COMMON TURFGRASS WEEDS AND INSECTS Lesson 3 of Self-Guided Educational Module Learning Objectives 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify plant species suited for sitespecific environmental qualities, pest pressure and use Identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass weeds Identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass insect pests Identify and describe how to
IPM for Lawn and Turfgrass 3 IPM for lawns and turf is a long-term approach to maintaining healthy and reduced risk outdoor areas - This approach includes: Site assessment Monitoring Prevention Management Evaluation of practices Components of an IPM Program on School Grounds 4 Promoting turfgrass health: Select grass species that will thrive on the site and support the site use Prepare the site properly Provide cultural care It is critical to consider the use of the turf when
selecting turfgrass species and cultivars Selecting Turfgrass 5 1. 2. 3. 4. Select a turfgrass seed mix that will thrive in the area Grasses with disease resistance are generally only resistant to one disease and may be susceptible to other turfgrass diseases Certain grasses containing endophytes can prevent outbreaks of above-ground insect pests Select grass types that can tolerate the Turfgrass Identification
University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 6 Seedhe ad Sheath Blade Ligule Auricles Node Midrib StolonTiller Collar Bud Leaf Crown Rhizom e
Roots comprise almost half of the entire grass plant Turfgrass Selection Kentucky Bluegrass 9 Perennial Ryegrasses Tall Fescue Fine Fescue Growth habit Rhizomatous Bunch Bunch Bunch, some rhizomes Leaf texture Medium-Fine
(blade width) Medium Course Very Fine Establishme nt from seed Slow Fast Medium-Fast Medium Seeding rate 1 to 2 lb./1,000 ft.2 5 to 9 lb./1,000 ft.2
5 to 9 lb./1,000 ft.2 3 to 5 lb./1,000 ft.2 Annual nitrogen fertilizer 3 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 2 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 2 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 1 to 2 lb./1,000 ft.2 Drought tolerance Poor
Poor Some Some Shade tolerance (min. 4 hours direct sun) Poor Poor Good Excellent Census Regions and Division of the United States - Inks 8 Examples of Turfgrass Species North Central 9
Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Growth habit Rhizomes Supina bluegrass Stolons Perennial ryegrass Bunch Tall fescue Bunch Fine fescue Bunch, some
rhizomes Leaf texture /color Preferred environment Fine to medium Well drained, sunny Dark green areas High nutrient and water requirements Fine to medium Sun to dense shade Light green High nutrient and water requirements Tolerance attributes Cold - high Wear - high Drought - low Shade - low Cold - high Heat - low Drought - low Wear - very high Cold - low Fine to medium Well drained soils Moderate fertility and Heat - low
Drought - moderate water requirement Shade - low Wear - high Cold - low Medium to Well drained soils coarse Open sunny areas. Low Heat - high Drought -high fertility requirement Shade - moderate Wear - moderate Medium to fine Cool, dry, well drained, Cold - high Heat/salt - low shade tolerant, well Drought - moderate drained Wear - moderate Shade - moderate Examples of Turfgrass Species Northeastern 10 Turfgrass Characteristics
Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Growth habit Rhizomes Leaf texture Preferred environment Medium to fine Sunny, well drained Tolerance attributes Cold - high Heat - moderate Drought - moderate Wear moderate Shade - low Medium to fine Cool, dry, well drained, Cold - high Heat/salt - low shade tolerant, well Drought - moderate drained Wear - moderate Shade - high Fine fescue
Bunch, some rhizomes Perennial ryegrass Bunch Medium to fine Well drained, moderate fertility Tall fescue Bunch Medium to coarse Sun and shade Cold - low/moderate Heat /moderate/high Wear - high Drought - low Shade - low Cold - low/moderate
Heat - high Drought - moderate Wear - high Shade - moderate Salinity - moderate Examples of Turfgrass Species Western 11 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Growth habit Rhizomes Leaf texture Preferred environment Medium to fine Sunny, well drained High elevation Supina bluegrass
Stolons Fine to medium Sun to dense shade Light green High nutrient requirements Bermudagrass (southwestern) Rhizomes & stolons Fine, medium to coarse Perennial ryegrass Bunch Tall fescue Bunch Sunny, tolerates most soil conditions
High fertility requirement Low medium elevation Medium to fine Well drained, moderate fertility Medium to coarse Sun and shade Tolerance attributes Cold - high Heat - moderate Drought - moderate Wear - moderate Cold - high Heat - low Drought - low Wear - very high Cold - moderate Heat/salt - high Drought - high Wear - high Cold - low/moderate Heat /moderate/high
