Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Supercomputing in Plain English Overview: What the Heck is Supercomputing? Henry Neeman, University of Oklahoma Director, OU Supercomputing Center for Education & Research (OSCER) Assistant Vice President, Information Technology Research Strategy Advisor Associate Professor, Gallogly College of Engineering Adjunct Associate Professor, School of Computer Science Tuesday January 23 2018 This is an experiment! Its the nature of these kinds of videoconferences that FAILURES ARE GUARANTEED TO HAPPEN! NO PROMISES! So, please bear with us. Hopefully everything will work out well enough.

If you lose your connection, you can retry the same kind of connection, or try connecting another way. Remember, if all else fails, you always have the phone bridge to fall back on. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 2 PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF No matter how you connect, PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF, so that we cannot hear you. At OU, we will turn off the sound on all conferencing technologies. That way, we wont have problems with echo cancellation. Of course, that means we cannot hear questions. So for questions, youll need to send e-mail:

[email protected] PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 3 Download the Slides Beforehand Before the start of the session, please download the slides from the Supercomputing in Plain English website: http://www.oscer.ou.edu/education/ That way, if anything goes wrong, you can still follow along with just audio. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF.

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 4 YouTube You can watch from a Windows, MacOS or Linux laptop or an Android or iOS handheld using YouTube. Go to YouTube via your preferred web browser or app, and then search for: Supercomputing InPlainEnglish (InPlainEnglish is all one word.) Many thanks to Skyler Donahue of OneNet for providing this. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 5

Twitch You can watch from a Windows, MacOS or Linux laptop or an Android or iOS handheld using Twitch. Go to: http://www.twitch.tv/sipe2018 Many thanks to Skyler Donahue of OneNet for providing this. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 6 Wowza #1 You can watch from a Windows, MacOS or Linux laptop using Wowza from the following URL: http://jwplayer.onenet.net/streams/sipe.html

If that URL fails, then go to: http://jwplayer.onenet.net/streams/sipebackup.html Many thanks to Skyler Donahue of OneNet for providing this. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 7 Wowza #2 Wowza has been tested on multiple browsers on each of: Windows 10: IE, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari MacOS: Safari, Firefox Linux: Firefox, Opera Weve also successfully tested it via apps on devices with: Android

iOS Many thanks to Skyler Donahue of OneNet for providing this. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 8 Toll Free Phone Bridge IF ALL ELSE FAILS, you can use our US TOLL phone bridge: 405-325-6688 684 684 # NOTE: This is for US call-ins ONLY. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF and use the phone to listen. Dont worry, well call out slide numbers as we go. Please use the phone bridge ONLY IF you cannot connect any other way: the phone bridge can handle only 100 simultaneous connections, and we have over 1000 participants.

Many thanks to OU CIO Eddie Huebsch for providing the phone bridge.. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 9 Please Mute Yourself No matter how you connect, PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF, so that we cannot hear you. (For YouTube, Twitch and Wowza, you dont need to do that, because the information only goes from us to you, not from you to us.) At OU, we will turn off the sound on all conferencing technologies. That way, we wont have problems with echo cancellation. Of course, that means we cannot hear questions. So for questions, youll need to send e-mail. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tue Jan 23 2018 10 Questions via E-mail Only Ask questions by sending e-mail to: [email protected] All questions will be read out loud and then answered out loud. DONT USE CHAT OR VOICE FOR QUESTIONS! No one will be monitoring any of the chats, and if we can hear your question, youre creating an echo cancellation problem. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 11 Onsite: Talent Release Form If youre attending onsite, you MUST do one of the following:

complete and sign the Talent Release Form, OR sit behind the cameras (where you cant be seen) and dont talk at all. If you arent onsite, then PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 12 TENTATIVE Schedule Tue Jan 23: Overview: What the Heck is Supercomputing? Tue Jan 30: The Tyranny of the Storage Hierarchy Tue Feb 6: Instruction Level Parallelism Tue Feb 13: Stupid Compiler Tricks Tue Feb 20: Shared Memory Multithreading Tue Feb 27: Distributed Multiprocessing Tue March 6: Applications and Types of Parallelism Tue March 13: Multicore Madness

