Student/Faculty Research Day

Student/Faculty Research Day

Effects of Identity Processes on College Student Self Esteem,
Self Efficacy, and Satisfaction with College
Caryn Ling and Jeff Erger Sociology University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Objectives

Results

Unstandardized regression coefficients.

* = <.10, ** = <.05, ***=<.01, ****=<.001 Discussion and Conclusions Table 1: Role Identity Effects on Self Esteem This study investigates how students views of themselves both affect and are affected by their initial college experiences. Two sociological theories of identity (Role Theory and Social Identity Theory), are used to test the link between identity and self esteem, self efficacy, and student satisfaction. Independent Variable (dummy change scores) Model 5 .546 Model 6 -.419 Model 7 .353 Model 8 .029 .326 .362 -.154 -.719 -1.173*** -.107 -.134 -.369 -.094 -.021 .167 -.064 -.299 -.033 -.300 -.356 -.136 -.095 -.285 -.348 .030 -.133 .156 -.282 6.020 .089 Likable person 4.738 .042 Bad grade=bad person 5.103 .062 Flaws 4.184 .135 Ideas worth discussing 5.526 .200 Happy with self 5.483 .022 Ashamed of mistakes 5.459 .054 People want to spend time with me 5.968 .051 Highly critical of self Model 2 1.162*** Model 3 .619 Model 4 -.072 Model 5 .045 Model 6 .572 Model 7 .370 Model 8 .644 Hard to find similar people -.135 -.321 .071 .243 -.113 -.699* -.142 -.477 Join group Join group people like me .186 .033 -.084 .837 -.249 -.433 -.327 -.560 .899** -.300 .246 .763* .143 -.023 .307 .307 School has people like me -.037 -.283 .661 -.140 .329 -.413 Went home when could Intercept R2 .068 1.219** .082 .341 -.368 -.141 .323 .041 5.671 .106 Likable person 2.131 .266 Bad grade=bad person 4.093 .051 Flaws 4.684 .088 Ideas worth discussing 5.184 .249 Happy with self Independent Variable (dummy change scores) .076 .322(time 2) Dependent Variable Both increases in academic role identity and social identity did cause increases in self esteem, self efficacy, and satisfaction to varying degrees, supporting H1 and H2. Increases in social identity had more significant effects and explained more variance in the models than increases in academic role salience, falsifying H3. Academic role based models explained between 4.2% and 27.9% of the variance in the dependent variables, while the social identity models had higher R2 values, showing that they explained from 16.7% to 35.3% of the variance. Thus the social identity based variables in this study are doing, on average, a much better job of explaining how first semester experiences impact students self esteem, self efficacy, and satisfaction in their first three months in college. 4.734 4.980 .167 .114 Ashamed People want of mistakes to spend time with me 5.448 .080 Highly critical of self Table 2 shows that increasing in feeling an importance to connect to people increases the thinking that getting a bad grade means you are a bad person. If it is seen as harder to find similar people there is a decrease in being ashamed of mistakes. Increases in joining groups increased happiness with self and increases in joining groups with people like me increases being ashamed of mistakes. Going home whenever one could increased the belief that getting a bad grade means being a bad person. Table 3: Role Identity Effects on Self Efficacy Upset if GPA Is lower than expected Model 1 .357 Model 2 .112 Grades are a high priority -.909** Talk about grades with others .234 Study rather than go out .187 Intercept R2 5.649 .179 Make own decisions Model 3 Dependent Variable (time 2) -.285 .071 Important to connect to people .654 -.250 .542 .090 6.730 .063 Will graduate Table 4: Social Identity Effects on Self Efficacy Independent Variable (dummy change scores) An online two wave survey of new college students was conducted at the start of the Fall and Spring semesters of their first year at college. 110 responded to the first wave of the survey with 56 also completing the second survey giving us a response rate of 50.9%. Our sample contained 47 females and 9 males, but there were almost no significant gender effects in our models, thus we omit gender from our current analysis. Basic demographic questions and control variables from previous research were asked as were self reports on academic outcomes, investments, and attitudes (Role Theory), as well as interactions with non-academic groups (Social Identity Theory). Dummy Variable Multiple Regression is used. In the models, change scores are calculated by subtracting survey answers (on a 1-7 scale) in Fall from answers in Spring, giving change scores ranging from -6 to +6. Change scores are converted into dummy variables where 1=strengthening identity over time, 0=stable or weakening identity over time. Using dummy variables instead of change scores lowers the amount of variance the models explain. While explaining more variance is important, in this case the advantage gained is that any significant effects shown in the model are specifically effects of strengthening identities over time. It also allows for easy interpretation; a coefficient of +1.5 means the those who grew stronger in identity had a mean response on the dependent variable 1.5 points higher (on the 7 point survey question) than other students in the survey. A one tailed test of significance is justified by the strong theoretical and empirical findings in the literature. Significance levels reported are for a two tailed test, but a finding shown in the tables at .10 can be interpreted as a .05 level of significance in a one tailed test. Model 4 .990** Model 1 .381 Important to connect to people Independent Variable (dummy change scores) Methods Study rather than go out Intercept R2 Model 3 -.843 Table 1 shows that increases in being upset if ones GPA is lower than expected means that a person is less likely to equate getting a bad grade with being a bad person. An increase in being upset with ones GPA also