Drought - low Wear - high Shade low Cold - low/moderate Heat - high Drought -moderate Wear - moderate Shade - moderate Salinity - moderate Examples of Turfgrass Species Pacific Northwest 12 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Growth habit Kentucky bluegrass Rhizomes Fine fescue Bunch, some
rhizomes Perennial ryegrass Bunch Tall fescue Bunch Tolerance attributes Preferred environment Cold - high Medium to fine Sunny, well Heat - moderate Drained Recovery slow in Drought - moderate Wear - moderate late fall Cold - high Medium to fine Cool, dry, well Heat/salt - low drained, shade Drought - moderate tolerant, well
Wear - moderate drained Shade - high Cold - low/moderate Medium to fine Well drained, moderate fertility, Heat /moderate/high Wear - high sunny Drought - low Shade - low Cold - low/moderate Medium to Sun and shade Heat - high coarse Drought - moderate Wear - moderate Shade - moderate Salinity - moderate Leaf texture Examples of Turfgrass Species Southern 13 Turfgrass Characteristics
Grass species Growth habit Bermudagras Rhizomes & s stolons Zoysiagrass Rhizomes & stolons Centipede Rhizomes & stolons Tall fescue Bunch Fine fescue Bunch, some rhizomes Tolerance attributes Cold - moderate Heat/salt - high Drought - high
Wear - high Cold - good Fine, medium Sun to moderate to coarse Shade. Recovery is slow Heat/salt - high Drought - high Wear - high Medium Sunny, tolerates low pH Cold - fair Heat - good to coarse conditions Salinity - poor Wear - poor/moderate Cold - low/moderate Medium to coarse Sun and shade Heat - high Drought - moderate Wear - high Shade - moderate Salinity - moderate Medium to fine Cool, dry, well drained, Cold - high Heat/salt - low shade tolerant, well Drought - moderate
drained Wear - moderate Shade - high Leaf texture Fine, medium to coarse Preferred environment Sunny, tolerates most soil conditions Managing Turf Weeds 14 Keep turfgrass healthy to out-compete weeds Use certified seed for overseeding, the
seed has fewer weed seeds than lowquality seed mixes Soil pH can be a huge factor in weed invasion and turf decline Avoid fertilizer applications when common annual weed seeds may be germinating Establish weed population thresholds by management zone Weed Monitoring: The Transect Method 15 Randomly choose a series of representative transects for sampling Walk each transect, stop at 20 or more evenly spaced sampling units (steps or measures) and record the presence/absence of weeds in a 3x3 foot area in front Estimate the percentage of area covered by Samples Covered by 3x3' sample and calculate the weeds in each weeds average over all 20 samples
10 40% (10x40%) = 400% 400% + 100% = 10 10% (10x10%) = 100% 500% 500%/20 sites = 25% Common Turfgrass Weeds: Northeast 16 Weeds Velvetleaf Common ragweed Common lambsquarters Hairy galinsoga Eastern black nightshade Common chickweed
Giant foxtail Yellow foxtail Large crabgrass Yellow nutsedge Common Chickweed - John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Weeds: Midwest 17 Weeds Bull thistle Canada thistle Carolina geranium Chicory Common purslane Curly dock Large crabgrass Mouseear chickweed Common mallow Perennial sowthistle Bull thistle Eric Coombs, Oregon Department of
Agriculture, bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Weeds: Pacific Northwest 18 Weeds Annual bluegrass Buttercup Chickweed Clover Crabgrass White clover Moss Plantain Thistles Red sorrel White clover - Tim Miller, Washington State University Common Turfgrass Weeds: South 19 Weeds Dallisgrass
Bahiagrass Annual bluegrass Spurge Chickweed Crabgrass Dandelion Common chickweed Ohio State Weed Lab Archive, The Ohio State University Identify, Monitor, Manage Turfgrass Weeds 20 Annual Weed Species Summer annual weeds germinate in spring, grow to maturity during summer and die by fall or winter If herbicides are needed to control summer annuals, apply pre-emergent herbicides in the spring to prevent germination Winter annual weeds germinate in the fall and winter, grow actively in spring and die by summer If herbicides are needed to control winter Identify, Monitor, Manage Turfgrass Weeds 21
Biennial weeds: Grow during the spring, summer and fall of their first year, survive the following winter, and then produce seed in the second growing season Perennial weeds: Live more than two years and spread by seeds and vegetative means such as bulbs, rhizomes, tubers or nutlets If herbicides are needed for perennial or biennial weeds, use fall applications Site Selection and Preparation 22 It is especially important to get difficult perennial weeds under control before planting, trying to grow turfgrasses on poor sites may take additional work Irrigate the site before planting to allow
weed seeds on site to germinate before grass seed is planted Sites with limited water, less than four to six hours of direct sunlight, and/or minimal nutrients may be poor sites for growing turfgrass, but many weed Identifying and Monitoring Turfgrass Insects 23 Insect pests can vary by region and are important indicators of turfgrass health Monitor and record data on pests that may need to be managed in your region and at your site Masked chafers (white grubs) - University of California IPM,
