Supreme Court Cases - Weebly

Supreme Court Cases - Weebly

APUSH Review of Supreme Court Cases CHISHOLM v. GEORGIA 1793: This case involved two South Carolinians who sued Georgia because Georgia owed money to a British creditor. Georgia refused to participate in the case and the Court passed down a sentence favorable to the British

creditor. MARBURY v. MADISON 1803: In this case, William Marbury was refused a commission as Justice of the Peace by Madison. Marbury had received this commission while John Adams was president Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed this suit because it was not under the boundaries of the Court

according to the Constitution. This action made part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional and was the first time the Supreme Court had made an act of Congress unconstitutional. FLETCHER v. PECK. 1810: This case involved a corrupt Georgia legislature that had sold land to speculators after

they had been bribed. When the next legislature met, the legislators rescinded the sale. Marshall handed down a decision favorable to the speculators and stated that, no matter how a contract was obtained, the state could not make the contract void. MARTIN v. HUNTERS LESSEE 1816:

This case asserted that state and federal courts were not equal and that state judges must decide cases according to the Constitution. This was the first time a state court's decision was overturned. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE v. WOODWARD 1819: This case involved the seizure of Dartmouth College by the

New Hampshire state legislature. The Supreme Court ruled that contracts made by private Corporations were protected by the Constitution and that a state can not alter them McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND 1819: This case involved the taxation by Maryland of a branch of the U.S. Bank.

The Supreme Court ruled that states could not tax the federal government and that the creation of the U.S. Bank was within the power of Congress. COHENS v. VIRGINIA 1821: This case involved the Cohens' who were arrested for selling lottery tickets in Virginia even though they had permission from

Congress. Marshall ruled that the Court had the power to review state decisions and that citizens could appeal to the Supreme Court. GIBBONS v. OGDEN 1824: This case involved two steamboat operators with conflicting charters for control of steamboats in the New York City harbor.

The Supreme Court ruled that federal charters overruled state charters and that only the federal government had the right to control interstate commerce. CHEROKEE NATION v. GEORGIA 1831: This case involved the Cherokees' effort to stop Georgia's declaration that the laws of the Cherokee Nation were

void. The Court ruled that while it could not stop Georgia from making their laws void, the Cherokees were a "domestic nation" and possessed some sovereignty. WORCESTER v. GEORGIA 1832: In this case, Marshall ruled that Georgia had no control over the Cherokee Nation and their land holdings, and that

Georgia could not relocate the Cherokees. This case was the first time that the Court sided with the Indians, but Jackson's refusal to enforce it led to the Trail of Tears and Cherokee removal from Georgia. CHARLES RIVER BRIDGE v. WARREN BRIDGE 1837:

This case involved a charter of the Charles River Bridge Company that prevented Massachusetts from building a new bridge across he Charles River. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that no charter given to a private company had the right to harm the public interest. This decision stated that the rights of a community supersede the rights of a private corporation.

COMMONWEALTH v. HUNT 1842: In this case, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts ruled that trade union organization and striking tactics were legal as long as their methods were honorable and peaceful. Unions did not take shape until later in the century because many judges still considered them

illegal. PRIGG v. PENNSYLVANIA 1842: This case involved a Pennsylvania law that prohibited the capture and return. of runaway slaves within the state. The Supreme Court ruled that the return of fugitive slaves was a federal power, thus making the state law unconstitutional.

Northern states responded by prohibiting state officials from helping anyone pursuing runaway slaves. DRED SCOTT v. SANDFORD 1857: This case raised the issues of whether slaves were U.S. citizens, whether Congress could prohibit slavery from the territories and whether slaves were property. Dred Scott had been

taken by an army doctor to Illinois where slavery was illegal, thus prompting him to sue for his freedom. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen, that slaves were property and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. This caused great contempt among Northerners. ABLEMAN v. BOOTH 1859: This case

involved the arrest of Booth by the federal government for helping a fugitive slave escape from a federal marshall. The Wisconsin Supreme Court issued a writ to release him but Taney ruled that the federal government had supremacy over states, so the writ was not recognized.

EX PARTE MERRYMAN 1861: In this case, John Merryman was arrested when Lincoln declared martial law in Baltimore. Merryman was involved in a mob attack on Union soldiers. Chief Justice Taney issued a writ for Merryman's release but Lincoln refused to accept it so Taney wrote a letter to Lincoln, criticizing him for his usurpation of the power of Congress

during the Civil War. EX PARTE MILLIGAN 1866: This case involved the trial of a private citizen, Lambdin Milligan, by a military court in Illinois for subversive activities. The Supreme Court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were functioning.