makes one more likely to think their ideas are worth discussing. Increases in grades being a high priority decreases happiness with self. -.724* 3.436 .159 Say something dont do it Hard to find similar people Join group Join group people like me School has people like me Went home when could Intercept R2 Model 1 .028 Model 2 .394** Model 3 .447 .081 -.261* -.291 .292 -.158 .113 .125 .223 .528 -.280 -.067 -.136 -.500* -.033 .127 6.328 .117 Make own decisions 6.609 .174 Will graduate 2.629 .054 Say something dont do it Table 3 shows that increases in grades being a high priority lead to decreases in making ones own decisions. Increases in studying rather than going out lead to decreases in saying something and not doing it. Table 4 shows that increases in importance of connecting to people increases the perceived likelihood to graduate. It also shows that increases in going home whenever one could caused decreases in making ones own decisions. Colleges advise students to join groups that interest them (and presumably have like minded people in them), but this advice does not help students who start out thinking people like them are hard to find on campus, nor those whose initial experiences cause them to see fewer people like them at the school after their first semester. It may help if administrators and advisors plan for ways to connect students to others like them outside of currently existing campus groups. Perceiving there to be similar people on campus plays a huge part in satisfaction with college overall. Even in a school with a fairly homogenous population this had a strong impact. If this concept alone was used to assess how well people were adapting to school, especially in schools with more diverse populations, it could be helpful in determining which students needed help to find their place. Those who find their place will be more likely to stay at school, graduate, and donate as alumni. Table 5: Role Identity Effects on Satisfaction with College Model 1 .010 Model 2 -.223 Model 3 -.019 Model 4 -.124 Model 5 -.309 Hard to find similar people -.608 -.535* -.291 .084 -.528 -.482 Join group Join group people like me School has people like me .209 -.455 .302 .276 .423 -.471 .206 -.077 .644 .250 .495* .116 .219 .666* .273 .404 .856 .861*** Went home when could Intercept R2 -.030 .485 -.163 .378 .863* .333 5.730 .133 Classes interesting 5.190 .236 Satisfied with classes offered 5.539 .171 Profs helpful Important to connect to people Dependent Variable (time 2) Independent Variable (dummy change scores) H1: An increase in academic role identity performance and salience will cause increases in self esteem, self efficacy, and satisfaction with college H2: An increase in social identity performance and salience will cause increases in self esteem, self efficacy, and satisfaction with college H3: Changes in academic role identity will have a stronger effect than social identity changes on overall self esteem, self efficacy, and satisfaction with college. Grades are a high priority Talk about grades with others Model 2 -.774* Table 2: Social Identity Effects on Self Esteem Model 6 -.015 Dependent Variable (time 2) 5.322 4.276 .126 .201 Profs College living Knowledgeable up to expectations 5.091 .353 Satisfied with University Table 5 shows that increases in hard to find similar people lead to decreases in satisfaction with classes offered. Joining groups leads to increases in satisfaction with the university. Increases in school having people like me caused increases in both satisfaction with classes offered and satisfaction with the university. Going home whenever one could caused increases in college living up to expectations. Table 6: Social Identity Effects on Satisfaction with College Model 1 1.330**** Model 2 .099 Model 3 .794** Model 4 .470* Model 5 .941* Model 6 .376 Grades are a high priority Talk about grades with others -.095 -.118 -.160 .164 .261 -.017 -.547 -.485 -.101 -.012 -.792 -.488 Study rather than go out Intercept R2 -.069 -.375 .252 .202 Dependent Variable (time 2) .420 -.247 Upset if GPA lower than expected Independent Variable (dummy change scores) Hypotheses Upset if GPA is lower than expected Model 1 .172 4.572 .279 Classes interesting 6.079 .089 Satisfied with classes offered 4.729 .136 Profs helpful 5.412 4.666 .077 .137 Profs College living Knowledgeable up to expectations 5.921 .101 Satisfied with University Table 6 shows that increases in being upset if GPA is lower than expected was the only independent variable that had a significant impact in this table but it impacted four of the six dependent variables. Increases in being upset if GPA was lower than expected caused significant increases in thinking that class were interesting. Increases in being upset if GPA was lower than expected also caused increases in thinking that professors were helpful, professors were knowledgeable, and college is living up to expectations. Sources Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (2005). How college affects students (Vol. 2): A third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Burke, Peter and Judy Tully. (1977). The Measurement of Role Identity. Social Forces. Vol 55:4, June 1977. Stets, Jan E. and Peter J Burke. 2000. Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 63:224-237. DeWitz, Joseph , W. Bruce Walsh (2002). Self-Efficacy and College Student Satisfaction Journal of Career Assessment, Vol. 10, No. 3, 315-326 (2002) Stryker, Sheldon and Richard Serpe. 1987. Commitment, Identity Salience, and Role Behavior: a Theory and Research Example. Pp. 199-218 in Personality, Roles, and Social Behavior, edited by William J. Ickes and Eric S. Knowles. New York: Springer-Verlag. Acknowledgments This research was supported in part by the University of WisconsinEau Claire Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates grant.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Basic Life Support - BRICOPOINT

