Structure and Function of Cells - Monroe Township School ...

Structure and Function of Cells - Monroe Township School ...

Structure and Function of Cells Chapter 4 Honors and Lab Biology Anticipatory Set! Quick Write:

Why do we need to learn about cells? Burn Victim Healing time is radically reduced and scarring almost eliminated by bioartificial skin!

Prokaryotic cell Cells that do NOT contain membrane bound organelles. (unicellulat) Eukaryotic Cell Cells that DO contain membrane bound organelles.

Discovery of Cells. Cells were discovered due to microscopes in the early 17th century ROBERT HOOKE 1665 (english scientist) examined a slice of cork, he saw little boxes they reminded him of small rooms.cells! These were dead plant cells.

ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK 1632-1723 (dutch microscope maker) first to observe living cells Cells

Is the smallest unit of matter that can carry out all the processes of life. Organelle: parts within a cell!

Cell Theory (150 yrs. Passed after Hooke & Van Leeuwenhoek 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells

2. Cells are the basic unity of structure and function in an organism 3. Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells.

Three German Scientists early evidence for the cell theory Matthias Schleiden (1838) botanist, all plants are composed of cells Theodor Schwann (1839) zoologist, all animals are composed of cells

Rudolf Virchow (1855) physician, cells come ONLY from other cells. Cell Diversity

Not all cells are alike! They vary in A) size B) shape C) internal organization SIZE: range from .2m 0.2um (most are 10-50um) -not all are microscopic (most are) ex: giraffes nerve cells extend 6.5 ft. down its leg!! Cells are limited in size by the ratio

between their outer surface area and their volume Internal Organization Organelles: parts of a cell, have specific jobs

Tissues: groups of cells that have a similar function TISSUES!!

! Skin Cells Death of Tissue Organ Systems Organ

systems- a group of organs that work together to perform a set of related tasks. Digestive system includes: the stomach, esophagus, intestines and mouth.

CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems Human Circulatory System Cell Organelles!

Cell Membrane separates cell from external environment, gives shape and flexibility to cell, selectively permeable Continue Cytoplasm: gelatin like aqueous fluid called cytosol

Cytoplasmic streaming Mostly water but also salts and organic molecules Continue Mitochondia: power house of the cell! Where cellular respiration occurs,

production of ATP, has its own DNA Cristae: inner membrane creating many folds to increase surface area Continue Ribosomes: where proteins are made, Free Floating Ribosome: make proteins for

the cell Ribosomes attached to ER: make proteins to be exported from the cell Continue Endoplasmic Reticulum: (ER) acts as a highway for molecules to move around the

cell. Smooth ER: does NOT contain ribosomes Rough ER: does contain ribosomes Continue Golgi Apparatus (bodies) processes, packages, and secretes

a) product is assembled (moves from ER to golgi, where it is put together and adjusted) b) product is packaged (in new sacs) c) product is mailed out (sent out of cell)

Continue. Cilia: short hair like projections beat together to move an organism ex: humans trachea cilia move fluids and mucus! YUM

Continue Flagella: long, whiplike projections, single or in pairs, rapid movement, ex: sperm Continue.

Nucleus: brains! Control center of cell, DNA & RNA are made here! Nuclear envolope: double membrane will pores Chromatin: fine strands of DNA & protein Nucleolus: inside nucleus where ribosomes are made Continue

Lysosome: digestive enzymes, digest food, disease causing bacteria, old organelles, ex: lysosomes eat up tissue between fingers in embryos, usually only in animal cells Continue

Cytoskeleton- helps shape & support cells Microtubules: long slender protein tubes form spindle fibers during mitosis Microfilaments: fine protein threads Animal cell only!

Centrioles: cell reproduction Centrosome: cell reproduction Animal Cell Oranelles in Plant Cells ONLY

Cell Wall: rigid covering made of cellulose, protects cell, goes OUTSIDE cell membrane Continue. Central Vacuole: huge structure which may take up 90% of the space in plant

cell Continue. Plastids a) chloroplasts : site for photosynthesis b) chromoplasts: stores red and yellow pigment

c) leucoplasts: non pigmented PLANT CELL

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