MISSISSIPPI v . .JOHNSON 1867: This case involved an attempt by the state of Mississippi to dissuade President Johnson from enforcing the Reconstruction Acts. The Supreme Court ruled that neither the executive nor the legislative branches can be restrained from carrying out their duties

so long as they stay within their powers. TEXAS v. WHITE 1869: This case involved the sale of U.S. bonds by the Texas government after it seceded from the Union. The Supreme Court ruled that secession was impossible because the union between Texas and the other states is perpetual and indissoluble.

LEGAL TENDER CASES 1870-1871: These cases involved the legality of the $350 million in greenbacks in circulation as legal tender. In the first case (Hepburn v. Griswold), the Supreme Court ruled that the Legal Tender Acts of 1862 and 1863 were unconstitutional, but this decision was overturned by the

second (Knox v. Lee) and third cases (Parker v. Davis). SLAUGHTERHOUSE CASES 1873: These cases involved the monopoly of butchering livestock that one corporation in New Orleans had. The butchers who were ruined by this corporation claimed that the monopoly violated the 14th amendment. The

Supreme Court ruled that the 14th amendment only protected federal rights, not states' rights. It also ruled that the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments only applied to slaves. MINOR v. HAPPENSETT 1875: In this case, Mrs. Minor claimed that she had been deprived of her rights under the 14th amendment by being denied

suffrage. The Court ruled that suffrage was not a right of citizenship. MUNN v. ILLINOIS 1877: This case involved an Illinois state law that regulated rates on the storage of grain. Munn was fined for charging high rates in his grain elevator. The Supreme Court ruled that the public always has the right

to regulate business operations in which the public has an interest. CIVIL RIGHTS CASES 1883: These cases involved the guarantee of equal use of public facilities under the 14th amendment The Supreme Court ruled that the 14th amendment protected individuals from state action, not

individual action. WABASH v. ILLINOIS 1886: This case involved the Illinois law that prohibited the practice of charging different rates for long and short hauls. The Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce, so railroads could not be regulated by

states. U.S. v. E. C. KNIGHT CO 1895: This case involved the enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The Court ruled that the Sherman Act only restricted commerce and since the E. C. Knight Company controlled manufacturing, this trust could not be

restricted. POLLOCK v. FARMER'S LOAN AND TRUST CO 1895: This case involved the constitutionality of the income tax imposed by the WilsonGorman Tariff. The Court ruled that taxes on income and property were unconstitutional.

IN RE DEBS 1895: In this case, Eugene V. Debs was arrested for not complying with a federal injunction against the Pullman Strike. The Supreme Court ruled that Debs had obstructed the freedom of interstate commerce and the transportation of the mail. PLESSY v. FERGUSON 1896: This case

involved Homer Plessy's fine for refusing to leave a white only section on a Louisiana train. The Supreme Court ruled that the 14th amendment only ensured political equality and that "separate but equal" did not mean inferiority. INSULAR CASES 1901-1904: These

cases involved the extent to which constitutional rights are bestowed upon natives of newly acquired territories. The Court ruled that the Constitution does not follow American conquests but that some rights are fundamental. NORTHERN SECURITIES CASE 1904: In this case, J. P. Morgan, James Hill

and E. R Harriman joined together to control all railroads headed to the Pacific by creating the Northern Securities Company. The Supreme Court ruled that this company was a trust because it owned stock in competing railroads, thus violating the Sherman Antitrust Act LOCHNER v. NEW YORK 1905: This case

involved a New Y York law that prohibited bakers from working more than 60 hours a week. Lochner, a bakery owner, was arrested for violating the law. The Supreme Court ruled that the 14th amendment protected individuals against unreasonable and unnecessary interference to their personal liberty. This case expanded the use of "due process," but sided with the baker

by not placing a limit on work hours. MULLER v. OREGON 1908: This case involved an Oregon law that limited women to only 10 hours of labor in factories per day. Curt Muller violated this law after the Lochner decision. The Supreme Court ruled that special legislation restricting the type of work for women was needed to

preserve their health. Louis Brandeis became famous for his presentation of the adverse affects of long hours on women. STANDARD OIL v. U.S. 1911: This case involved differentiating whether the Standard Oil trust was a good or bad trust (the rule of reason). The Supreme Court decided that this trust was bad so