    Basic Life Support - BRICOPOINT

    SUPERIOARE Algoritmul obstructiei de cale aeriană cu corp străin(OCSCA) Algoritmul obstructiei de cale aeriană cu corp străin(OCSCA) Lovituri interscapulare obstructie severa pacient constient Compresiuni abdominale obstructie severa Se efectuează RCP incepand cu compresiile toracice Algoritmul obstructiei de cale aeriană cu...
  • NIRI Virtual Chapter Annual Reality Meeting:

    NIRI Virtual Chapter Annual Reality Meeting:

    NIRI Virtual Chapter PROGRAM V January 9, 2008 "Third Annual Economic Outlook Program"
  • Turf Sprinkler Installation - Pesticide Truths

    Turf Sprinkler Installation - Pesticide Truths

    Irrigation Timing The ON/OFF timing of the irrigation system must be coordinated to avoid interference with play, mowing, and other maintenance while not exceeding the capacity of the water supply. Time and Flow Rate Constraints (Q t = kv A...
  • Graphing Systems of Equations

    Graphing Systems of Equations

    Step 4: Graph the two points and draw the line. X. Y. 0. 1. 2-1. Graphing Linear Systems of Equations. What is a linear system? A linear system is two or more equations. Linear systems are graphed on the same...
  • Road Wise: ABC&#x27;s on Child Safety Seats

    Road Wise: ABC's on Child Safety Seats

    Best Practice Air Bags: What are they good for? NEVER place a rear-facing seat in front of an active air bag! Pointers for Happy Children in Safety Seats Start early Be consistent Use words Model good behavior Boredom monster Be...
  • The Second Level of Analysis

    The Second Level of Analysis

    The Second Level of Analysis Variations Amongst the States
  • Proficiency in Sentence Writing

    Proficiency in Sentence Writing

    Simple Sentence Formulas: S (Subject) V (verb) SV. SS V. S VV. SS VV. Yes, a simple sentence can be long and have two subjects and two verbs! SV example. The big bear was standing on top of the picnic...
  • Photosynthesis - Lenape Regional High School District

    Photosynthesis - Lenape Regional High School District

    -Chlorophyll in plants comes in different kinds : chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Both absorb light well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum but not in the green region. Leaves reflect the green light until temperatures...