Tue March 20: NO SESSION (OU's Spring Break) Tue March 27: High Throughput Computing Tue Apr 3: GPGPU: Number Crunching in Your Graphics Card Tue Apr 10: Grab Bag: Scientific Libraries, I/O Libraries, Visualization Tue Apr 17: Topic to be announced Tue Apr 24: Topic to be announced Tue May 1: Topic to be announced Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 13 Thanks for helping! OU IT

OSCER operations staff (Dave Akin, Patrick Calhoun, Kali McLennan, Jason Speckman, Brett Zimmerman) OSCER Research Computing Facilitators (Jim Ferguson, Horst Severini) Debi Gentis, OSCER Coordinator Kyle Dudgeon, OSCER Manager of Operations Ashish Pai, Managing Director for Research IT Services The OU IT network team OU CIO Eddie Huebsch OneNet: Skyler Donahue

Oklahoma State U: Dana Brunson Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 14 This is an experiment! Its the nature of these kinds of videoconferences that FAILURES ARE GUARANTEED TO HAPPEN! NO PROMISES! So, please bear with us. Hopefully everything will work out well enough. If you lose your connection, you can retry the same kind of connection, or try connecting another way. Remember, if all else fails, you always have the phone bridge to fall back on. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF. PLEASE MUTE YOURSELF.

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 15 Coming in 2018! Coalition for Advancing Digital Research & Education (CADRE) Conference: 17-18 2018 @ Oklahoma State U, Stillwater OK USA Apr https://hpcc.okstate.edu/cadre-conference Linux Clusters Institute workshops http://www.linuxclustersinstitute.org/workshops/ Introductory HPC Cluster System Administration: May 14-18 2018 @ U Nebraska, Lincoln NE USA Intermediate HPC Cluster System Administration: Aug 13-17 2018 @ Yale U, New Haven CT USA Great Plains Network Annual Meeting: details coming soon Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Research & Education Facilitators (ACI-REF) Virtual

Residency Aug 5-10 2018, U Oklahoma, Norman OK USA PEARC 2018, July 22-27, Pittsburgh PA USA https://www.pearc18.pearc.org/ IEEE Cluster 2018, Sep 10-13, Belfast UK https://cluster2018.github.io OKLAHOMA SUPERCOMPUTING SYMPOSIUM 2018, Sep 25-26 2018 @ OU SC18 supercomputing conference, Nov 11-16 2018, Dallas TX USA http://sc18.supercomputing.org/ Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 16 People Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

17 Things Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 18 Thanks for your attention! Questions? www.oscer.ou.edu What is Supercomputing? Supercomputing is the biggest, fastest computing right this minute. Likewise, a supercomputer is one of the biggest, fastest computers right this minute. So, the definition of supercomputing is constantly changing.

Rule of Thumb: A supercomputer is typically at least 100 times as powerful as a PC. Jargon: Supercomputing is also known as High Performance Computing (HPC) or High End Computing (HEC) or Cyberinfrastructure (CI). Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 20 Fastest Supercomputer vs. Moore 100,000,000 GFLOPs 10,000,000 Moore 1,000,000

100,000 d in GFLOPs 10,000 1,000 GFLOPs100 billions of calculations per second10 1990 www.top500.org 1995 2000 2005

2010 2015 2020 Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 21 What is Supercomputing About? Size Speed Laptop

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 22 What is Supercomputing About? Size: Many problems that are interesting to scientists and engineers cant fit on a PC usually because they need more than a few GB of RAM, or more than a few 100 GB of disk. Speed: Many problems that are interesting to scientists and engineers would take a very very long time to run on a PC: months or even years. But a problem that would take a month on a PC might take only an hour on a supercomputer.