Common Turfgrass Pests: Northeast 24 Insects Beetle grubs Sod webworms Chinch bugs Billbugs Cutworms Army cutworm - Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Intermountain West 25 Insects Billbugs Chinch bug Banks grass mite Leafhoppers Beet leafhopper G. Oldfield, USDA, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Midwest 26
Insects White grubs Billbugs Sod webworm Aphids Crickets Field Cricket Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Pacific Northwest 27 Insects European cranefly White grubs Chinch bug Billbugs European Common Turfgrass Pests: Gulf Coast 28 Insects Armyworms Red imported
fire ants Grasshoppers Mole crickets Southern chinch bugs Tropical sod Mole cricket Common Turfgrass Pests: South 29 Insects Fire ants Chinch bugs Spittlebugs Sugarcane beetles Henbit Spurges Twolined spittlebug Clemson University, USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 30 Healthy turf rarely requires insecticide treatment for insect pests
Insect pest problems are often limited to small areas of turf that have cultural issues that need correcting such as improper pH, low fertility, poor drainage and turf root growth, overwatering or improper mowing The right question to ask is, why is this pest here? Not which pesticide Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 31 In regions affected by grubs, avoid planting roses, grapes or oaks to avoid attracting beetles, the adult stage of grub species Grub-infested turf suffers root loss; heavily infested turf may need light and frequent irrigations to survive the summer heat Avoid excessive night lighting which Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 32
Dethatching reduces chinch bug activity for up to two years where sodforming lawn grasses have been planted Consider grass cultivars that contain endophytes for areas with chronic chinch bug, billbug, cutworm or sod webworm problems Endophytes can effectively control other above ground-feeding insects as well Chinch Bugs 33 Chinch bugs reach peak populations during high heat Dry turf is particularly susceptible to this insect because of the added environmental stress Particularly susceptible turf includes: Kentucky bluegrass Perennial and annual ryegrass
Tall and fine fescue Chinch bugs feed on grass blades and can St. Augustine grass cause damage at high densities Ohio State University Extension White Grubs 34 Turf damage can peak in late summer as grubs increase in size and feeding capacity Managing Grubs 35 Use a shovel to determine the number of grubs per square foot before initiating any treatment
Establish action threshold levels Square foot of turf removed David Shetler, Ohio State University White Grubs 36 White grubs are typically one of the following species: Japanese beetle June beetle European chafer Asian garden beetle Oriental beetle
May-June beetle white grubs Asiatic garden beetle Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Northern masked chafer Creative Commons License Black turfgrass ataenius beetle Billbug 37 Billbug larvae tunnel through plants while feeding on the stem Damage frequently appears from late June through early August Signs of damage include spotty,
Billbug David Shetlar, Ohio State University, Bugwood.org Identifying Turfgrass Vertebrates 38 Pocket gophers Prairie dogs Meadow voles Moles Rabbits and hares Ground squirrels Deer Collared peccary (Javelina) Javelina Monitoring and Managing Turfgrass Vertebrate Pests 39 Vertebrate pests can harm turfgrass when they dig to look for pests to eat By controlling the insect pest population, you will in turn, deter
vertebrate pests from visiting Monitor for signs of vertebrate activity as this may be a sign that you have a pest infestation Check In! 40 This lesson you learned: 1. How to identify plant species suited for a sites environmental qualities, pest pressures and use 2. How to identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass weeds 3. How to identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass insect pests 4. How to identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass vertebrate pests Resources 41
Insect Images. (2010). Lawn and Turf. Retrieved from http://www.bugwood.org/ Iowa State University. (2010). Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/info/plant-diseases/turf-grass-rust Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. School IPM. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/dacf/php/integrated_pest_management/school /index.shtml Rutgers Cooperative Extension. IPM Report Card for School Grounds: General Requirements. Retrieved from http://entomology.osu.edu/schoolipm/IPMfiles/ReportCardGeneral.pdf Texas A&M Agrilife Extension. Landscape IPM Module 6. Retrieved from http://schoolipm.tamu.edu/videodvd/
Umass Extension Center for Agriculture. Best Management Practices For Lawn and Landscape Turf. Retrieved from
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