STRUGGLING WITH RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Unit 2: Day 4 Why did rulers fear religious diversity? Challenge to unity of realm Subjects might be more loyal to religious convictions than ruler Formation of noble factions Increased possibility of social upheaval
Fear recurrence of Peasants War Social tension FRANCE Francis I r. 1515-1547 Tolerant at first Until Affair of the Placards 1534 Huguenots (French protestants)
arrested but persecution sporadic Many French noble families protect protestants, allowing reform church to grow Henry II r. 1547-1559 Calvinist pastors from Geneva sneak in and spread Calvinism Dies in jousting tournament in 1559 leading to instability
Next 3 kings (sons of Henry) young, weak, indecisive Dominated by mother Catherine de Medici Civil War Three rival noble families try to take advantage of situation Bourbon: Huguenots
Guise: Catholic, North Montmorency: Catholic, South Civil War breaks out in 1562 Catherine tries to win over Bourbons through marriage of Marguerite to Henry of Navarre Failed assassination of Huguenot Gaspard de Coligny by Guise leads: St. Bartholomews Day Massacre 1572
Henry IV r.1589-1610 Paris is worth a mass To end civil war becomes Catholic, 1593 Defeats ultra-Catholic Guises 1598 Peace with Spain 1598 Edict of Nantes Focuses on rebuilding monarchical authority Politiques Festivities/processions New royal officials nobility of the robe England
Causes of Break Dynastic issues lead to new outlook Henry wants annulment so he can have male heir Pope Clement VII refuses Role of Charles V Henry officially splits from Rome Creates the Anglican Church Henry would marry 6 times,
producing three heirs Mary Elizabeth Edward Anglican Church Nominally Protestant Established principle of royal supremacy in religious matters Anglican Church maintained most of the Catholic doctrines (e.g. the 7 sacraments, celibacy for clergy, and transubstantiation) Henry VIIIs actions
Henry used law & force to push the break from Rome 1534: An Act of Submission of the Clergy Act of Succession The Act of Supremacy 1535: Executes Thomas More
1536: Puts down Pilgrimage of Grace 1539: Statute of the Six Articles Dissolution of Monasteries Monastic lands and possessions were broken up and sold off. In the 1520s, some monasteries were closed down to pay for colleges like Oxford and Ipswich In 1535-6, another 200 smaller monasteries were dissolved
1539, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. Henry VIIIs Children 1510: Daughter - died 1511: Son - died 1513: Son - died 1514: Son - died 1516: Mary - survived 1518: Daughter - died 1533: Elizabeth - survived 1534: Son - died 1535: unknown - died 1536: Son - died 1537: Edward - survived Edward VI
Became King at age 10. Those who governed on his behalf strongly Protestant. England moved towards Protestantism during his reign by adopting Calvinism New practices Clergy could marry Iconic images removed from churches Communion by the laity was expanded New doctrines Salvation by faith alone Denial of transubstantiation Only two sacraments: baptism and communion Edwards premature death in 1553 led to a religious struggle among Protestants and Catholics
Mary Tudor r. 1553-1558 Tried to re-impose Catholicism Married Philip II, heir to the Spanish throne Mary rescinded reformation legislation of Henrys (father) and Edwards (brother) reign
Marian exiles: Protestants fled England fearing persecution. Bloody Mary Executions: 300 people executed including Archbishop Cranmer Elizabeth I r. 1558-1603 Determined to resolve religious conflict cause threat to her reign
Raised protestant but not too religious Sought religious harmony by being moderate Pleased Protestants with some reform please Catholics by allowing private worship Machiavellian? Politique? Raison detat?
Elizabeth I Act of Uniformity 1559 Book of Common Prayer Must attend protestant services Act of Supremacy 1559 Officials/clergy must acknowledge King as governor of church
Calvinists/Puritans Jesuit threat Problem of Mary Queen of Scots
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