-seeking situations each month

Communicate in any format diary [email protected] The worlds libraries. Connected. video s video chat instant messenger phone Diaries All except one selected EMAIL Why? Its for formal communication

The worlds libraries. Connected. Students: Information Seeking in Action The worlds libraries. Connected. Information Literacy vs. Digital Literacy The worlds libraries. Connected. Learning Black Market http://wp.me/pLtlj-fH The worlds libraries. Connected. (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Sources II. Sources A. Human B. Digital 1. E-books 2. Online textbooks 3. Databases 4. Websites a. Discovery Channel b. Textbook Sites j. Fan Websites c. University databases k. iPlayer/television programs d. Major media sites

l. Retail websites e. Non-English Language m. Exam board sites (UK) f. Dictionary n. Syllabus- and discipline-based sites g. Wikipedia o. iTunesU h. University Websites p. Photo websites i. Music Websites q. Other

The worlds libraries. Connected. (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) Sources Retail Major media site Other Universit y websites iPlayer/ Photo sites TV

Exam board (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Universit y databas es Dictionar Non English y Languag e Textbook websites Syllabus &

discipline based sites Fan site s Disc Ch Contact VII. Contact A. Face-to-Face B. Phone Call C. Video chat D. IM/Chat E. Texting F. Private messaging G. Commenting H. Media posting I. Visible messaging J. Letters (Post/Mail) K. Email (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)

The worlds libraries. Connected. Contact Phone call Texting Email Private messaging (via social networking sites) (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected.

Face to Face Video chat IM chat Visible Media messaging postin g Postal mail Agency IV. Agency 10. Multitasking A. Evaluation

11. Browsing B. Decision/Choice 12. Searching 1. Convenience/ease of use/accessible 2. Familiarity 3. Repetition 4. Relevance 5. Authority/Legitimacy 6. Available Time 7. Speed 8. Privacy 9. Safety, security a. Caution b. Confidence The worlds libraries. Connected.

13. Currency 14. Fun, enjoyment 15. Addiction 16. Distraction 17. Time wasting 18. Quantity 19. Reliability 20. Avoidance C. Motivation 1. Create 2. Collaborate (helping others) 3. Connection; sharing with others (White and Connaway 20112012) Agency (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. People

II. Sources A. Human 1. Mother 2. Father 3. Extended family 4. Experts/Professionals 5. Friends/Colleagues 6. Teachers/Professors 7. Peers 8. Librarians 9. Other B. Digital C. Physical (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Human Sources Friends, colleagues

Peers Mother Extended family Experts, Other professionals (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Father Librarian s

Teachers, professors The worlds libraries. Connected. The worlds libraries. Connected. The worlds libraries. Connected. A strategic instructional venture isnt about just training students how to search database interfaces, but about building their fluency with data, visual, spatial, media, information, and technology literaciesThis is how we transform scholarship. (Mathews, 2012) The worlds libraries. Connected.

By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact. (Mathews, 2012) The worlds libraries. Connected. Future Phases Phase 3: Months 13-24 Continue diaries with 24 participants Online survey of 400 students and scholars Phase 4: Months 25-36 Interview 6 new Emerging students Analyze data Report findings The worlds libraries. Connected.

References Bertot, J. C., Berube, K., Devereaux, P., Dhakal, K., Powers, S., & Ray, J. (2012). Assessing the usability of WorldCat Local: Findings and considerations. The Library Quarterly, 82(2), 207-221. Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport. pdf Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). "If it is too inconvenient I'm not going after it": Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3). Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., White, D. S., Le Cornu, A., & Hood, E. M. (2012). User-centered decision making: A new model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA 2012 Conference Proceedings, August 11-17, Helsinki, Finland. Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic research methods for librarians. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtual reference. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/synchronicity/full.pdf The worlds libraries. Connected. References

Cool, C., & Spink, A. (2002). Issues of context in information retrieval (IR): An introduction to the special issue. Information Processing and Management: An International Journal, 38(5), 605-611. Dempsey, L. (2008). Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday, 14(1). Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207 Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2005). Sense-making the information confluence: The hows and the whys of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/imls/default.htm Kolowich, S. (2011, August 22). Study: College students rarely use librarians expertise. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/story/2011-08-22/Study-College-students-rarely-use-libr arians-expertise/50094086/1 Mathews, B. (2012). Think like a startup: A white paper to inspire library entrepreneurialism. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2012/04/04/think-like-a-startup-a-white-pa per/ QSR International. (2011). NVivo 9: Getting started. Retrieved from The worlds libraries. http://download.qsrinternational.com/Document/NVivo9/NVivo9-Getting-Started-Guide.pdf Connected.

Selected Readings Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2005-2007). Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Wasserman, S. (2012, June 18). The Amazon effect. The Nation. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/168125/amazon-effect White, D. S., & Connaway, L. S. (2011-2012). Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/ White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049 The worlds libraries. Connected. The researchers would like to thank Erin Hood for her assistance in keeping the team organized, analyzing the data, and

disseminating the results. The worlds libraries. Connected. Picture Credits Residents http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicocavallotto/363251198/ Phase 1 http://www.flickr.com/photos/orangeacid/252090910 Phase I and 2 Participant Demographics http://www.flickr.com/photos/doug88888/4570566630/ US vs. UK Participant University Majors http://www.flickr.com/photos/kkoshy/2927378663/ Codebook http://www.flickr.com/photos/themadguru/3546619930/ Preliminary Findings (Guilty dog) http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/61264743/ I always stick with the first... (USS1) http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinksherbet/2001899627/ Slide 41: I knew that the internet wouldnt give me a wrong answer. (UKS4) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ravages/236981527/

Slide 42: I simply just type it into Google and just see what comes up. (UKS4) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ana_cotta/2532911186/ Slide 43: Google doesnt judge me (UKF3) http://www.flickr.com/photos/cubmundo/6184306158/ Slide 53: People: Professor http://www.flickr.com/photos/lafayette-college/5515447182/ The worlds libraries. Connected. Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. [email protected] Questions & Discussion The worlds libraries. Connected.

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