the Standard Oil Company was dissolved. HAMMER v. DAGENHART 1918: This case involved the Keating-Owens Act which banned products produced by child labor from interstate commerce. Dagenhart asked for an injunction that would permit his sons to work because

the family needed the income. The Court ruled that the Keating Act was unconstitutional because states regulate the production of goods. SCHENCK v. U.S. 1919: In this case, Schenck was arrested because he distributed pamphlets urging people to resist the draft. The Supreme Court

ruled that the First Amendment freedom of speech did not apply in this case because the U.S. was at war. ABRAMS v. U.S. 1919: In this case, five Russian immigrants were arrested for distributing antiwar propaganda. The Court ruled that during war, the First Amendment does not apply to those

people with radical views. ADKINS v. CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 1923: This case involved female employees at the Children's Hospital in the District of Columbia and their layoffs because of a minimum wage law. The Supreme Court ruled that a contract cannot be abridged because an employer

does not want to pay the minimum wage (unless it is not in the interest of the public). SCHECTER POULTRY CORP v. U.S. 1935: This case involved the constitutionality of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) imposing work condition codes for industry. The Court ruled that Congress had exceeded

its power and that no circumstance allowed the enlargement of those powers. This was the first case in which one of the New Deal programs was found to be unconstitutional. U.S. v. BUTLER 1936: In this case, the Supreme Court ruled the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was unconstitutional because it invaded state

jurisdiction by using federal taxation as a means of regulating production. U.S. v. CURTISS-WRIGHT EXPORT CORPORATION 1936: This case involved the sale of 34 planes by the CurtissWright Corporation to Bolivia. The President had prohibited the sale of military supplies to either Bolivia or Paraguay, but the Curtiss

company still attempted to smuggle in the planes. The Supreme Court ruled that the President had control of foreign policy and was free from restriction (to a great extent). NLRB v . JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CORP 1937: In this case, the Court upheld the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

and asserted Congress' right to exercise control in intrastate commerce that was closely related to or similar to interstate commerce. WEST COAST HOTEL v. PARRISH 1937: This case upheld state regulation of wages for women and children, as well as state minimum-wage laws.

U.S. v. DARBY LUMBER CO. 1941: This case overruled the Dagenhart decision and involved the Darby Lumber Company, which was charged with violating the Fair Labor Standards Act. The Supreme Court ruled that the production of goods for commerce between states was interstate commerce.

DENNIS v. U.S. 1951: This case involved the conviction of 11 Communists for violating the Smith Act. The Court ruling upheld the conviction and stated that there is no right to rebel against government if the existing government provides for change.

BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION TOPEKA 1954: This case ended the "separate but equal" school system in America. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson 1896. MAPP v. Ohio 1961: This case extended the 14th amendment to protect citizens from state decisions. The Supreme Court

ruled that slate officials must abide by the Bill of Rights and barred state use of illegally obtained evidence. ENGEL v. VITALE 1962: The Supreme Court ruled against a prayer composed by the New York State Board of Regents. BAKER v. CARR 1962: This case

involved the redistribution of legislative districts so that it reflected the population trend (one man, one vote). The federal courts had avoided this issue put ruled that overrepresented rural districts should be eliminated. GIDEON v. WAINWRIGHT 1963: This case involved the arrest of Gideon for

breaking into a pool room. The Supreme Court ruled that legal counsel must be given to anyone charged with a felony. This decision was extended in 1972 to include anyone charged with a misdemeanor. ESCOBEDO v. ILLINOIS 1964: In this case, the Supreme Court ruled the police

must not use extortion or coercion to gain a confession from a suspected criminal. The police must also honor a suspects request to have a lawyer present during police interrogations. HEART OF ATLANTA MOTEL v. U.S.. 1964: This case involved the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Court upheld the

constitutionality of the act and ended a proprietor's right to refuse service based on race. MIRANDA v. ARIZONA 1966: The Supreme Court ruled that a suspected criminal has the right to be read his rights. These rights included the right to remain silent (because anything said can

be used against him), the right to an attorney and the right to one telephone call ROE v. WADE 1973: The Supreme Court struck down all state laws that prohibited abortions because it was an infringement on a woman's right to have an abortion during the first trimester

(first three months) of pregnancy. BAKKE v. BOARD OF REGENTS U.C. 1978: This reverse discrimination case involved a white, Allan Bakke, who claimed that the University of Caledonia at Davis had refused his admission because of minority quotas. The Supreme Court allowed Bakke to attend

UC Davis, but upheld the minority quotas of universities.

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