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 23 What Is HPC Used For? Simulation of physical phenomena, such as [1] Data mining: finding needles of information in a haystack of data,

such as Weather forecasting Galaxy formation Oil reservoir management Gene sequencing Signal processing Detecting storms that might produce tornados Moore, OK Tornadic Storm

May 3 1999[2] Visualization: turning a vast sea of data into pictures that a scientist can understand [3] Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 24 Supercomputing Issues The tyranny of the storage hierarchy Parallelism: doing multiple things at the same time Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

25 What is a Cluster Supercomputer? [W]hat a ship is It's not just a keel and hull and a deck and sails. That's what a ship needs. But what a ship is ... is freedom. Captain Jack Sparrow Pirates of the Caribbean http://lh3.ggpht.com/_6hgSmco4R9M/SfpFA3057zI/AAAAAAAACSg/G-AGCgLrQOk/s1600-h/pirates%5B5%5D.jpg Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 26 What a Cluster is . A cluster needs of a collection of small computers, called nodes, hooked together by an interconnection network (or

interconnect for short). It also needs software that allows the nodes to communicate over the interconnect. But what a cluster is is all of these components working together as if theyre one big computer ... a super computer. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 27 An Actual Cluster Interconnect Boomer, in service 2002-5. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 Nodes 28

A Quick Primer on Hardware Henrys Laptop Dell Latitude E5540 [4] Intel Core i3-4010U dual core, 1.7 GHz, 3 MB L3 Cache 12 GB 1600 MHz DDR3L SDRAM 340 GB SATA 5400 RPM Hard Drive

DVD+RW/CD-RW Drive 1 Gbps Ethernet Adapter http://content.hwigroup.net/images /products/xl/204419/dell_latitude_ e5540_55405115.jpg Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 30 Typical Computer Hardware Central Processing Unit

Primary storage Secondary storage Input devices Output devices Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 31 Central Processing Unit Also called CPU or processor: the brain Components Control Unit: figures out what to do next for example, whether to load data from memory, or to add two values together, or to store data into memory, or to decide which of two possible actions to perform (branching) Arithmetic/Logic Unit: performs calculations for example, adding, multiplying, checking whether two values are equal

Registers: where data reside that are being used right now Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 32 Primary Storage Main Memory Cache

Also called RAM (Random Access Memory) Where data reside when theyre being used by a program thats currently running Small area of much faster memory Where data reside when theyre about to be used and/or have been used recently Primary storage is volatile: values in primary storage disappear when the power is turned off. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 33 Secondary Storage

Where data and programs reside that are going to be used in the future Secondary storage is non-volatile: values dont disappear when power is turned off. Examples: hard disk, CD, DVD, Blu-ray, magnetic tape, floppy disk Many are portable: can pop out the CD/DVD/tape/floppy and take it with you Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 34

Input/Output Input devices for example, keyboard, mouse, touchpad, joystick, scanner Output devices for example, monitor, printer, speakers Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 35 The Tyranny of the Storage Hierarchy The Storage Hierarchy Fast, expensive, few

Slow, cheap, a lot Registers Cache memory Main memory (RAM) Hard disk Removable media (CD, DVD etc) Internet [5] Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tue Jan 23 2018 37 RAM is Slow The speed of data transfer between Main Memory and the CPU is much slower than the speed of calculating, so the CPU spends most of its time waiting for data to come in or go out. CPU 653 GB/sec Bottleneck 15 GB/sec (2.3%) Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 38

Why Have Cache? Cache is much closer to the speed of the CPU, so the CPU doesnt have to wait nearly as long for stuff thats already in cache: it can do more operations per second! CPU 46 GB/sec (7%) 15 GB/sec (2.3%)(1%) Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 39 Henrys Laptop Dell Latitude E5540

[4] Intel Core i3-4010U dual core, 1.7 GHz, 3 MB L3 Cache 12 GB 1600 MHz DDR3L SDRAM 340 GB SATA 5400 RPM Hard Drive DVD+RW/CD-RW Drive 1 Gbps Ethernet Adapter http://content.hwigroup.net/images /products/xl/204419/dell_latitude_ e5540_55405115.jpg

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 40 Storage Speed, Size, Cost Henrys Laptop Registers (Intel Core2 Duo 1.6 GHz) Cache Memory (L3) Main

Memory (1600MHz DDR3L SDRAM) Hard Drive Flash Thumb Drive (USB 3.0) Ethernet (1000 Mbps) Speed (MB/sec) [peak]

668,672[6] (16 GFLOP/s*) 46,000 15,000 [7] 100[9] 625 125 Size (MB) 10,752 bytes**

3 12,288 340,000 1024 unlimited unlimited $0.00003 $0.00018 [12] charged per month (typically)

$0.00006 4096 times as much as cache $20 [12] 72 [10] [11] Cost ($/MB) Blu-Ray $0.0093

[12] [12] ~1/2000 as much as cache [12] * GFLOP/s: billions of floating point operations per second ** 168 256-bit integer vector registers, 168 256-bit floating point vector registers Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 41 Why the Storage Hierarchy? Why does the Storage Hierarchy always work? Why are faster forms of storage more expensive and slower forms cheaper?

