Strengths and limitations of theories of forgetting:
THEORIES OF FORGETTING: NONSENSE WORDS SEE HOW MANY YOU RECALL IMMEDIATELY, THEN IN 20 MINUTES 1. BIC 2. RAK 3. KIB 4. DOS 5. FOK 6. BAS
7. RIF 8. LIN 9. SAN 10. TIS WHY DO WE FORGET? Why is it that we can effortlessly remember words to be able to conduct conversation, yet find ourselves unable to recall all of the quotes we need to use in an English
examination? Why do we automatically remember how to turn on the shower taps to the exact temperature each morning, yet need to concentrate when using chopsticks for the first few times?
Why can we remember some details of our childhood when other memories appear to have been forgotten, only to come back to us unexpectedly? KEY KNOWLEDGE forgetting curve as informed by the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus retrieval failure theory including tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
interference theory motivated forgetting as informed by the work of Sigmund Freud including repression and suppression decay theory FORGETTING CURVE AS INFORMED BY THE WORK OF HERMANN EBBINGHAUS Youtube clip
https:// www.yout ube.com/ watch? v=tDPTQ mRRPSQ RETRIEVAL FAILURE THEORY INCLUDING TIP-OF-THETONGUE PHENOMENON HOW MANY NONSENSE SYLLABLES DID THE CLASS REMEMBER?
Immediate recall 86% 10 minutes later 66% RETRIEVAL FAILURE Also known as cue dependent forgetting, retrieval failure theory explains forgetting as an inability to retrieve material due to an absence of the right cues or a failure to use them. In other words, the memory trace is available but it is not accessible without the relevant cue or prompt to assist in retrieving it from the long-term memory.
RETRIEVAL FAILURE THEORY INCLUDING TIP-OF-THETONGUE PHENOMENON INTERFERENCE THEORY Interference theory (also known as temporal confusability) is an explanation of why a memory trace that is available has become temporarily inaccessible. Interference refers to difficulties in retrieving information from memory, caused by other material learnt either previously, proactive interference, or subsequently, retroactive interference.
This theory proposes that one set of information in the memory competes with another set of information. LEARNING PHRASES IN DUTCH How are you? - Hoe gaat het? How old are you?
- Hoe alt ben jij? Two beers please - Twee beertjes asjeblieft I love you - Ik hou van jou LEARNING PHRASES IN SPANISH
How are you? Como estas? How old are you? ?Cuantos anos? Two beers please. Dos cervezas, por favor.
I love you. Te llamo PRO ACTIVE Proactive interference is when previously learnt material inhibits our ability to retrieve new material. The prefix pro means forward, so proactive interference s where older information moves forward to interfere with our
retrieval of more recently learnt similar information. For example, you might have studies Italian in Year 7 and then learnt Spanish in Year 8. In a Spanish verbs test, your older knowledge of Italian verbs might interfere with your ability to retrieve the correct Spanish verbs. RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE Retroactive interference is when newly learnt material
inhibits our ability to retrieve previously learnt material. Retro means backwards so retroactive interference is where new information acts to interfere with the retrieval of older information stored in memory. For example, in an Italian verbs test your more recent knowledge of Spanish verbs might interfere with your ability to retrieve the correct Italian verbs for the test. MOTIVATED FORGETTING AS INFORMED BY THE WORK OF SIGMUND
FREUD INCLUDING REPRESSION AND SUPPRESSION suppression, which is a conscious refusal to access memories which are available (e.g. ignoring the memory of an unpleasant activity such as a visit to the dentist) repression, where painful or distressing memories are unconsciously pushed to an inaccessible part of the mind and the person is unaware that these memories exist. DECAY THEORY Decay theory suggests that memory traces in the brain will
fade over time through lack of use and eventually become unavailable. This theory suggests that forgetting is a physiological process and is based on the idea that when a memory is laid down there is a physical or chemical trace of the experience in the brain. This trace is believed to fade as time passes, unless it is strengthened through repeated use. For example, a person who has not seen a friend for many years might not recall the name of that friend. AVAILABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY
There is a distinction between the availability of the memory trace and the accessibility of the memory trace. If material is no longer stored in the long-term memory, then it is no longer available. If it is simply difficult to retrieve but the memory trace still exists, then it is not accessible but might be retrieved at some other time. Pseudoforgetting is where memory is thought to be forgotten but it was never encoded and stored in the fi rst place.
NOW WRITE THE STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF EACH THEORY
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