Stereotypes and social values Psychology ATAR Year 11 Unit 2 Social Psychology Social categorization stereotypes social values and behaviour Curriculum
content The process of identifying a person as a member of a certain group because of features they share. Helps us to deal with the social world Categorised based on: 1. Overt physical attributes of the person gender, skin colour, hair colour 2. Subtle attributes accent, dress 3. Additional physical cues tools of trades,
uniforms Social categorisation 1. We start by establishing a prototype to represent social categories and groups: A fuzzy set of attributes (perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, feelings, behaviours) that describe one group and distinguishes it from relevant other groups. 2. These prototypes obey the metacontrast principle
The prototype of the group maximises the differences between the groups and minimises the differences within the group. 3. These leads the person(s) to think that the group seems like a coherent, distinct and unitary (single) entity. Social categorisation theory A prototype is not an average type of the social group
The prototype might be so ideal there may not be an actual single person that actually embodies it. Can lead to: Depersonalisation The perception and treatment of self and others not as unique individuals but as prototypical embodiments of a social group Stereotypes Social categorisation
theory A typical Australian family The Castle (1997) (Movie) http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/hack/img /blog/castle500. jpg Does this Australian family fit your prototype?
Another Australian family http://www.schoolatoz.nsw.edu.au/detresources/ 43chineseaustralians_xjwnkjGqhV_l.png Does prototyping cause problems? How do we deal with those that dont fit? Prototyping STEREOTYPES
http://www.travelcampaigner.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Typical-Tourist-Stereotypes.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_bmlxVcP1Ew/UZMziEnmpsI/AAAAAAAAAGg/aMitrtvRrnM/s1600/650x300.jpg Stereotypes Widely shared and simplified evaluative image of a social group and its members. A form of social categorisation
Most are negative: Positive Nuns are caring people Negative overweight people are lazy Stereotypes Helps to rapidly process information about an object Reduces thinking time o Think I see an object on the ground it might be a snake or a branch better to think its a venomous evil snake I
react But. o I see a man in a dark street he looks a bit tall and large maybe he is wearing a jacket is that jacket a bikie jacket? do I wait to see? Or do I react? I use a stereotype, I change my direction. Explains the social world Justifies actions and decisions Why?
We over rely on attributing actions to the individuals internal characteristics (e.g. personality, race) rather than the environmental impacts White Americans are more likely to go to College than Black Americans as they are harder working students not due to issues with poverty We incorrectly correlate two events/objects There are more Aboriginal people in jail than their proportion of the Australian population, therefore
Aborigines are more likely to break the law Formation of stereotypes 1. Common environment 2. Socialisation and upbringing 3. Intergroup relations Common environment Cant trust Japanese made cars. You know what
they did to our boys in the war. People who grew up through WWII in Australia have a deep mistrust of Japanese made goods Formation of stereotypes Socialisation and upbringing Mum always said I should stand for old people as they are not very strong. How could
60 year-olds keep working in manual jobs? Can be formed in childhood and are hard to challenge and change Formation of stereotypes Intergroup relations I dont like Rugby League. Those Rugby League players always get drunk and are sexist.
I prefer Rugby Union. The Wallabies (Rugby Union) players are more likely to be doctors and lawyers, so they are smarter about their off-field behaviour. Ingroup vs. outgroup Formation of stereotypes Correlational study into Racial Stereotypes
Aim: To investigate stereotypical attitudes of Americans towards different races. Method: Questionnaire method was used to investigate stereotypes. American university students were given a list of nationalities and ethic groups (e.g. Irish, Germans etc.), and a list of 84 personality traits. They were asked to pick out five or six traits which they thought were typical of each group. Results: There was considerable agreement in the traits selected. White Americans, for example, were seen as industrious, progressive and ambitious. African Americans were seen as lazy, ignorant and musical.
Participants were quite ready to rate ethnic groups with whom they had no personal contact. Conclusion: Ethnic stereotypes are widespread, and shared by members of a particular social group. Katz & Brady (1933) Katz & Brady (1933)
This was written in 1933. How do you think the stereotypes towards the Japanese would have changed if it was after 1941 (bombing of Pearl Harbor?) Katz & Brady (1933) I Am Not Your Asian Stereotype (10 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pUtz75lNaw The Danger of a Single Story (20 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg Stereotypes Write a list of values [gender, Asia and refugees] that Australia valued/values in 1900
1940 2000 2016 SOCIAL VALUES Values A higher-order concept to provide a structure for organising attitudes (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011). Allport & Vernon (1931) identified six broad classes of
values including social values A concern for ones fellow, a social welfare orientation. Social values are not static they change over time Non-Western societies attitudes towards elderly people are changing and becoming more like Western societies. (Cuddy et al., 2005) Social values Can be seen in many situations in which we have
stereotyped and stigmatised groups. A prediction that directly or indirectly becomes true due to the positive feedback between belief and behaviour. Affects the perceivers belief and behaviours as well as those of the person in the stereotyped group. Based on social categories of gender, race, social class, personal characteristics Self-fulfilling prophecy
Which is more socially acceptable? http://www.wynnummanly.com.au/newsimages/ people/Bob-Hawlke-026. jpg http://www.anorak.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/20 12/04/Cry-3. jpg
Which is more socially acceptable? http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/027 79/ drink_2779990k.jpg http://media3.onsugar.com/files/2013/10/16/884/n/2415 5406/5c31db8cc1a37d22_Pregnant-Woman-DrinkingWater.jpg
Which is more socially acceptable? http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MnZ-h8lrvdE/TbQ9Jz5-aAI/A AAAAAAAAC0/MAKA2OiCWU0/s1600/women+ boxing.jpg http://www.gunslot.com/files/gunslot/images/58 928. jpg
Which is more socially acceptable? http://www.finetuxedos.com/media/catalog/product/ w/o/ womens_blk_eton.jpg http://fashionsizzle.com/wp-content/uploads/20 12/12/22_5. jpg
In Western societies women are expected to be gentle and nurturing; men are expected to be tough and outcomes focused Why? Parents Buy gender-appropriate toys Colour of babys clothes, rooms, birth cards Reward gender-appropriate behaviours girls as caring or being ladylike; boys will be boys Peers
Model and reward gendered-behaviour Gender & social values Teachers React to boys and girls in different ways Girls rewarded for being quiet attention; boys for asking questions attention More pressure on boys to succeed academically
Media TV Programmes men characters more likely to be in a high-paid job then women characters Advertising Gender & social values Gender roles mothers are more likely to stay home to look after sick child than the father (even if mother gets
more pay than the father) Think of titles Mr vs. Mrs, Miss or Ms Is this changing? Gender & social values Theory of reasoned action How we behave is a the influence of social values and
personal attitudes towards the behaviour and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of engaging in the action. How do social values influence our behaviours? The Danger of a Single Story (20 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg
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