Proof by contradiction: Suppose there were a storage technology that was slow and expensive. How much of it would you buy? Comparison Floppy: 1.44 MB each, $0.69 ($0.48 per MB), speed 0.03 MB/sec Blu-Ray: 25 GB Disk ~$1 ($0.00006 per MB), speed 72 MB/sec Not surprisingly, no one buys floppy disks any more. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 42 Parallelism

Parallelism Parallelism means doing multiple things at the same time: you can get more work done in the same time. Less fish More fish! Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 44 The Jigsaw Puzzle Analogy Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

45 Serial Computing Suppose you want to do a jigsaw puzzle that has, say, a thousand pieces. We can imagine that itll take you a certain amount of time. Lets say that you can put the puzzle together in an hour. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 46 Shared Memory Parallelism If Scott sits across the table from you, then he can work on his half of the puzzle and you can work on yours. Once in a while, youll both reach into

the pile of pieces at the same time (youll contend for the same resource), which will cause a little bit of slowdown. And from time to time youll have to work together (communicate) at the interface between his half and yours. The speedup will be nearly 2-to-1: yall might take 35 minutes instead of 30. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 47 The More the Merrier? Now lets put Paul and Charlie on the other two sides of the table. Each of you can work on a part of the puzzle, but therell be a lot more contention for the shared resource (the pile of

puzzle pieces) and a lot more communication at the interfaces. So yall will get noticeably less than a 4-to-1 speedup, but youll still have an improvement, maybe something like 3-to-1: the four of you can get it done in 20 minutes instead of an hour. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 48 Diminishing Returns If we now put Dave and Tom and Horst and Brandon on the corners of the table, theres going to be a whole lot of contention for the shared resource, and a lot of communication at the many interfaces. So the speedup

yall get will be much less than wed like; youll be lucky to get 5-to-1. So we can see that adding more and more workers onto a shared resource is eventually going to have a diminishing return. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 49 Distributed Parallelism Now lets try something a little different. Lets set up two tables, and lets put you at one of them and Scott at the other. Lets put half of the puzzle pieces on your table and the other half of the pieces on Scotts. Now yall can work completely independently, without any contention for a shared resource. BUT, the cost per communication is MUCH higher (you have to scootch your tables together), and you need the ability to

split up (decompose) the puzzle pieces reasonably evenly, which may be tricky to do for some puzzles. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 50 More Distributed Processors Its a lot easier to add more processors in distributed parallelism. But, you always have to be aware of the need to decompose the problem and to communicate among the processors. Also, as you add more processors, it may be harder to load balance the amount of work that

each processor gets. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 51 Load Balancing Load balancing means ensuring that everyone completes their workload at roughly the same time. For example, if the jigsaw puzzle is half grass and half sky, then you can do the grass and Scott can do the sky, and then yall only have to communicate at the horizon and the amount of work that each of you does on your own is roughly equal. So youll get pretty good speedup. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 52

Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 53 EA SY Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

54 AR D H EA SY Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 55

Moores Law Moores Law In 1965, Gordon Moore was an engineer at Fairchild Semiconductor. He noticed that the number of transistors that could be squeezed onto a chip was doubling about every 2 years. It turns out that computer speed, and storage capacity, is roughly proportional to the number of transistors per unit area. Moore wrote a paper about this concept, which became known as Moores Law. (Originally, he predicted a doubling every year, but not long after, he revised that to every other year.) G. Moore, 1965: Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics, 38 (8), 114-117. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 57

