Structuring Arguments: The Classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian ...
Structuring and Analyzing Arguments: The Classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian and Ad Herennium Models Key Terms: Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning = in traditional Aristotelian logic, the process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises; inference by reasoning from the general to the specific
Inductive Reasoning = the process of reasoning from the specific to the general, in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it. Inductive reasoning is used to formulate laws based on limited observations of recurring patterns. Key Terms: The Syllogism Three-part deductive argument, in which conclusion follows from two premises A straightforward example: Major premise: All people have hearts. Minor premise: John is a person.
Conclusion: Therefore, John has a heart. Classical Argument Began in ancient Greece, approximately fifth century B.C. Communicated orally and designed to be easily understood by listeners
Based on formal logic, including the syllogism Six main components Classical Argument: Six Elements 1) Introduction: captures attention of audience; urges audience to consider your case 2) Statement of Background: narrates the key facts and/or events leading up to your case 3) Proposition: states the position you are taking, based on the information youve already presented, and sets up the structure of the rest of your argument
4) Proof: discusses your reasons for your position and provides evidence to support each reason 5) Refutation: anticipates opposing viewpoints; then demonstrates why your approach is the only acceptable one (i.e. better than your opponents) 6) Conclusion: summarizes your most important points and can include appeals to feelings or values (pathos) The Toulmin Model
Developed by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in the 1950s Emphasizes that logic often based on probability rather than certainty Focuses on claims Three primary components Toulmin Model: Three Components Three components: Claim = the main point or position Data = the evidence supporting the claim, aka the reasons Warrant = an underlying assumption or basic principle that connects data and claim; often implied rather than
explicit Toulmin Model: An Example Claim = My parents should allow me to go to my friends party on Friday night. Data = The parents of nearly all of the juniors at IHS have given their children permission to attend this party. Warrant = My parents should act in accordance with the other parents of juniors at IHS. Uh-oh, a potential snag What if my parents dont buy my warrant? What if they dont think
they should necessarily do what other parents are doing? How can I still get permission to attend the party? Or at least have a better chance of getting permission? Try new data and a new warrant. What might be more convincing data for an audience of parents? What might be a warrant that most parents will share? Toulmin Argumentation in More Detail Data
Claim Qualifier Warrant Backing Rebuttal Rogerian Model
Developed by psychologist Carl Rogers (also in the 50s) Emphasizes problem-solving and/or coming to consensus Allows the author to appear open-minded or even objective Appropriate in contexts where you need to convince a resistant opponent to at least respect your views Rogerian Arguments:Structure
Introduction: statement of problem to be solved or question to be answered Summary of Opposing Views: described using a seemingly objective persona Statement of Understanding: concedes circumstances under which opposing views might be valid Statement of Your Position Statement of Contexts: describes contexts in which your position applies/works well Statement of Benefits: appeals to self-interest of readers who may not yet agree with you;
demonstrates how your position benefits them Ad Herennium Exordium: Grab the audiences attention Narration: Set out the area of argument with
facts of the case Division: Show both sides; what you agree and disagree on with the issue. Proof: Set out arguments supporting your case. Go all out using logos here. Refutation: More logos. Smash your opponent's arguments show whats wrong. Peroration: Your big finish! Reiterate your strongest points. Bring on the pathos here. Make em laugh, cry, or mad. Exordium
Putting the audience in a receptive mind. Discuss your own person. Discuss the person of our adversaries. Discuss the members of the audience Discuss the facts. Use a tricolon: a series of three parallel words. "You are talking to a man who has laughed in the face of death, sneered at doom, and chuckled at catastrophe."(The Wizard in The Wizard of Oz, 1939) Narration
Make sure it contains the following three qualities: Brevity: concise and exact use of words in writing or speech. Clarity: the quality of being clear, in particular. Plausibility: valid, likely , or acceptable. It is the Who, What, When, and Where, of the
case. Its HOW you define the argument using ethos and pathos. Division Summarize the most notable or important points of the agreement. Then set out the points of your issue, but not too many. Proof
Go hog wild with the logos. Set out to make your case. Use arguments of analogy and probability and induction Provide pieces of evidence: laws, witnesses, contracts, tortues, or oaths. Appealing to authority ALWAYS strengthens an
argument. *See pg 96 Refutation To prove your own case is to disprove your opponents. Your goal is to misrepresent your opponents case in such a way as to make it easier to attack. Apologize.
Peroration End with a BIG SHA-BANG! Lay on the pathos..THICK auxesis is a form of hyperbole that intentionally overstates something or implies that it is greater in significance or size than it really is. USE IT! REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT. Restate words or themes from earlier in the speech
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