Superpowers Revision Summary Aim: To create summary mind maps for each sub section To look at some typical A level style questions SUB TOPICS ACROSS THIS UNIT: Enquiry Question 1: What are superpowers and how have they changed over time? (lessons 1-3) Enquiry Question 2: What are the impacts of superpowers on the global economy, political systems and the physical environment ? (lessons 4-6) Enquiry Question 3: What spheres of influence are contested by superpowers and what are the implications of this? (lessons 7-9) What kind of questions will I be asked in the exam? PAPER 2: Superpowers is tested in question 2 of Section A: Globalisation/ Superpowers. There is a 4 and a 12 marker : The 4 marker will either be a short open response question or one which tests quantitative skills
The 12 marker will be an Assess essay (See Green Superpowers Past paper Booklet) PAPER 3: Superpowers is a CORE topic and therefore information can be questioned in Paper 3: Synoptic paper. e.g questions may be linked with globalisation ,water and carbon or plate tectonics. Superpowers EQ 1:What are superpowers and how have they changed over time? Geopolitical power stems from a range of human and physical characteristics of superpowers Defining superpowers, emerging and regional powers The difference between hard and soft power Changing Patterns of power over time (Mackinders geo- strategic location theory) Patterns of power change over time
and can be uni -, bi -, or multi- polar Maintenance of power during imperial era by DIRECT colonial CONTROL e.g. British Empire 1919-39 BRICS, MINTS and other G20 members Global governance: UN Climate Change Conference INDIRECT CONTROL e.g. neo-colonial, Cold War era, emergence of China.. Emerging powers vary in their influence on people and the physical environment Strengths and weaknesses of emerging powers Different patterns of power bring varying degrees of geostability and risk Theories: 1) Modernisation Theory 2) Dependency Theory
3) World systems Theory Typical A level style questions for EQ1: Explain why defence spending is seen as crucial to the development of superpower status. (4 marks- See inside cover of Superpowers booklet- did in class) Assess the extent to which emerging countries need both hard and soft power to extend their global influence (12 marks- see Superpowers booklet p.8) Explain why emerging countries are considered to be increasingly important to global economic and political systems( 4 marks- see Dynamic learning p.14 of booklet- did in class ) Assess the extent to which the USAs superpower status is threatened by emerging economies such as the BRICS (12 marks- see Pearson p.24 of booklet) Assess the extent to which the balance between direct and indirect superpower influence has changed over time ( 12 marks- see Pearson p.25 of booklet ) OLD SPEC QUESTIONS EQ1 : 4a) Suggest reasons why this data has been used to produce the superpower index ( 10 marks see Superpowers booklet p. 54)
4b) Assess the global environmental and geopolitical implications of the rise of the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China) (15 marks- see booklet p. 58) 3a) Study fig 3. Using fig 3 and your own knowledge, explain why the pattern of economic power has changed over time( 10 marks- booklet p. 62) 3b) Using named examples, assess the relative importance of economic, military and cultural factors in influencing superpower status.( 15 marksbooklet p.62) 4a) Using fig 4 and your own knowledge, suggest the impact on people and the environment of the growth in middle class numbers and spending. (10 marks- June 2014- p.68 of booklet- did in class ) 4b) Using named examples, discuss how the balance between direct versus indirect superpower influence has changed over time. ( June 2014booklet - p. 68)
3b) To what extent is the USAs superpower status threatened by the emerging power of the BRICs(Brazil, Russia , India and China?) (June 2010booklet p.48) 4b) Explain how theories such as Dependency Theory and World Systems Theory can contribute to an understanding of changing patterns of global power. ( 15 marks :June 2011- booklet p. 54) EQ 2:What are the impacts of superpowers on the global economy, political systems and the physical environment ? Superpowers have a significant influence over the global economic system The influence of superpowers through IGOs (World Bank, IMF, WTO, WEF) Alliances (military, economic and environmental) and their importance in geostrategy and global influence Superpower resource demands:
Environmental degradation and carbon emissions The role of TNCs: Cultural and economic globalisation Westernisation and its link to power Superpowers and emerging nations and their role in international decision making (people and environment) The role of superpowers in global action: (who are the global police?) Global concerns about the physical environment are disproportionately influenced by superpower status Different willingness to act to reduce carbon emissions(USA, EU, China, Russia..) Importance of the UN
with regard to global geopolitical stability Future middle class consumption and strain on resources Typical A level style questions for EQ2: Assess the extent to which westernisation has an important influence on the global economic system. ( 12 marks- Dynamic Learning- booklet p.14- did in class ) Explain why IGOs (Intergovernmental Organisations) are important to global geopolitical stability. ( 4 marks- Dynamic learning booklet p.19- did in class ) Explain why TNCs are an important source of global influence for superpowers. (4 marks- Hodder Revision guide p. 28 Superpowers booklet- did in class ) OLD SPEC: June 2014: 4a) Using fig 4 and your own knowledge, suggest the impact on people and the environment of the growth in middle- class numbers and spending. (10 marks- booklet p.68- did in class) June 2010: 3a) With ref to fig 3 and your own knowledge, explain how the USA maintains its superpower status. ( 10 marks- booklet p. 48) EQ 3: What spheres of influence are contested by
superpowers and what are the implications of this? Global influence is contested in a number of different economic, environmental and political spheres Tensions can arise over acquisition of physical resources (Arctic oil and gas) Rising economic importance of China can lead to economic and political tensions Economic problems represent an ongoing challenge to the USA and the EU The global system of intellectual Political spheres of influence can be property rights can be undermined by contested tensions over territory and counterfeiting physical resources e.g. S China Seas and Western Russia/ Eastern Europe Developing nations have changing relationships with superpowers with Cultural, political, economic and
consequences for people and the environmental tensions in the physical environment Middle East and their ongoing Creating economic ties between emerging challenges towards Superpowers. powers and the developing world ( e.g China and Africa )and subsequent effects Existing Superpowers face ongoing economic restructuring , which challenges their power The economic costs of maintaining global The future balance of global power in military power and space exploration are 2030 and 2050 is uncertain. questioned Typical A level style questions for EQ3: Assess to what extent the superpowers rising demand for physical resources has led to both environmental and political challenges. (12 marks- See superpowers booklet inside front cover) Assess the extent to which the acquisition of physical resources can lead to disputes
over ownership and disagreements over exploitation . (12 marks- Dynamic Learning booklet p. 19- did in class) Assess the extent to which China is a threat to the status of the USA as the dominant superpower. ( 12 marks- Hodder revision booklet p.29) OLD SPEC: 3a) Using fig 3 and your own knowledge, explain why the pattern of economic power has changed over time. ( 10 marks: June 2012 booklet p. 62) H/W : Prepare for these questions to be done to time in class after Easter: Explain how theories such as Dependency Theory and World Systems Theory can contribute to an understanding of changing patterns of global power. (15 marks- from old spec- see past paper superpower booklet) Assess the extent to which China is a threat to the status of the USA as a dominant superpower. (12 marks from Hodder revision guide- also see old Spec Jan 2013 see past paper superpower booklet)
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