Fastest Supercomputer vs. Moore 100,000,000 GFLOPs 10,000,000 Moore 1,000,000 100,000 d in GFLOPs 10,000 1,000 GFLOPs100 billions of calculations per second10 1990

www.top500.org 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 58

Fastest Supercomputer vs. Moore 100,000,000 2017: 10,649,600 CPU cores, 93,014,600 GFLOPs 10,000,000 (HPL benchmark) GFLOPs Moore 1,000,000 100,000 d in GFLOPs 10,000 1,000

GFLOPs100 billions of calculations per second10 1990 www.top500.org 1993: 1024 CPU cores, 59.7 GFLOPs 1995 2000 2005 2010

2015 2020 Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 59 Moore: Uncanny! Nov 1971: Intel 4004 2300 transistors March 2010: Intel Nehalem Beckton 2.3 billion transistors Factor of 1,000,000 improvement in 38 1/3 years 2(38.33 years / 1.9232455) = 1,000,000

So, transistor density has doubled every 23 months: UNCANNILY ACCURATE PREDICTION! Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 60 log(Speed) Moores Law in Practice U CP Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

61 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw id th Moores Law in Practice U CP Year

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 62 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw id th Moores Law in Practice U

CP RAM Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 63 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw id

th Moores Law in Practice U CP RAM Latency k r o w t 1/Ne Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018

64 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw id th Moores Law in Practice U CP RAM

Latency k r o w t 1/Ne Software Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 65 Moores Law on Gene Sequencers an dw id

th Increases 10x every 16 months, compared to 2x every 23 months for CPUs. or kB Ne tw log(Speed) Gene Sequencing U CP RAM Latency k

r o w t 1/Ne Software Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 66 What does 1 TFLOPs Look Like? 1 TFLOPs: trillion calculations per second 2002: Row 2012: Card

1997: Room AMD FirePro W9000[14] ASCI RED[13] Sandia National Lab CPU Chip 2017 NVIDIA Kepler K20[15] AMD EPYC Intel Skylake boomer.oscer.ou.edu In service 2002-5: 11 racks

Intel MIC Xeon PHI[16] https://www.top500.org/static/media/uploads/.thumbnails/epyc-vs-xeon.jpg/epyc-vs-xeon-742x382.jpg Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 67 Why Bother? Why Bother with HPC at All? Its clear that making effective use of HPC takes quite a bit of effort, both learning how and developing software. That seems like a lot of trouble to go to just to get your code to run faster. Its nice to have a code that used to take a day, now run in an hour. But if you can afford to wait a day, whats the point of HPC? Why go to all that trouble just to get your code to run faster?

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 69 Why HPC is Worth the Bother What HPC gives you that you wont get elsewhere is the ability to do bigger, better, more exciting science. If your code can run faster, that means that you can tackle much bigger problems in the same amount of time that you used to need for smaller problems. HPC is important not only for its own sake, but also because what happens in HPC today will be on your desktop

in about 10 to 15 years and on your cell phone in 25 years: it puts you ahead of the curve. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 70 The Future is Now Historically, this has always been true: Whatever happens in supercomputing today will be on your desktop in 10 15 years. So, if you have experience with supercomputing, youll be ahead of the curve when things get to the desktop. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 71

Thanks for your attention! Questions? www.oscer.ou.edu References [1] Image by Greg Bryan, Columbia U. [2] Update on the Collaborative Radar Acquisition Field Test (CRAFT): Planning for the Next Steps. Presented to NWS Headquarters August 30 2001. [3] See http://hneeman.oscer.ou.edu/hamr.html for details. [4] http://www.dell.com/ [5] http://www.vw.com/newbeetle/ [6] Richard Gerber, The Software Optimization Cookbook: High-performance Recipes for the Intel Architecture. Intel Press, 2002, pp. 161-168. [7] RightMark Memory Analyzer. http://cpu.rightmark.org/ [8] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/papers/24943801.pdf [9] http://www.samsungssd.com/meetssd/techspecs [10] http://www.samsung.com/Products/OpticalDiscDrive/SlimDrive/OpticalDiscDrive_SlimDrive_SN_S082D.asp?page=Specifications [11] https://www.realworldtech.com/haswell-cpu/3/ [12] http://www.pricewatch.com/

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tue Jan 23 2018 73

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